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WITH A Y C A B U L A 11 Y, 









APR 1 6 1943 






Sa'dI is justly reputed the Prince of Persian moralists. The harmony 
and richness of his language, the simplicity and chasteness of his 
style, the excellence of his precepts, and the unction that pervades the 
whole, contribute to render him the benefactor, the boast, and the 
honour of his country. He was born at Shiraz, then one of the prin- 
cipal cities of Persia, in the year of the Hijra 571,* (a.d. 1175-6) ; 
but according to other authorities in a.h. 580, (a.d. 1184). Daulat 
Shah, in his " Tazkiratu 'sh Shu'ara," says that Sa'dl spent thirty years 
of his early life in the acquisition of knowledge ; then in middle age he 
travelled through all the regions of Asia from the Nile to the Ganges. 
He is said to have made the pilgrimage to Mecca fourteen times. The 
last thirty years of his life he devoted to solitude and religious con- 
templation. "VVlien performing a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, a place revered 
alike by Christian and Muslim, he was taken prisoner by the Crusaders, 
and put to labour in the trenches of Tripoli. From this slavery he 
was ransomed by a wealthy merchant of Aleppo ; who afterwards gave 
him his daughter in marriage with a dowry of a hundred pieces of gold. 
This incident is alluded to in the Gulistan (chap, ii., tale 32). The lady 
sorely exercised the poet's patience. Once, says he, she reproached 
me, saying " Ai*t thou not he whom my father redeemed from cap- 
tivity among the Franks for ten dinars?" I replied, "Yes : he ransomed 

* There exist some serious discrepancies among writers as to the year in which Sa'dl was horn. It is 
p^cncrally admitted that he died at a very advanced age, viz., 120 lunar years, which make nearly 116 solar. 
If this be the case, then a.h. 571 is the year of his birth ; for, of the year of his death there can be no doubt, 
as it is inscribed on his tomb near Shlrtiz. At the same time Daulat Shah states that his age was 102 
years when he died. To this date we object for the following reason : M. Michaud in his " History of 
the Crusades" states, on the authority of M. Langles, that Sa'dl was taken captive by the Franks soon after 
the commencement of the sixth Crusade — about a.d. 1200 — when, by Daulat Shah's reckoning, the poet would 
have been only about 12 years old, a supposition altogether inadmissible. 


me for teu dinars, aud sold me into thy hands for a huudi'ed." Sa'di 
enjoyed dm-ing life the patronage of the Atabek princes, a dynasty 
which reigned at Shiraz for about 120 years. He died in the year of 
the nijra 691 (a.d. 1292), as we know from a memorial verse composed 
on the occasion by one of liis friends, thus given by Daulat Shah, 

"He was himself one of the Nobles, and thence the word 7ioble (^U-) contains the 
date of his decease/'— viz. ^ = 600; 1 = 1 ; and ^ = 90; in all, 691. 

The popularity of Sa'di is acknowledged wherever his wiitings are 
known. Even during his life his poems Avere sung by his countiymen, 
in the palace and the desert. His genius was essentially of that 
character in which Orientals delight — unfolding a truth by a pleasing 
narrative, and embellishing such narrative with the graces of poetry. 
In this manner he sought to raise the character of his countrymen, 
and to dii'cct them in the paths of probity and honour. His writings 
are very voluminous ; but the most esteemed among them are the 
" Gulistiln," the "Bostiln," and the " Pand-Xama," — works which are 
to be frequently met with even in this country, both manuscript and 
printed or lithographed. They form the text-books for beginners, 
wherever the Persian language is studied, whether in Asia or in 

In bringing out the present edition of the Gulistan, the Editor feels 
happy in acknowledging the debt he owes to Dr. Sprenger, formerly 
Examiner at the College of Port William, Calcutta. To the diligence 
and criticism of this laborious and learned Orientalist, the student of the 
Persian language is indebted for the most genuine and authentic version 
of this masterpiece of Sa'di that has hitherto been published. The read- 
ings of Dr. Sprenger's edition (Calcutta, 1851) have been chiefly adopted 
in the present volume. 

The Editor also takes occasion to acknowledge his obligations to M. 
Ch. Defremcry, author of an accurate translation of the Gulistan into 
the French language — an able performance, enriched with numerous 
annotations, chiefly historical and geographical. These annotations con- 
tain valuable information, of which the Editor in the compilation of the 
Vocabulary has not scrupled to avail himself. 


To the European public the Gulistan has long been accessible, if 
not familiar. Olearius made a translation of it into German more than 
two centuiies ago. After him, Gentius published at Amsterdam, 1G51, 
a splendid edition, in folio, of the text, accompanied by a Latin version 
and several valuable notes. This edition was reprinted and translated 
into English by Gladwin some sixty years since. A far superior edition, 
containing both text and translation, was published at Calcutta by James 
Dumoulin, 180C, large 4to. ; and more recently an amusing, if not 
altogether an acciu-ate, translation has been given by J. Ross, Esq. 

But the most masterly translation into our language is from the 
pen of Professor E. B. Eastwick. In this translation the poetical por- 
tions of the Gulistan, which occur in almost every page, have, for 
the first time, been rendered into English verse ; and it may be 
affirmed that Mr. Eastwick has managed not only to render faithfully 
and successfully the meaning of the author, but to infuse a good measure 
of his spirit and raciness. Beyond this a translator cannot be expected 
to go. The privilege of appreciating the force and marking the beauties 
of rhythm and alliteration which prevail throughout the original, and 
have so powerful a charm for the Oriental ear, is reserved as the 
student's reward for the patience and pains bestowed in the acquisition 
of the language. — A more elegant and attractive volume than Professor 
Eastwick' s translation of the Gulistan has seldom issued from the 
press. It forms at once an ornament for the di'awing-room table no 
less than for the library of the Oriental scholar, and reflects great 
credit on the enterprise and taste of Mr. Stephen Austin, of Hertford. 

New editions of the Gulistan, lithographed as well as printed, come 
out from time to time in India, in addition to those which are sent 
forth from the British press; and some of them are accompanied by a 
vocabulary or analysis. However serviceable these may have proved 
in regard to the Persian, it must be owned that they afford little help 
to the learner in making out the Arabic parts. The Editor confidently 
hopes that the Oriental student will find these serious defects fairly 
supplied in the present volume. — The Gulistan abounds in sentences 
and verses which arc purely Arabic : of these, some are quotations 
from the Ivur'Jln ; and some, at least, of the verses are from the pen of 
Sa'di himself. But, in every case, they constitute an important part 


of the work -too important to be left wholly ignored, or but partially 

and scantily explained. 

An Arabic grammar, evincing mnch sound erudition, has been recently 
published by Professor Wright, late of Trinity College, DubUn. A new 
!,rammar of that energetic and copious language may also be expected 
shortly fi-om the pen of Duncan Forbes, LL.D, a name which for several 
vears past has been well kno^™ among students of the Hindustani, and 
other Oriental languages. Of Arabic grammars published m Germany 
that of EosenmiiUer is perhaps the most useful, to which we may add 

that of Caspar! and of Schier. 

When the Editor compiled the Vocabulary which accompanies this 
edition of the GuUstau, he had no intention whatever of gmng a trans- 
lation of any portion, beHeving that all the assistance needful for the 
student would be found to have been provided there. But after the last 
sheet had passed through the press, he submitted the entire work to the 
inspection of Dr. Forbes, with the view of profiting by that distinguished 
scholar's long experience in Oriental instruction. His opmion was that 
a translation, strictly literal, of all the Arabic portions, would enhance 
the value of the work ; and for this purpose he was kind enough to place 
at the Editor's disposal a manuscript volume contammg, besides a dic- 
tionary of the GuUstau, a list of all the Ai-abic passages, classed under 
four heads:-!. Quotations from the Kui-'an;-2. Traditions concei-ning 
Muhammad ;-S. Sayings of the chief Shaikhs or doctors of Islam ;_4. 
Proverbs, and scraps of poetry. With much satisfaction the Editor has 
endeavoured to comply with the suggestion of Dr. Forbes; and has 
accordingly inserted a translation of the Arabic passages under Appen- 
dix A. at the end of the work. The extra trouble thus imposed has 
been light ; but it is hoped that the additions made will materially facih- 

tate the progress of the student. » i, ii. 

The Editor is further indebted to Dr. Forbes for an Analysis of all the 
Persian metres occurring in the tii-st book of the work, together with his 
own explanation of the same, which will be found in Appendix B. 

Hektford, 1st January, 1863. 


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A ! a, oh ! ah ! Also a particle of interrogation. 

p t-->l ah, water; tears; anything liquid. <-->I 
C-jUs^ ahi hay at, water of life, immorta- 
lity, (o^*^ ^-'l «^* dahan, water of the 
mouth, saliva. i^V.^^ '-r'' °^* dida, water 
of the eye, tears. jJ^<_jI dhi %ar (water of 
gold), white wine. J^ L_^l dhi zuldl, pure, 
limpid water. 

A *\j\ ihd'^, refusal, aversion, p ,^t>^ ^\ ihd 

kardan, to refuse, reject. 

p j^^jltl dhdddn, fertile, inhabited, cultivated; 
replenished, flourishing. 

p »asrT dh-j'u, flood-tide. 

A Jj\ ahad, age, eternity, p Job \j td ha ahad, 
for evermore, to all eternity. 

p *Jo JjT dh-dlda, water of the eye, tears. 

p jl ahr, cloud. i j \^\ahri dzur, winter-clouds. 

A jUjI aordr (pi. of jU hdrr), just, righteous. 

Ihrdr, acceptance; justification. 
A At^'^y} jJraAzTW, Abraham (the patriarch), Bur- 

named ^<^^ an nahly, the Prophet, or (J^Ari- 

*11\ khalllu 'Ildh, the friend of God. 
PjjI dh-ru (water of the face), dignity, honor, 

character, reputation ; rank, glory, 
p jjI ahru, the eyebrow. 
A Jiy^ **^^^' ewer, jug, gugglet. 
pjjijol d5-ia«A, water-drawer ; water-carrier. 


^ — 

p <^»>o I dhglna, glass, mirror ; drinking-glass. 

A <djl «S/fl^, foolish, simple; dolt, blockhead. 

A (ci^J^ ahlaht, stupidity, folly. 

p i5-'<^^ ahlahe, a certain blockhead. 

A t^j**^} thlls, the Devil. 

A j^l ihn, son. u-^jj j^^ «5?jm zuhin, son of 
a wolf, a wolf's cub. 

A 'lij\ ahnds- (pi. of ^1 2"5?«) sons. jj-oiJ^ i-^W^ 
ahndyi jins, those of the same species, cha- 
racter, rank, position, condition, or situation. 

p {jMy-^\ dhnus, ebony. 

A <-— ^^^^ ahwdh (pi. oft_jli J«5), doors, gates; 
chapters ; taxes. 

A iTtJ^y^^^^ abu'lfawdns, father of cavaliers, 
or rather of those mounted on asses (here 
evidently a nickname given to a certain 
stentorian preacher). 

A^^^\y\ ahawdni (dual of c_->1 ah), both parents, 
father andmother. i\^\ abawdhu, hisparents. 

A Jj^l ahuhakr, name of Muhammad's father- 
in-law and successor. 

'iangi, name of a monarch of the Atabak 
dynasty, to whom the Gulistan is dedicated. 

A 'ijJby\ ahuhurairat {ace. ijJr^ V^ ^^^ huratrat, 
obi. *;J T^ ij>^ ahl huratrat, father of the 
little cat) name of a companion of Muham- 
mad, so called from a favourite kitten he had. 
Many traditions and anecdotes concerning 
Muhammad have been recorded by him. 


( 2 ) 


p ^ 1 dhe, a piece or a sheet of water ; a sip or 

a draught of water. 
A Cl^'l^^ ahi/ui (pi. of *-::-^-J bait), verses. 

T Lli^lji a/dhak, a Turkish word signifying 
"father of the prince." A dynasty of Per- 
sian kings was so called : originally they 
were Turkumans, and reigned from 1148 to 
1264 A.D. To the sixth of them SajjJi dedi- 
cated his " Gulistan." 

p (jlo'l dtash or dfish, fire; heat; rage, 
p ^AJ'l dtasJil or utishi, thou art fire. 
A JLaJi ittisdl, close union, attachment. 
A Jjliji ittifalc, agreement, consent, concurrence, 
harmony; league; chance, accident, fortune, 

fortuity; arrangement, p^jjl:^! J)^^ ittifalc 
uftddan, to happen, chance, occur ; to agree. 

A \i\sG\ ittifdlcan, in concert; by chance, acci- 
dentally, fortuitously. 

A L::-JLftJ'^ ittafakat, it has united (fern, of the 

8th form of the rt. ^j wafaica). 
A 'Uiiji athiyds. (pi. of ^Ju takty), devout, pious. 
A a\aj\ itmdm, completion, accomplishment. 
A c_-'yi atuhu, I turn by repentance (aor. of rt. 

L-j\j tdha, he repented," concave j xvdtv). 
A |J1 atd' , he came. (3^^ atunl, he came tome. 

K j\')\ dthdr, (pi. of J1 athar), signs, marks, 

traces, prints, impressions, vestiges, indica- 
tions ; annals, histories, notable events. 

A Ji athar, sign, mark, print, impression, ves- 
tige ; effect. 

A *3l ithm, sin, iniquity. 

A *-«j1 athlm, sinful, criminal ; sinner, offender. 

U.Ji athlman (ace.) 
A ^y:>-\ ijdhat, answering, acceding to, response, 

acceptance, compliance, consent, p C^/l:?-^ 

^i^S ijdhat Icardan, to answer, respond. 
A ijl=^^ yaz«^, leave, permission; dismissal. 
A \j:^%.a::.!>'\ ijtama^t (fern, of the 8th form of 

the rt. J— *^ jama^) it has united. 

A j^A^^ ijtihdd, striving to perform, diligence, 
care, effort, pains. 

A j>-\ ajr, reward. ij>-\ ajrahu, his reward. 
■ A i)j^\ ujrat, recompense, reward, hire, wages; 
fee, fare, passage-money. 

aJj>"I djil, delaying; returning; future, be- 
longing to the next life or world to come. 

A J^l ajal, appointed time, death ; fate, destiny. 

A J.5f-1 ajalla, may (God) make resplendent or 
render glorious (3 p. sin. pret. 4th form oi ^\s>- 
jalla, "he was glorious," used optatively). 

A tJr^l ajallu, more or most excellent, more or 
most glorious, noblest. 

A ( — i\:>-\ ajldf{^\. of i^ip^ jilf), base fellows, 
ignoble tyrants. 

A jls-l dhdd (pi. of i^a^' aJtad), units, ones; 
individuals, private persons. 

A >^\s>-\ uhuda, singly. 

A i._-o>-l uhihhu, I love (aor. of ^l_.^^-l aJiahla, 

4th form of the rt. i ^ hahha). 

Ajyis-i ihtirdz, carefulness, caution, forbear- 
ance, abstinence. 

A i^ibr*-! i^^Z/aw, dreaming; nocturnal pollution. 
A Jl/C^iv.* ihttmdl, bearing, sustaining, putting 

up with, suffering, patience; suspicion. 
A jki- 1 ahad, one. >ib,.N^-l ahadtchum, one of them. 

A Jsiiksi-l ilida^ (fem. of J»£^1 ahad) one. i_>k>i»-^ 
ihda 7 hasanain, one of the two good 


A i^Lasv-I ihsd7i, doing good, beneficence, kind- 
ness, well-doing. 

A i^j**'-^^ ahsan, more beautiful. Ahsana, hath 
done good; (in prayer) may (God) make 
good (3 p. sin. pret. of the 4th form of the 

rt. ,j-u*aw hasuna, used optatively). 

A ^j-w*5»-l ahsin, do good (imp. of j^j*u=»-l ahsana). 

A 'Li**-1 ahshds. (pi. of Lio»- hasha'), bowels. 

A j^l..tfi»-^ ihsdn, continence, chastity; besieging, 

A laii.- U'^/rts, protect thou, keep, guard, de- 
fend (imp. of the rt. lii=>-). 

A \ ahmad, more or most laudable. Ahmed, 
Achmet (one of the names of Muhammad). 

A (Jy^.»^\ ahmak, foolish ; fool, blockhead. 

A p J^JL.4.»-\ ahmaktar, more foolish, a greater 
fool, simpleton, or blockhead. 

A (J^j>-^ ahwdl (pi. of JU- hdl), states, con- 
ditions, circumstances. 

A \»~\ ahydt- (pi. of ^js^ haiy), tribes, clans, 


( 3 ) 



families. i-rV^ ^_$\^\ ahi/dyi ^rab,f amilks 
or tribes of Arabia. 

A U-^ akhd (ace. of ^\ aM)> brother (often 
used for the voc.). <C]^\ \^\ aMd 'I haliyat, 
brother in misfortune (ace. of <uLli^^i). 

A ^_^1>-1 aMidza, he made to ford (4th form of 
^i>l>- concave j). cli^^U^^ aJdidzaka, in- 
duced thee to plunge, has made thee enter. 

p j;^! akhtar, star. 

A iLaii^-l iJMisdr, abridgement, abbreviation, 
brevity, compendium, epitome. PjU2:x=i-l 
^L>i^ ikhttsdr karclan, to cut short, abridge, 
curtail, epitomize. 

A >L:i>.l ikhtiyur, election, choice, option, pre- 
ference, selection ; self-control ; free and in- 
dependent action ; will, pleasure. 

A iXri-l a]Jiaza,\).Q took. 'i\^\ (i3S:>~\ aldicizathu 7 
i^zzatu, pride seized (or took hold of) him. 

A js-T dJchar, last, end ; after all, at least, in 

fine. Akhir, last, latter, 
A c:jU>-L:>-\ ikhrdjdt (pi. of -t^^^ ?M''«/)) 

outgoings, outlays, expenses, disbursements. 
A i"p-T ukhirat, future state, next world. 

.\ ukhra' (fem. of j>-\ dkhar), another. 

A tJ.=- 




.\ akhzar, green. 

p .>ss^^ akhgar, charcoal, embers. 

A^^L^-^ ikhlas, sincerity; genuine piety; affec- 
tion or attachment. 

A i»^l^^ akhldh (pi. of ^_*5^ kJmlk), habits, 
manners, morals, dispositions, tempers. 

A ^\ akhu, brother (nom. of -il aJdi). 

A ;^^^^^ ikhwdn (pi. of j.\ akh), brothers, 
brethren (not by birth} ; comrades, friends. 
\slA\ ^^^ ikhwdnu 's safu, brethren of 
purity (name of a confraternity, to which is 
ascribed the authorship of various works, 
one of which has been published). 

A its>-\ nkJiuaat, fraternity, brotherhood. 

p \j\ add, pronunciation, voice. 

A '\i^\ add', payment, performance. 

A t-_>^Jl dddb (pi. of i^j\ adah), good man- 
ners ; ceremonies, courtesies ; morals. 

A a\j>^ addma, may (he) prolong (3 p. oin. pret. 

of the 4th form of ^^J ddma, concave j, used 
optatively). ^\'} ^\ .-♦^ol addma 'Udh aiyd- 
mahu, may God prolong his days. 

A c—>->^ adab, politeness, respect ; good breed- 
ing, good manners ; polite literature ; teach- 
ing, instruction. 

AjI^jI idrdr, salary, allowance, stipend, pay. 

A.P ^,\ ,^\ idrure, a pension. 

A ■J:J\ ^S\ idruk, attainment, apprehension, 

comprehension, intelligence. 
A l!/,j1 adraka, he overtook (4th form of the 

rt. (^L> daraka). Jytl^ <^jjl adrakahu 7 

ghark, drowning overtook him. 
A *Jl ddam, Adam. /♦Jl ^^ haul ddam, the 

sons of Adam, i e. mankind. 

p (ff'^Ol ddamt, human ; a man ; thou art a man. 

p ^L^«c>t ddamiydn, men, mortals, descendants 
of Adam. 

r a^sc^ , ^•Jl ddaml-bacha, child of man. 

A i-»^Jl ddamlyat, humanity. 

p iJ\ ; (c-*^! udann-zdda, born of man, human. 

p g*^Jl ddamiyi, thou art a human being, 
p ^^Jl udamiyc, a certain man. 

A ^Jj\ adna", nearer, nearest; lower, lowest; 
smaller, smallest, lesser, least. 

A u--w^^ adlb, courteous ; learned ; tutor, in- 
structor. ^_^Jl>^^ c-?j1 adabu 7 adlb, the 
master's instruction. 

A p *j jl adim, face ; surface of the earth ; goat's 
leather perfumed, which is brought from 

Arabia, Morocco leather. U^^ ♦J jl adimu 's 
samd, expanse of heaven. 

p <U.j Jl ddlna, Friday (Muhammadan sabbath). 

k\J\ aza', vexation, trouble. 

A \j\ ltd, -when, whenever (future sense) ; lo I 

A iJl dzar, name of Abraham's father, and an 
idolater. The last lunar winter-month. 

A J jl azall, vilest, basest. 

A ^<S\ izn, leave, license, permission. Izn or a%n, 

knowing. Uzn, the ear. 
A c/-M aza', injury. ^i"Jl azan (ace), injury, 

hurt, hann; contumely. 
A hS\ aziyat, injury, hurt, harm, annoyance. 


( 4 ) 


V j\ dr, bring, biing out (rt. f^i^j^\ dvardan). 
vj\ ar (for X^ «y«^). ifi what though, although. 
A 'id\j\ iradat, wish, desire, will, inclination ; 

purpose, meaning ; teachable disposition, 
teachableness, docility. 

p ,^y^\j\ drdstan, to adorn, fit out, equip; to 


p iz^\j\ drdsta, adorned, decorated. 

p ^\j\ dram, rest, quiet. i^^y^f A^ drdm 
giriftan, to take rest, to rest, to repose. 

A [j^\J^ ardmil (pi. of i^j\ armal), widows; 
distressed, poor persons. 

p ^y^\j\ drdmldan, to rest, repose, become 

still and quiet. 

p ^\j\ drdi, adorn thou (rt. ^J^j\ drdstan). 

V fjLi\j\ drdyish, ornament; preparation. 

A ^->V )^ arhuh (pi. of l-Jj rabh), lords, masters. 
^ix^ ^-'VJ^ (ifio.hi ma<^cC , spiritual per- 
sons. c:-^-».Jb ^^VJ^ arbdbi himmat, high- 
minded ; liberal^persons. 

A ^lijj^ irtifdi,, exaltation, elevation, altitude, 

height ; revenue, 
p ^.j^j\ arjmand, rare, worthy, dear ; noble, 

honoured, distinguished, illustrious. 
A jc^^ ar'kha\ more or most flabby, flaccid, or 

p ^MAi jJ:n^j\ ardsher Idhahdn, the 1st king 

of the 4th Persian dynasty or Sassanides, 

was the son of a shepherd who married the 

daughter of one Babak — hence the name. 

He was cotemporary with Commodus. 
p (Jl^;!^^ ci^^ ^^^* lihisht (like paradise), 

name of the second Persian month (April). 
A ^j^jj\ arzak (pi. of jjjj rizk), possessions, 

p ."i ^*?!-,) tiU )^ arzdnl ddshtan, to give, bestow, 

confer, grant, make over, 
p .; iT drsu, wish, desire, eagerness, earnestness. 

p i^^/)j\ arzldan, to be worth ; to suit. 

p (^S^jj\ arzliang, the house, studio, gallery, 
portfolio, or drawing-book of the painter and 
impostor Mam. 

p ^S^jj^ arzhangl, like the gallery, or worthy of 
the portfolio of Mani. 

p tj^j^ arsldn, a lion ; slave ; name of several 
kings of Persia of the Seljuk dynasty. 

A f^j\ ar%, earth, soil, land, country. ^ Jl 
al arz, the earth. <L?jl J, fl arzthi, in 
His earth, Irza, be thou pleased (imp. of 
the vb. ^j-^j raziya). 

A »_i^\ irfa-^, raise thou, elevate (imp. of «_i .). 

A ^j\ arkdn (pi. of ^j ruhn), pillars, 
buttresses. d^jJ iJ^J^ arhuni daulat, 
pillars of the state, V.e.'ministers. 

p j*jl dram, I may bring (rt. ^i^j^\ dvardan). 

p (^i^r^^l dramidan, to repose. 

p !iS^j\ dramlda, rested, reposed ; moderated, 
abated, assuaged. 

p Sj\ arra, a saw. 

p 4_fjl dri, thou mayest bring (rt. i^*^j}\ )• 

pjl dz, avarice, desire. 

V j\ az, from; among; of; above; beyond; 
than ; on account of ; with ; by. 

p J\j 1 dzdd, free. (^*xi S\j \ dzdd shudan, to 
be liberated, to be free. (^"^ (^Ul azdd 
kardan, to free, set free, liberate, release. 

p i^li jljl dzddagdn (pi. of ifOljT dzuda), the 
free from worldly cares, the religious. 

p iX'^ljl dzddagl, freedom, liberty. 

p ifjljl dzdda, free. 

Pjljl dzdr, vexation, sorrow, grief, grieving, 

trouble, soreness, pain ; (in comp. hom^^i^j\j 1 
uzdrdan) tormenting, tormentor, 

p ■^'^J^j \ dzdrdan, to vex, grieve, trouble. 

p ^1 jl az dn, on that account, for that reason, 
hence, thence. 

p ^Ji*J 1^1 J^ «z dn pas, after that, afterwards. 

p UsTl j\ az dnj'd, from that position, on ac- 
count of that (high) place ; since, forasmuch, 

p Isaji jl az inj'd, from this place, hence. 

p J j\ az bar, by heart. ij'^^y^T^ j^ ^^ ^'^^ 

khwdndan, to repeat by rote, 
p ^^ji \\ az birdi, on account, for, for the sake. 
V jji^ \\ az bahr, for the sake of. Ij^ri- -^<j \\ 

az bahri Mtidd, for God's sake, 
p ^>-^l^^ *-/^ j^ az pdi uftddan, to fall down. 


( 5 ) 


p c^A*u tjl> j1 as pui past, decayed, sapped, 

p ^iX^I j^ tJ'l' J^ az pdi dar dmadan, to fall 
inJ;o distress. 

A *1=>-Jj^ izdihdm, crowd, throng, concourse, 
press, pressure. 

VjJj\ az dar, by the door or gate. 

p Ifc^Jjl azdarhd or \jbjj)j\ azhdarhd, large snake, 
serpent ; dragon. 

p i^'^jj 1 dzardan, to vex, pain, distress. 

p s>^j ; I dzarda, vexed, grieved, pained, dis- 

A ^j\\ azrak, blue, azure, cerulean. 

p ^j^\^ ^jj\ azrak-plrdhan, clad in a blue vest. 

"P y>- ^jj\ dzarm-ju, mild, tolerant, patient. 

P ijyr (»jj ' nzarm-jute, a pacific person. 

p^jl az ru, on the ground, or score. 

p A^ jl a% lei, from whom. 

A i^j\ azimmat (pi. of *\^j zimdm), reins. 

P c)^yV ' "2wu<?«w, to try, prove, experience. 

p «Jy«;l dzmuda, tried, proved, tested. 

p^\ azw, from him, from her, from it. 

p J jji «3Tt 5«r, above him, higher than he. 

p (_^j J^ az vai or tc«j, from him. 

p L_>;^j-^ J' <^2 ^^^ dare, of every kind, or de- 
scription ; on all topics. 
^ c^-J^ <^2i» (for ^\ j\ az In), from this; than 



this ; at this ; of this. c— 

sahah, for this reason. 
^ c>Wj^ azmdw (for ^^\ j\ az Indn), of these. 
P U*^ ijJj^ ''^zm J««A, more than this. 

^ U*^ (jij^ ^^^'^ i'^*^> formerly, heretofore ; 

P \^\Jj^ azinjd, hence. 

a*Lj1 asd^a, he sinned, did evil (4th form of 

'Lj sdta, concave J tcdw'). 
p j^Lsl asdn, easy. ^'^^L:! dsdntar, easier. 
p^^L-l dsdyish, tranquillity, ease, rest, repose. 
A S-jV-j^ asbdb (pi. of u_.-^--j sabab), causes, 

means; goods, chattels, furniture. 
p 4«^->^ asp, horse, steed. 
p C^^il ast, is. 

p jl::.-i\ W5^a<?, teacher, master, preceptor, in- 
structor, pedagogue. 

p j^li-j| usldti (or <ijl:;Lj| dstdna), threshold. 

A p ^-y^\ istabrali, a kind of thick satin. 

&.j\:iz^\ istitdr, concealment. 

AjULs^i istihkdr, deeming or regarding as 
despicable; contempt, disdain. 

A jjU-sLjI istihkdk, merit, deserving, desert. 

A c^a-ji^Uji istahyaitu, I am ashamed, I blush 

(10th form of the rt. y_^f^ hayiya). 

A ( flisa-jl uttkhfnf, holding light or cheap, 

slight, disesteem, depreciation. 
A j^ls^l istikhlds, liberation, deliverance, 

rescue, the effecting of a release. 
p ^^kxJ\ mtukliwdn, bone ; stone of fruit. 

-pj:^\ astar, mule. 

A axlk:-:^ istitd^at, power, possibility, ability. 

A jl^iii-)! istizhdr, imploring aid or protection. 

A itjlicu.:! tstie.drat, borrowing. 

A jljk*::-,^! isti^ddd, capacity, genius, skill, 
aptitude, aptness. 

Kj\sijc^\ istighfdr, asking forgiveness. 

Kjkx:^\ astaghfiru, I ask pardon. <dJ! _8je-.j^ 
«s<fl^A/?rw7/a^, laskpardonof God. ul^-ftjcujl 
adaghfiruka, I ask pardon of thee. Idaghjir, 
ask forgiveness (10th form of the rt. jii). 

A JUb..;^ istikbdl, going to meet, greeting, 
giving a reception. 

AjKii-j^ istikrdr, confirmation, settlement, 

A ^l^a r .... ^ ^ tstt'ksds., strict investigation, curiosity. 

Tj\y:^\ ustutcdr, firm, strong, fast, tight ; 

sound, valid ; faithful, true. 
p (J-Sm-;! dstln, sleeve. 
A i^\uxx^\ istis-nds, familiarity, intimacy. 
Aj^l isrdr, doing anything in private, secret 

acting. ^_jj\jJ\ tsrdrl, my secret acting. 

A < f^j^\ isrdf, extravagance, prodigality. 

A i^jA-sl as<^\ I (wiU) endeavour, work, exert 

myself (aor. of the rt. ^jt^ ««jfl'), he strove. 
AjjuX-sl hkandar, Alexander. 
A <LjjJcL»j1 hkandarlyah, Alexandria in Egypt. 


( 6 ) 


A *i^\ islam, the true faith, Islam, Islamism, 
the religion of Muhammad, orthodoxy. 

p j^I^-^jI dsman, heaven, sky. 

p j_jU-<;! dsmdm, heavenly. 

A «_y«u<;l asma-,, more or most agreeable to the 
ear, or worthy of being heard. 

p tot>j-sl asudan, to rest, to repose, to be tran- 
quil ; to be refreshed, or regaled. 

p li>^^\ dsuda, at rest, still, quiet, at ease. 

p Ji(J»»-jl dsudatar, easier, more easily. 

p LmjI d5yd, mill. ^^J-i ^W nsydyi garddn, 
revolving mill-stone. 

p ig- '^•---' L-;l dsyd-sang, mill-stone. 

p ^-'--jI dsih, trouble, injury, calamity. 

Kj^\ aslr, prisoner, captive, slave. 

A ^^j^\ aslri, captivity. Aslre, a certain pri- 

p ^\ ash, him, his, her, hers, it, its. 
A iiLil ishdrat, sign, signal, intimation, hint, 

suggestion, signification, denotation. 
p |^u\-»^l^ \ dshdmldan, to sip, or drink. 
A J»iil-ll ushdhidu, I behold (aor. of the 3rd 

form of the rt. S^^). 
A JcJjI ishtadda, he waxed strong (8th form 

of the rt. iXZi shadda). 
p yi-il ushtur, camel. 

V j\y^ j:^\ ushtur- suwdr, mounted on a camel. 
A*l.i^A-i»^ ishtihus-, appetite, desire. 
A^j,:i-i^ ishtahd' , he desired or longed for (8th 

form of the rt. -^^). U# <L;Jj ^^_ j^li ^* 

i_^lr) ^.^A-i^ inan kdna laina yadaihi md 

ishtaha "rutahun, he who has in his hands 
what dates he has an appetite for. 

A ,-li asharr, worse, more or most wicked. 

A W-ii^ ishribu, drink ye (imp. of <__\-i). 

A jU-l^ ash-Jlr (pi. of^xi shi^) poems. 

p |^-A-i)l dshuftan, to be disturbed, confounded. 

A 'L?^^ ashkiydt (pi. of ij&-l shakiy) thieves, 
criminals, wretches, miscreants. 

p \jl\-l 1 dshkdrd, evident, visible, manifest, 
public, apparent, known, revealed. 

p UJj 1 dshnd, (pi. ^^l) u^ 1 ), friend, acquaintance. 

p <-_.J»-ii 1 dshub, terror, confusion, disturbance, 
tumult. J(_->^-ll ds/^uS^rt;-, more perplexing, 
confounding, bewildering. 

p (^L-il dshydn, nest. 

A <_->lsr^l ashdb (pi. of ^.^a».l^ sahib), masters, 
owners, possessors ; companions, comrades, 

friends. i-Ji^S l-jIs"*! ashabi kahf, tenants 
of the cave, the^seven sleepers (of Ephesus). 

A p ..s'^**^ Istakhar, the ancient name of Per- 
sepolis, capital of Persia during the three 
first dynasties. 

A J-tf^ asl, root, origin, principle ; lineage, race. 

A \J\ aslan, not at all, by no means. 

A ^-^\ isna-^, do thou (imp. of j-i^). 

A iJl^Mj*!?! aswdt (pi. of LZJ^), sounds, voices. 

A aliUsl izdfat, addition, adjunct, supplement, 

augmentation, p (.('^^'♦J ^L?^ izafa namu- 

dan, to add, to appuiul. 
A ^JJ>\ azallu, I lose, I am lost (aor. of (J-s). 
A Jll?l atdla, he lengthened (4th form of the 

rt. JU? tdla, concave j). i.^ <d!^ J^^ atdla 

Hldh ^mrahii, may God lengthen his life (the 

pret. is used as the optative). 
A 'til atibbdi (pi. of ^^»~i? tablb), physicians. 
A (_JU!s^ atrdf (pi. of L-iJ^ taraf), distant 

quarters, directions ; extremities. 
A Jlftl?! atfdl (pi. of Jils tijl), infants. 
A c^!?l ittildz^, investigation, discovery, in- 
formation, knowledge, acquaintance. 
A t— ui?l utlub, seek thou (imp. of L_^il?). 
A ^_/J^^ atlas, satin. 
A cl^^ itmd^, excitement, incitement, causing 

to desire or hanker. 
A J^\ azallu, I would continue, I would not 

cease (aor. of the rt. Ji? zalla). 
A 'iS^\ iaddat, repetition, recital, rehearsal; 

A jjlxcl iMk, manumission, liberation. 
A iLi^l iitibdr, respect, regard, reverence. 

A JlkJwxl iUiddl, equity, moderation ; equili- 
brium, symmetry, just proportion. 

A c:^^JC>£^ iUadalat, she becomes (or they 
become) straight (8th form of the rt. J J**). 


( 7 ) 


A j^l^l i^trdz, opposition, objection, re- 

A i^^j:^] iUirdf, confession, acknowledgment, 

A jlibil i;tihud, belief, confidence. 

A jLc>£^ i:timdd, trust, reliance, confidence. 

A Mjoii flc.rfai(pl. ofj4i>£ caduw), foes, enemies. 
<u'j>r.l, (upon) his foes. 

A fjS£-\ az.dal, more or most just, juster. 

A fcJ"Jkc' a^a\ more or most hostile. 

A e^}jS-\ a-jrulltj, Arab, Arabian. 

A ^1/^^ t'cTag, turning away the face, refusal. 

A k_jLci a-jraf, the boundary line between 
the paradise and hell of the Muhammadans. 

A 'Uici a^zat(pl. oi j^ds. ^uzio or ^zw), limbs, 

A 'Ikti i-Jdi, giving, offering, bestowing. 

A *lic\ a-^ani, greater, greatest. 

A /♦Icl addm (pi. of As- ^alam), banners, flags, 
standards. Icldm, making known, informa- 
tion, announcing, notification. 

A ^Ici iddrif open acting, outward conduct. 
^Jk£.\ iddni, my public or outward conduct. 

A *ix\ u-^allimu, T teach (aor. of the 2nd form 

of ^ calima, he knew. <Ulc.| u-.allimuhu, 
I teach him. 

A j_5^' aja', most high, supreme, highest, 

A Jlfl a^mdl (pi. of Ji carnal), works, acts, 

A U-fl i-^alu, perform ye (imp. of J^ z_amala). 
A jy:l ac^wz?<, I take refuge (aor. of jlc pdza, 

concave . wdto). 
A Jl^^I a-Jiad, I covenanted (gezmate of 4>..^1 

aJiadu, aor. of Jl^.x:). J>^^1 Jl « /am a Jia<?, 

did I not give a charge ? 

A c; " ' <'tS'°" (P^- °^ tiT^ j^am), eyes ; nobles, 
chiefs. c:-^2^ ^'^^ a-jydni hazrat, no- 
bles of the court,'lords of the presence. 

pjUl d^az, beginning, commencement. jLcT 
^Jl^i dgjidz nihddan, to begin, commence, 
set up. 

A ijX^S a gh dni (pi. of <ii;^^ u gh nlyat). songs. 

A V As.\ aghlah, most, greater part, most part, 

the majority. 

T (_^X«ii\ u gh lamish, a king of Turkistan, who 
reigned towards the year 656 of the Hijra. 
He was the son of Jingiz Khan. 

A '\^'-^\ aghniydi (pi. of ^^xi ghaniy), rich men. 
p 1^^ \ dghpsh, embrace ; bosom ; servant, slave. 
A jLx^ a gh xjdr (pi. of -^i ghair) others ; rivals ; 


A jjlil dfdTi (pi. oi (j^\ ufli), quarters of the 
world, horizons. 

A j.t;^5li^ afdnin (pi. of ^^Ixs^), many branches. 

A ail dfat, calamity, mishap, disaster. 

r t__>l:J! dftdh, the sun. 

p i^ITjIiJI uftddagdn (pi. of id\:ij\ uftdda), the 

fallen, the unfortunate, 
r ^)t-^l:ii^ uftddan, to fall, drop, alight, light ; 

to befal, happen, occur, chance, 
p > jliil iiftada, fallen, dropped ; still, at rest, 

not fl}ing; humble, submissive. 
p (^l:iil uftdn, falling. 
Ajlsrvsi iftikhur, glory, boast, 
p |^.ij>-Lil afrdlvhtan, to raise, exalt, lift up. 

p ^yi^j J^ afrohhtan, to set on fii'e ; to kindle, 

light (a fire), 
p ^<^,y> I dfrldan, to create, 
p aSiM dfrlda, created. 

p ^ji,ji\ dfirln, applause, acclamation, bene- 
diction, blessing; (in comp.) creating, creator; 
(^ rJl ^J^^ jahdn-djinn, world-creator. 

p i^Ju^M afirlnish, creation. 

p i^^}js\ afzudan, to increase, augment. 

p <)Jlwj\ afsdna, charm; fiction, figment, tale. 

p ^J^A«il afsurdan, to wither, flag. 

p aJ^l afsurda, spiritless, apathetic, drowsy, 

cold, dull, lifeless. 
A *Lli\ ifshdi, divulging, exposure, 
p jjjJliJl afshdndan, to scatter, shake. 
A J-oil afzal, more or most excellent, choicest. 
A vjA^\ afzaltar, better, more excellent. 
A Pj^Jp jlksl iftdr kardan, to break a fast. 

( 8 ) 


A ic*i^ «/t«'> snake, viper. 

r i^\x!\ a fffh dn, lamentation, alas ! 

A \Ls\ ifkan (ace. of (J,>j^ «/X), falsehood, lie. 

p ^kiuOl afgandan, to throw, cast, throw down, 
upset; to strike, hit. 

A ^jjAi\ iflds, insolvency, poverty, beggary. 

A i1»il afwdh (pi. of i^i fuh), mouths ; rumour. 

A J»il afuzu, (that) I might get, gain, or triumph 

(aor. of the rt. jli fdza, concave j wdw). 
A i—Jj^^ alcdrib (pi. of ^-^^.ji Tcarlh), kinsmen, 

relations, relatives. 
A *Ji\i\ ahdllm (pi. of *Jj^ ikllm), climates, 

climes, regions. 

A JlJfl iJcbdl, advancement, good fortune, 

prosperity, felicity. l^JLil ikhdlalmmd, the 
good fortune of them both. 

A '^ jail iktiddi, taking as an example, making 

(one) an exemplar (i^jjJs kidwat or kudwat). 

p^Jp \s^\ iktidd kardan, to imitate. 
A A^jJsl ikddm, coming forward, advancing; 

attention, effort, diligence, promptitude? 

eagerness, p ^^v*-* /♦^J^t ikddm namudan, 

to advance, to approach. 

AjlJl ikrdr, confession, acknowledgment, 
avowal; assertion; acquiescence, favourable 

A ^-^l akrah, nearer, nearest. 

A ^1 akall, smaller, smallest, least. 

A t^\ ikllm, region, country, climate, clime. 

AP^,*-liWX-^me,oneregion. ^xtJjlj |^/*-ijl jl 

az ikllme ha iklime, from one country to 
another country, from clime to clime. 

A J 1^1 akdhir (pi. oijS\ aklar), the rich, nobles, 

grandees, magnates. 

A.j^\ akbar, greater, larger ; sorer, severer. 

A c^^-uuOil iktasalta, thou hast acquired (8th 

form of I ^MJ^ kasaha). L::^»-u,ail \j\^niu 

zd iktasabta, what hast thou gained ? 

A a\J>\ ikrdm, respect, honour, observance. 

A J^\ akmal, more or most perfect. 

A ^^\ akun, I am, I became, I may be (gez- 
mate of i^^\ akunu, aor. of j^o kdna, con- 
cavoj wdw, and governs the ace). 

p ^y^^ aknun, now, just now, at present, 
p (<&o I dguM, information, notice. 

p^l agm-, if; although. 

p <)c>-p 1 agarchi, although. 

p ^^xS\ Ugandan, to fill, cram, stuff. 

p iX^ 1 dganda, filled, crammed, stuffed. 

p J iS:S I dganda-par, stuffed with feathers. 

p ^^\ dgahl, information, intelligence, notice, 

A J I dl, family, race, house, dynasty. Jjl J J I 
dla dds-ud, house of David ! (the accusative 

serves for the vocative). ^\ » wa dlihi, and 
(on) his family. 

A Jl al, the (Arabic article, always prefixed 
to the noun). 

A )!1 aid, holla ! ho ! 

A l^ alia (for ^ ^ an Id), that not (a particle 
that nasbates the aorist) ; as \^S^ ^^ alJd 
ta^hudu, that ye worship not. llld (for )! ^^\ 
in Id), if not, save, except, unless, but what. 

p \j ^\ aid td, ho ! beware that. 

A <-->lJl alldl (pi. of c__J lull), hearts, souls, 

A ill dlat, tool; organ (of generation). 

A *lsn.Jl iltijd^, fleeing for refuge; entreaty, re- 
quest, petition, p ^'^y, Is^Jl iltijd lurdan, 
to seek refuge. 

A w^'liJl iltifdt, attention, regard, courtesy, 
respect; heed, notice. 

A p iJU:Jl iltifdte, a regard, a look. 

A jJl allatl (fern, of ^JiH allazt), who, which. 

A j^ls-l alhdn (pi. of ,^^ lahn), notes, sounds, 

modulations, tones, tunes. 
A Jk/«>sM al hamd, praise. <dl Xks'1 al hamdu 

Wlldh, praise be to God (commencement of 

the opening chapter of the Kur'an). i^X^\ 
al hamde, one such ejaculation, or chapter. 

A t_5 JJl allazt, who, he who or he whom. 

A A,\'\\ ilzdm, forcing; obliging ; confutation ; 

keeping close (equivalent to ^U lizdtn or 

iUjL« muldzamat). 

A ( j'dall flZ<a/(pl. of »»iy lutf), benefits, fa- 
vours, kindnesses. 


( 9 ) 


A uJll alif, the letter \ . ij' ij! '^^ alif he 
te, a, b, c, the alphabet. " 

A ^\ idfat, friendship, attachment, intimacy, 

A i^^\ al-hissa, upon the whole, to sum up, 

to make short of the story. 
A i^\ allah (originally ilf\ al ilah) God. Allah 

is used by all nations that profess Muham- 

madism, whatever language they speak. Aw I 

(JLO' alldh ta-jlla', God most high. 
A ^Jji alluhumma, God ! 
A (T-l^^ almas, diamond. 
A ^^\ altcdn (pi. of ^^,^ laun), colours ; sorts, 

various sorts, varieties. 
A. c\j^\ alwidd^, farewell ! adieu ! 
r 1^ Jj! I aludan, to stain, soil, defile, pollute. 
V *JjS I dluda, defiled, soiled, polluted ; steeped. 
p Jjjli alwand, name of a high mountain in 

Hamadan, eighty leagues from Isfahan. 
A <OjJ\ alwiyat (pi. of M»! liwa"-), flags, standards, 

ensigns, banners. 

A <i!l ildh, God. 

A P(C\Ji ildJil, divine. 

A /y\ ila\ to, towards, as far as; at. ^^^ 1\ 
ilcH man, towards whom, towards him who. 
A jj\ ilaiyd' , to me, unto me. 

A CXJ^ Hatha, towards thee. 
A fS^\ Haiku m, to you, for you. 
A *J1 allm, painful, excruciating. 
A <ull ilaihi, unto him. 
A \^\ ammd, but. 

p ^*^l dmdj, butt, mark for archers; bow-shot 

A j»L*\ imdm, leader, high priest, Iraaum. 
A ijt^i aman, safety, security. 

A <uL«i amdnat, rectitude, sincerity, faith, re- 

A L^\ ummat, religion ; sect, nation, people. 

A c^v^l amut, I die(gezmate of iJl:»^\ amutu, 
aor. of the rt. Ci;L« mdta, concave • wdw). 

A cucw*! m<mat^, prohibition; refraining; ab- 

A Jll^l amthdl (pi. of Jl.^ mathal), equals, 

fellows, likes, resemblances; fables, proverbs, 

p ci-.A-.-kX*! dmadast, hath come (poetically for 

t_::^-~j^ ifX*l dmada ast). 
p ^jj'^\ dmadan, to come, 
r i-.v«l dmada, come, arrived, 
p (_CiX*y dmade, would come, was in the habit 

of coming, used to come. 

A.j^\ amr, command, ^^j ^ y^ «'»'* « nahj, 

command and prohibition, ordering and for- 
bidding ; absolute authority. 

A *L^^ umardi- (pi. of^--^^ amir), commanders, 
princes, emirs. 

A Jj^\ amrad, beardless and handsome. 

p \}y*\ imroz, to-day, this day. 

p i_-A.u*.^l imshah, to-night, this night. 

A 'LsL*^ imzdi, transmitting, despatching, car- 
rying through, accomplishing. 

A (^Ix.^^ imzM.n, advancing far into, penetrating. 
JaJ ^U.^^ im^dni nazr, gazing, directing of 
vision, careful glance, mature consideration. 

A ^Ix^^ imJidn, possibility, power. 

A %i)\ amlam, I fill (aor. of rt. t^). \^\ o^\i 
fa azallu amla^u, then would I continue to fill. 

A *L«1 imld!-, filling u]). 

A cJL*\ amldk (pi. of lL^I^ mulk), goods, pos- 
sessions, property. 

A j,^\ umam (pi. of <t*\ ummat), peoples, nations, 

A ^t \ dmin, protect thou, render secure (imp. 

of ^j^ I dmana, 4th form of the rt. ^j.^^ amina). 
A -J^y*^ amwdj (pi. of —y* mauj), waves. 
A (J^)^^ amwdl (pi, of ^y^mdl), monies, eifects. 
p ^^:^y*\ dmo]dkta7i, to learn ; to teach. 
A^i^l iimur (pi. of -^^, amr), affairs, matters, 

p j^xscv*! dmekhfan, to mix. 
A Jl^^ umld or umed, ummld or ummed, hope, 

desire, expectation. 
rj\jj>*^\ umidwdr, hopeful ; aspirant 
p ^iUjw«1 iimedwdrl, hopefulness, hope; thou 

art full of hope, thou hopest. 


( 10 ) 


i.jf^\ amir, commander, leader, captain, gover- 
nor, lord, prince. ---o j^\ amiri Icahir, 
great lord, mighty prince. 

AT SiJi\j j^\ amir-tdda, prince's son, prince. 

T \^\ dmez (in comp.), mixing; blended, 
mixed; replete. 

P i^\ nn (pl.j^UI dnan), that, he. 

A ^ an, that (indeclinable particle). 

A 1^1 in, if. J ^ in lam, if not. ^\ J ^ 
in lam alcun, if I may not be. 

A ^ anna, that. Inna, truly, verily (a particle 
which nasbates the aorist, and requires 
the following noun to be in the accusative ; 
as <JL:\yJi\ ^\ ^ inna anlcara'l aswdt, 
truly the most offensive of noises. It is also 
a convenient peg on which to hang the 
affixed pronouns, as CSj\ innaTca,ix\x\y thou. 

A \j\ ana, I. 

A 'lil wd*, vase, vessel. 

A ijl)! indhaf, repentance. 

A j\j\ andra, he illuminated (4th form of the rt. 
^Ij ndra, concave j wdw, but used optatively, 
as <dll iU\ andra 'Udhic, may God illumine.) 

A ^\'A andm, men, mankind, mortals. 

p i^Ul andn (pi. of ^^1 dn), they, those. 

p d^\y\ andnTci, they who. 

p jLjI amhdr, magazine, stack, granary, garner. 

pjLjI amhdz, partner in trade. 

p (_fj^^ amldzi, partnership. 

A cJLjl amhuha, he announced to thee, taught, 
told, informed thee (4th form of the rt. y^)- 

p loV^^ amhdn, soft sheep-skins (that of goats 
being called *Jt^l advn) ; leather ; a wallet. 

A L:i^-J^ ambata, he caused to bring forth, 
grow, or vegetate (4th form of c:— J). 

A lsLu-j\ imhisdt, gladness, recreation, mirth, 
gaiety, pleasantry. 

p Sy^\ amhuh, concourse, mob, crowd, 
p aj j^l an bih, that (is) better. 

A 'l--J^ ambiy&^ (pi. of ^^J nahty), prophets. 
A \s^j\ anta, thou. 


A L::.-wu2Jt intasabta, thou art related (8th form 

of the rt. i__^.uJ nasala). 

AjuiJl intizdr, expecting, watching, waiting, 

A j*U"Ji intikdm, taking revenge, vengeance. 

p l=sr| dnjd, that place, there. 

p A^^ anjdm, end, close ; event, issue, con- 

p ^^-..^Isr' anjdmldan, to finish, terminate, 
end, result, issue. 

Pj^/ksrl anjuman, company, assembly, banquet. 

A p i,y*=^\ injll, the Gospel. 

p j^l;.is^| dnehundn, such as that, in that 

manner, in such a way. 
p dXiu^sTl unclmndnhi, exactly as, even as. 
p d<=^\ anchi, that which, whatever, 
p i\i\ and, they are. 
p (^^iiri-ljul anddldktan, to throw, hurl, fling, 

cast, shoot, discharge, reject. j^:i>-t»x}i ^^J^. 

ba gardan anddlMan, to cast headlong, 
p ib.ri-ljj^ anddBda, cast, thrown; laid, 
p s\\^\ anddza, quantity, measure; symmetry, 

just measure, due proportion. 
p A^jjl anddm, body; limb, member. 
¥j,X)\ andar, within, in, on, amidst. ^^^ jJ i^Aj 

ba shilcr andarash, in thanking Him. 
p ^j>^\ andardn, into it, therein. 
T *jSi\ andar am, I am in. 

p ^^;}J'^^ andarun, inner part, interior, inside, 

p ^jij<^\ andarln (for (.t:>J j»xJ^ andar In) in this, 
p ijSsJ\ andah, little, few, small ; trifling, trivial, 
p (j^tV^ andahe, a little, very little,mere trifle. 

p ^:>-^^\ andokhtan, to acquire, gain, pick 
up, collect, accumulate. 

p i^:xs^^^\ andoTMa, accumulated, collected, 
gained, amassed. 

p i(jjji andilh, grief. 

p i^\ anduh, grief, sadness, trouble. 

p cJUAjjJ^ andeshndk, anxious, in fear. 

J cJ\uj!LjSj\ andeshnaUar, more afraid. 

*JcJliAjjJl andeshnaktaram, (I) am more 





( 11 ) 


p <UiijjJl andesha, thought, consideration, re- 
flection; doubt, anxiety, fear, care, concern. 

p j^j»-j1jjJ1 atideshldan, to consider, reflect, 
think, care. 

p jj>-.AjjJ1 andeshlda, thought, considered. 

p ^ J I dnrd, to that one, to him. 

A (jjgj \ uns, society, familiarity ; habit. 

A ^UwJl insdn, man. j^LJ^l al insdn, a man, 

the man. 
p c:,-vuJl dnast, is that, 
p |-XwJ I d}iaste, that would be. 

A iSl] ^Lij ^\ in sJid>a 'lldh, if it please God, 

God willing. 
A t-il^^ insuf, justice, equity. 
A /•Ix)! tn^dm, benefaction, gratuity, largess, 

kindness, favour. 
A j.«-liJl an/as (pi. of fj*Ju nafas), spirits, 


A jS-'mJu\ anfusuJcum, your own souls. 

A (JjOl annalca, that thou. Innaka, certainly 

kj\ij\ inkdr, denial, finding fault; disappro- 
bation, dislike, aversion. 

A io^ ankar, more or most odious or off'ensive. 

p \j^ \ dnkas, that person. 

p &x.i \ an ki, he who, him who, that which. 

p ij^'^^.jwJl angdridan ov ^^:J^\yj\ angdshtan, to 
compute, reckon, suppose, deem. 

p al>J I an gdh, that time, then ; there. ^ ilCi I 
dn gdh ki, when. 

p CL'>'*.'VJ' angusht, finger. 

p ,_$^p>lx)i atigushtari, a finger-ring. 

p >^jj> i^J> (^(j' an gum karda farzand, that 

one who had lost (his) son, i.e., Jacob. 
^ jy^\ angur, grape, 
p <uj 1 dngah, that time, then, 
p ^j:Js^fj\ angekhtan, to excite. 
p iz3s:^\ angekhta, raised, excited. 
p 'Sj\ angez (in comp.), exciting, stirring up. 
A J ^^\ in lam, if not (gezmating particles). 
p ♦J \ dnam, (I) am he, am that. 
Ajlyl anwdr (pi. oij^nur), lights, splendours. 

^J . 

A clyl anwd^ (pi. of cy naii-^, kinds, sorts, 

various kinds. 
p i^j^ \ Anvarl, name of a celebrated Persian 

poet, who died a.h. 597, a.d. 1200. 

A &j\ innahu, verily he (or it). 

p ^JT dnhd (pi. of i^\ dn), those things. 

p ij 1 dnl, such art thou, of it thou art. 

A ^j\ innl, of a truth I. 

A jj**-.3' anls, comrade, intimate friend, com- 

Ajl mi, or. 

p ^^ tt (by some o), he, him, she, her, it. 

p jljl dwuz, voice, sound, noise, shout, scream, 

cry ; announcement, report, 
p ^'jl dwdza, report, rumour, news. 
A ^^\^\ dwdn (pi. of ^\ dn), times, seasons. 
v,^\i^\ auhdsh, profligate, dissolute, dissipated; 

rift-raff, canaille, rabble. 
A —j^ auj, top, summit, zenith. 

p ^j::JSjjy^ j\ u kJiwesMan, he himself. 

A 'IJj^ awiddd^ (pi. of JoJj ivadld), friends, 

lovers, ilj^ Jjl awiddds-ihi, of his friends. 
p \j^\ ord, him, her ; to him, to her. 
A j\jj\ aurdd (pi. of J^i^ tvird), portions of the 

Kuran recited at different hours ; daily re- 
hearsals, devotions. 

A (jl^j^ aurdk (pi. of Jj^j warak), leaves, 
p J;jl dvarad, he should bring (rt. ^j-Sjl ). 
p ^^j^\ dvardan, to bring, fetch, adduce; to 
relate, report, allege; to bear, endure; to beget, 
p Ll.*-jj^ ust, he is. 

p jlu-~'»l ustdd, master, teacher, pedagogue, in- 

A ( i\^j\ ausdf (pi. of t-jLtfj), qualities, praises. 

p c:.«v.jj\jij^ uftudast, has befallen. 

Pj^jliijl uftadan, ioidW; stray; happen, occur. 

p Jjl^jl uftdda, fallen ; happened, occurred. 

A C-jljjl aukdt (pi. of eil-Oj icakt), times, hours. 

A ^^j\ auwal, first, beginning; former; at first. 

A jlSjl aula\ nearer, worthier, fitter, 

AtLU^l Jj\ uli 'lalbdb (obi. of <-->U^l^^J 

fdu 7 alhdh), the wise, intelligent, prudent. 


( 12 ) 


AT yi-ij^ aulatar, nearer, better, more fit, suit- 
able, proper or convenient ; preferable. 
A (JJoJ.\ aula^ika, they, those. 
A ^^\ at«ffl?m (oblique pi. of J «^ auwal), first, 

former (or it may possibly be the Persian ^^j 
in affixed to the Arabic). 

p^^yia^jl dwelihtan, to han^. catch hold of, cling. 

r i!::^:^.! dweJMa, hung, suspended. 

p ^^\ uil, of it thou art. 

p i \ ah, oh ! ah ! alas ! a sigh. 
/ — 

p ^^v2wuJJ)l dhistagi, slowness, gentleness, low- 

iiess, softness of voice, 
p <i;:;wwJil dhista, slowly, quietly, softly, gently, 
p L-XiJ>l dhah, quick -lime, plaster, cement. 

^CLfiJ u»^l dhaki tafia, quick-lime. 
A Jj&^ ahl, people, inhabitants, family ; worthy. 

p J 


J-S>1 aJdi khirad, wise persons, men of 
understanding. J J Jjbl ahli dil, pious, pru- 
dent, wise. (^»r^*J tJ^^ <^Mi zamin, inha- 
bitants of the earth. Li^^ri-li-i Jjb\ aJili 
shindkht, intelligent, li-* JJ^1 aJili safd, pure. 

(J^,ja i^\ ahli tank, devotees. J^ J>^1 
ahli fazl, men of excellence or of learning ; 

A 'hb\ ahlan, heaven bless you ! welcome ! 

A <UJfcl ahluhu, worthy of it. <dilj bi ahlihi, 
worthy of it, deserving thereof. 

A iLlL&l ahliyat, worthiness, meetness ; ability, 
capacity, skill. 

A JUj&^ ihmdl, negligence, carelessness, inat- 

p 1^! dhan, iron. 

p (^.^^ 1 dhang, design, preparation, readiness ; 

pitch, tune (of a musical instrument), 
p ^^^1 dhanl, made of iron, iron. Ahane, a 

piece of iron, 
p ,.T*iAT dhanin, made of iron, iron, 
p ^yCus>- ^^t.^\ dhanln-changdl, iron-clawed, 
p ybl dhu, stag, deer, buck. 
A kJ^\ ahwa\ I love. i\^\ ahwalm, I love 

him (aor. of the rt. i_fjJ& haiva', he loved, 
desired, or wished for). 

p J!>l dhe, one sigh. 

p ^\ ai, ! {interj.) 

A i.i-5ljT dydt (pi. of h\ dyat), signs, miracles; 
verses of the Kuran. 

A t-y-^V. ayddl (pi. of Jo yad), hands ; benefits, 

Ajbl lydz, name of a favourite of Sultan 

A ^\j\ aiydm (pi. of *»^ yaum), days. 

A iOl dyat (pi. i-^'V.' "y"0' verse of the 

Kuran ; miracle. 
A aIiijI aitdm (pi. of *-:;y yallm), orphans. 

A ,bjl mhdr, presentation, off'ering; preferring, 
preference ; bestowing of benefits. 

i.j\2sr\ ijdz, abridging, epitomizing, compen- 
dium, abbreviation. 

A jjj aiyada, may (God) aid or strengthen (2nd 
form of Ol, concave ^). 

p O.'* Jo, 1 dyadat, may come to thee, will be to 
thee, (ji-y I dyadash,maj come to him, will 
be to him (rt. j^J^I dmadan). 

p JJj] Izid, God. 

p (^jl:i*<a.»J Istddan, to stand, stop, stay, con- 
tinue, remain. 

p jjl::.^^ Istdda, stood, standing. 

p ^l^Ji tshdn, they, them, these. 

A LijJ aizan, also, likewise, moreover. 

p <iiSj\ ai ki, alas ! that. 

p *.;! em, we have, we are. 

A ^Uo^ iitnan, faith, belief. 

A tUjl as-immat (pi. of /•L*l imdni), high-priests, 

A ^^ijj aiman, safe, secure, free, free from 

danger ; void of care, 
p ^\ In, this ; these, 
p ^J^\ Indn (pi. of ^Ji\ in) these, 
p \^\^\ Injd, this place, here, 
p \j^ji\ fnrd, to this, 
p tJJcjJ uiak, behold ! lo ! 
p <Uj| dyina, glass, mirror, 
p ^ji\ aiicdti or zet'aw (pi. ^J^^.^ aticdnhd), 

hall, court, palace, vestibule, gallery, portico, 
p ^1 dil, thou comest (ft. ^J^«l dmadan). 


( 13 ) 


p 1^] diin, law, canon, rule, 
p <)ki-«j| anna, mirror, looking-glass. 
PjIj <)u-jI dnna-dur, mirror-holder (an at- 
tendant on the great in the East. 
P i-^^'^ ^^ 1 dtlna-ddrl, office of mirror-holder. 

p c— > ha, to ; at ; with ; by ; in ; for ; according 
to. (It is sometimes pleonastic). 

A <-_> bi, by ; with. 

p [} Id, with, along with; to; possessed of; 
notwithstanding, in spite of. 

p <o ^^1 \i Id an ki, notwithstanding that. 

At__>lj hah, door; chapter, ^j^^ '-r'V hdhuH 
tauhat, door of repentance. 

p^jii^i- u hdkhtan, to play, sport ; to lose at play. 

PA j£^b ba dTchir, to an end. 

PA iJL^yL:>. \j bd hkushunat, with roughness. 

p jIj hdd, wind, breeze, gale ; pride, haughti- 
ness, conceit, arrogance. i^^ilLs"* jlj budi 
muMdlif, adverse wind, foul wind. 

P /♦iJu bdddm, almond. 

p \jjb hdd-pd, fleet, swift (steed). 

p 1^1.' jb bdd-pdte, a fleet horse, a steed. 

p iLljb hddshdh, king. 

p kJpJu bdd-gird, whirlwind, tornado. 

p 4_?*^Ij hdde, a flatus in the bowels, a fart. 

A <0<3lj bddiyat, desert. 

Pjb hdr, load; fruit; time. 1>1>. .b bdri 
Jchdtir, distress or load of mind, ^'^j^^ jb 
hdr dvardan, to bear fruit. Xo jb Jar? 
rfT^flr, another time, a second time. 

P (^\;b hurdn, rain, shower. 

p^jb bar-bar, burden-bearing; beast of burthen. 

P j^^j^ jb bdr-barddr, bearer of burthens ; 

pregnant (female). 
p ^ Jk=i- jb bdri Jchudd, Great God ! 

p ib^b bdr-gdh, place of audience, royal court, 

p ij\j bdra, twelve ; battlements. 
p bs^ib bdrhd (pi. of ib), times, many times. 

A o^b bdru, Creator, ^jbcjjb bdri taidla', 
most high God. 

p ^j\j bdre, a load, weight, burden ; a turn, a 
time ; once upon a time, one day ; at least, 

at any rate. S'^s>- t_>;b bdre chand, several 
times, sundry times. 

p ^Sij\i bdrldan, to lain, to fall in showers. 

p i'J>;»jb bdrida, rained. 

p C^ij\i bdrlk, fine, thin. 

p JlLXj lb bdriktar, thinner, finer. 

p jb bdz, back again ; on the other hand ; after- 
wards ; wide open, open, ajar. 

pjb bdz, falcon. 

Pjljb bdzdr (pi. bi^iUb bdzdrJid), market, 
market-place, street with shops only. 

p lJj^j^ bdzdrl, of the market, ^j^j^. (.^-^ 
sagi bdzdrl, a street-cur. 

p (^iV«l jb bdz dmadan, to come back, to re- 
turn ; to come up right in front. 

p j^J^i^l jb bdz dvardan, to bring back; to 
keep back. 

p fjj*i ;b bdz pas, restitution. ^jt>1^ l/^ jV 
bdz pas dddan, to give back, restore. 

V ^^jS*- \\i bdz kharidan, to buy back, to re- 
deem, ransom. 

p (^jIj jb bdz dddan, to give back, restore. 

p j^^i-il J jb hdz ddshian, to keep back, detain, 
withhold, restrain. 

p i^bnb bdzargdn (pi. i^^jj^. bdzargdndn), 
trader, merchant, trafficker. 

p ^b^nb bdzargdne, a certain merchant. 

Pj^i.)) jb bdz zadan, to strike again; to hold 

P L:^-sjb bdzast, is open. 

p (Ajb hdzash, again him. 

p ^'^Sj^ bdz kardan, to open, unfold, un- 
ravel ; to drav/^ back. 

p j^J-wu.^ jb bdz kashldan, to draw back. 

p ,^yi-l\ j^rjb bdz guzdshtan, to leave, leave 

p ^j^-J^jS^ ;b bdz garddnldan, to turn back, 

bring back. 
p |^iioi.>^jb bdz gardldan, to turn back, return, 



( 14 ) 


p |^^:;j1o ;l> hd% gashtan, to turn back, return, 

retreat, retire, withdraw. 
p (j^ jV ^"-^ guftan, to reply, 
p i^jw'l^ j\j 5az mdndan, to lag behind, to flag. 

Pj'iIj 5a2u (pi. ^^}jV iozuwan), the arm from 

the shoulder to the elbow, upper arm. 
p cfjV hdzl, play, romp, sport; pyrotechnics. 

cj'i' (_filj hd%i Jcardan, to make sport, 
p ''^^J^ hdzlcha, play, sport, pastime; trifle, 

p loJo Ju bdzldan, to play. 
A (J.W b Ja»5, power, strength ; severity. 
A (J^^ hdsik, tall, lofty (palm-tree). 
p ^l\i hash, be thou, stay, wait, have patience 
p i^\j hdsliad, it may be, must be, would be 

(rt. i^^y, hudan). 
A J'lslj hdtil, vain, futile, idle, false, delusive. 
A jji-'U hdtin, interior, inward, internal, inside ; 

hidden. ic^V ^«^^'"} ^^ly interior. 

p 4b hd^, garden. 

p (^V^V hd gh bdn, gardener, vine-dresser. 

p LZ^^S'^\j hufandast (for li^-j^ !i,^\i hd- 
fanda ast) is a weaver. 

p ifjcjb hdfanda, weaver. 

Aj^U ia/lz, remaining, left; enduring, lasting, 

perpetual, permanent. 
p ijJb Idle, fear ; care, solicitude ; harm, 
p <*^lj Id hi, with whom. 

Jb Idl, 

arm ; wing, pinion ; stature. 

p 1\i hdld, above, high ; upper hand ; summit, 

top; stature, height. ^:JjS ^b laid giriftan, 
to gain the ascendancy, get the upper hand. 

Pjj'^b hdldtar, higher. 

A (^liJb hVl handn, with the tips of the fingers. 

p (_/u!b bdlish, pillow, cushion. 

A jjb hdligh, adult. 

A ^b hVlldl, by God, with God. 

p ^b Idlin, pillow, bolster, cushion. (jJb 

C^jy hdlini turbat, head of a tomb. 

p au bum, terrace or flat roof of a house. 

p J^iVib bdmdud (or j^^jljw^b bdmddddn), at 
mom, in the morning. 

p ^iij.^b hd manash, with me (and) him. 

A p |ob bdn, tamarisk-tree. 

p {,^Ji\ bang, cry, noise, shout, clamour, peal, 
roll, thunder; call to prayer from the minaret. 

^:i-i)^Oj {^Sj\i bang barddshtan, to call to 

prayer, ^-j> (.^^b bdngt subh, the morning 

summons to prayer, call to matins, t^^b 

jUJ bdngi namdz, summons to prayer. 

p A 0^j>-jb bd tciijud, with the existence of, 
through, notwithstanding. 

p ^O^^i^b bdicar kardan (or ^ji-i^ J jjb hdwar 
dushtan), to believe, credit. 

p ^^ b bd mat, with him, with her. 

A .i>b bdhir (fern, ^b bdhirat), excellent, 
eminent, resplendent; open, plain, manifest, 

p *J&b bdham, together, along with. ,^4V«1 *Ab 
bdham dmadan, to fly in a passion. 

p Job bay ad, must be ; he must, one ought ; is 
proper, is requisite, is indispensable, beho- 

veth, is wanted. JjJ J*jb bdyad bud, one 
ought to be. (-L-? jc;b buyadat, dost thou need, 
wish, or want ? must thou have ? 
bdyad murd, (he) must die, one must die. 

p iUujb hdyistl, would be proper or necessary, 
would suit. 

p -J babar, carry thou, carry off. 

p l::^ but (pi. (jbj butdn), idol. 

p j;j battar {for jjJj badtar), worse. 

Pijilj Ll-o btd-tardsh, carver of idols, sculptor. 

p ^jyu;^ batars, be apprehensive (rt. ^x^jj). 

p iX)^ battarand, are worse. 

p bsT ba jd, in place, to place, towards. XssT 
j^Ji^l ba jd dvardan, to bring into place, 
to perform, discharge. 

p^bsT bajdn, heartily, sincerely. ^.V^l i^}^. 
ha jdn dmadan, to be in imminent peril, to 
be at death's door, to be weary of life, to be 

tired to death, (jt^j'r' ^^sf^^bajdnparwar- 
dan, to cherish as one's life. ^S^^j ^i)^^ 
bajdn ranjtdan, to be cut to the heart, vexed 
to the soul, deeply distressed, >^''= f y_ u^^ 
ha jdn baranjand, are vexed to death, are 
sorely grieved. 

J^ Job 



( 15 ) 


p ^'^jj\ t/^C ^(f y«^ dvardan, to carry into 
effect, to accomplish, perform, fulfil. 

p J^ hajtiz, besides, save, except. 

A < hi jamalihi, by his beauty. 

p Aa< hacha, infant, child j whelp, cub, the 
young of an animal. £i cht, by what 
(means) ? in what (way) ? to what (use) ? 

p >i-=sr ba chlnam, I will pluck (rt. ^^jk-o^). 

AcJ><:<^ JaA^/t, controversy, dispute, discussion. 
p 1^^^^ ei-^asT bahth kardan, to dispute. 

A^^jsT JaAr, sea. 

p iLjyAs^T ba huzur, into the presence. 

p A Cl^La^ J« hakikat, in truth, really. 

PA ♦xsT ia huhni, by way of, in accordance 
with. p<J^I *^^ J« hukmi dnkl, in ac- 
cordance with that which, because that, for 
the reason that, so that, to a degree that. 
wl^^5^ fS-^ ha hukmi zarurat, by force of 
necessity. c:-^jlc /»^^ J« hukmi <,ariyat, 
by way of loan. 

p ^'^y J-=^ ^^^''^ kardan, to absolve, pardon, 

A j^^ buhur (pi. ofys^ bahr), seas, oceans, 
p C^3^ baJJity fortune. 

p icx^Sjj Li'-^.-v7 bakJit-bar-gashta, unfortunate. 
p i^"^. bukht'i, a large, strong, hairy camel 

with two bunches, a Bactrian camel. 
PjL".!-^^ lakht-ydr, fortunate, fortune's favorite. 
p (_/u^5^ hakhsh, share, portion, lot. 
p (^liLsT bakJishdi, forgive thou. 

p jjikJuLsT bakhshdt/ish, favour, forgiveness, 

P (Xiu^Llisr iaMs^d?/«w<?a^i, liberality ; for- 
p ^^^A-ssT bakhshish, gift, gratuity. 
p ^Si.V. i^.-v^ haJJishandagi, liberality. 
p sx-Ji'j^bakhshanda, liberal. 
p ^^J^^a ^ ^ hakhshudan, to take pity. 

p |^ji-yu,-3£7 bakhshidan, to bestow, grant, give, 
confer ; make a present ; to waive ; to par- 
don, forgive. 

A J^ bukhl, avarice, stinginess, parsimony, 

p J i^ys^. ba khicud bar, upon thyself. 

A J-.isr bakhil, stingy, niggard, avaricious; 

A J-»ir bakhtll, avarice, peuuriousness, par- 
p jj bad (pi. ^\si baddn), bad, evil, wicked. 
A \si bada\ it appeared (a defective verb), 
p j^i^l J^ lad-aMitar, ill-starred, hapless. 

■p Jjj:.s>~\ Jj had-alJitartar, more ill-starred, 
more unfortunate. 

r i_sj^^\ J^ bad-akhtare, an unlucky wight. 

p^jljj baddn, know thou (rt |^^:u*J\0(fa««'s^«w). 

p i_j^ Jj baddn (pi. of JJ ifl<?), bad persons. 

p ^^Jo biddn (for ^^1 ^ J? a?0> with that; for 
that purpose, or design ; to that (person). 

p (^JX'I S: bad-andesh (pi. jjli*jJul ju bad- 

andeshun, ill-wisher, malevolent, malignant. 

r Li-^ckr;' jo bad-bakht, ill-fated, hapless, un- 
lucky, unfortunate, wretched. 

p ^A^. J^ bad-bakhti, (thou) art unlucky. 

p ^JILs>~Si Badakhshdn, a country of central 
Asia, celebrated for its rubies. 

p tJVs- Jo bad-khu, bad-tempered. 

A jjj badr, full moon. 

PjJo badar, out, out of doors, without, forth. 

p j^Jc^l jjj Ja(?«r dmadan, to come out. 

p i^^j I JO 5fl<7ar raftan, to go out. 

p ^jJo badraka, guide, escort (through a 
trackless desert). 

p ^J^jJo badar kardan, to expel, banish ; to 
dispense, distribute. 

^ J^JV '^ bad-rozgdr, unfortunate ; wicked. 

p iJliJuj JO bad-zindagdni, bad-lived. 

p L::--y-jJ»J bad asf, is bad. 

p ^'^j)\ c:--i-jJo ba dast dvardan, to get pos- 
session, procure, secure, gain; to look out for. 

p *i~>Jo ba dastam, into my hand. 

p jJuL) Jo bad-sigdl, ill-surmiser, evil-thinker. 

p (♦^^ JO bad-farjdm, ending bad; malignant. 

p ^f ili JO bad-kdrl, evil-doing. 

Vjb^Jj bad-gauhar, of bad quality, coarse. 

p ^<f Si bad-gu or go (pi. ^byju' bad-guydn) 
evil speaker. 


( 16 ) 


V j^ ^ had-guhar, bad by nature, really bad. 

P jY* '^ lad-mihr, unkind. 

r i^jY* 'V ind-mihri, unkindness. 

A j^Jj badan, body. 

p jjj ladu, to him, to her, to it. 

p SSi hi dih, give thou pay (rt. jo<^^>^ dddan). 

p t/uJJ Jrtfffz, badness, vice, evil, harm, misery. 
JBade, a bad man. 

A 5_jJo badli:,, wonderful, rare, marvellous, 
strange, foreign ; prompt; original, ap f-'A^ 
1^1^,5^ hadlii jaJidn, wonder of the world. 

p ^;J iXJ ladin (for ^ji\ ij ha In), to this, in 
this, with this (or these). 

p ^^JJ^ hadlnhd, in these things. 

A. jSJ hazr, seed. 

A J id hazl, gift, liberality, munificence, be- 
stowment, distribution, profusion. 

p <!j jj hazla(j^\. ^JjkJ hazlahd), joke, witticism. 

p J J«r, on, upon; up, above, over; by; ac- 
cording to ; at, against. 

Tj) har, breast, bosom, chest ; embrace ; fruit. 

i^J^ J jj dar har Icardan, to clothe, invest. 
A J harr, dry land, continent, 
p jUj har-d-lar (breast to breast), equal, 

parallel, on a level, on a par, opposite, over 

against. jIj jJ dar hardhar, over against. 
p ji^\ji hirddir (pi. iv)|j'^^ hirddardn), brother. 
p ^Sju|»>-jJ^j hirddir -lihicdndagi, profession 

of brotherly affection, calling one brother. 

V ^\^\ ji har dmadan, to come up, ascend, 
arise ; to emerge ; to get on, succeed, prosper ; 
to cope with successfully ; to elapse. 

p izJ^\y^\ ji har dmeJJita, mixed up. 

p 1^1 J har an, on that, upon that. ,^Ji-ij ,^1 y, 
har dn shudan, to agree to, will, wish, intend. 

p |^:i-\jJ^ J bar anduMdan, to throw down, 

throw away, fling about ; to defeat. 

p j^xsaCi^ J bar angeMian, to raise, stir up, 

V mJ\ y har dnam, I obey. 
Pj^i^ijt^ bar dvardan, to bring up, raise; to 

^^ji^X^\ J har dmeMtan, to mix, mingle. 

tear up or out ; to fetch (a breath), heave (a 
sigh) ; to complete, accomplish, perform, 
fulfil ; to close up, fill, repair. 

p ^^•'1^ hirdyi, for, because, for the sake. 

p Jol J bar dyad, may or can come out (rt. 

^X'*\ ji har dmadan). 
'pyji har bar, on the breast, 
p ^:ujuJ J bar bastan, to pack up ; to close, shut, 
p dc^ y har hasta, firm, fixed, 
p kjj barbut, harp or lute, 
p t_f]r-j ^y harhut-sardi, harper, lutanist. 
p l» J bar pd, raised, erect, ^^x^l J b^ harpd 

ddshtan, to raise, establish, maintain, 
p CLij) harat (for yj bar tu), on thee, 
p ^yji^i ji har tdftan, to twist, wring off; to 

turn away, avert, 
p J^ bartar, higher, 
p t^ii-vuJ" J har tust, is on thee. 
A ^ J burj, bastion, tower, barbacan. 
p Irs-v har jd, on the ground, prostrate; quiet, 

tranquil, steady, 
p ,-jouu:»- J har jastan, to start up, jump, 
p Jl^ J harjahad, leaps up. 
A ic'^'A hurj'e, a certain tower, 
p |^Jk--5- J bar chldan, to gather up , to remove. 
PA (j-»~y bar haklc, true, just, 
p ^ J harJch, part, portion, 
p c::-^«;l>- J har Mast, a rising up. 
p ^^.yjls- J bar Mdstan, to rise, rise up, arise ; 

to break up, cease, end. 
p ^Jj]^^^^ bar kJiwdndan, to recite, repeat, 
p i5=>-V barkJie, a little, bit, one part, portion, 
p :-^ J bar Mez, rise, get up (rt. ^Ji^\^ j> 

bar khdstan). 
A uV bard, cold, chill, 
p t>J btird, he carried away, he led. 

A t)J burd, striped stuff. ijX*^_ tV hurdi yamdnl, 
striped stuff of Yaman (Arabia Felix). 

p ^::-il J J har ddshtan, to pick up, take up, to 
raise, hold up, lift, take off, remove, carry 
off; to sustain, bear. 

p L^^,j<^y, har daridan, to split open, rip up, 
cleave asunder. 

( 17 ) 


p ^iiiji burdan, to bear, carry; to conduct, lead ; 
to bear away, remove, take away ; to carry 
off, win ; to support, suffer, endure ; to 
prefer, lodge (a complaint) ; to throw away, 
lose, lower (one's character or dignity). 

p Hi^j hurda, borne, borne away, carried off. 

p ^^jji bar raftan, to go up, to climb. 

p -jy bar sar, on or at the head, end, or point. 

^j^j^j bar sai-ash, at his or its head, j^y^ 

*jl^j bar sar nihuda, placed on the head, 
coifed, capped. 

r *-j^< ba rasam, I should arrive. 

p I— ^ ic^f, snow. 

p c_j| uJyJ barf-db, snow-water, iced water. 

p i-:^>i^ baraft, he (she or it) departed. 

p ^jisi^tjS j> bar ficrukhtan (or fiiroMitan), to 

kindle, light up. 
p (^(Jjji J bar fuzudan, to increase. 
p ^jJLU^ ba/r fishandan, to press, squeeze; 

to rap, tap ; to snap (the fingers). 
A ^ji bark, lightning. 

p i.j\jiji bar kardr, in (one's) usual habit, or 

normal condition ; firm, fixed. 
A culi^' barakut (pi. of i^J barakat), blessings. 

A d^ji birkat, bason of a fountain. Barakat, 

p ^>yJlSji bar kushdddn, to open ; to remove, 

p ^jJjAi^jj bar kushudan, to open, unloose. 

p yj \ JiS ji bar kashidan, to extract, draw, 

p ^,^ji bar kandan, to tear up, eradicate, 
uproot; to strip off. 

p s>^ji bar kanda, plucked out, picked off. 

p ^^Jci J bar kande, he would uproot. 

p (JyJ baraki, a species of high-crowned cap 

made of felt, 
p <^J}j iarg, leaf ; provisions for the way. 
p ^ji^ "^A ^^^ guzashtan, to walk over ; to 

pass beyond ; to extend. 
p |jJdt3^J bar gardldan, to turn away from. 

p ^j^j^ji bar giriftan, to take up or off, pick 

up ; to raise, to derive ; to remove, take 
away, carry off, clear; to attain. 

p ^^Juli J bar giizldan, to choose, select. 
Pj^JlJ1u»S^ bar gusildnldan, to snatch, wrench, 



SAmS ji bar gusihdan, to snap, tear up. 

p (^Ai J bar gashtan, to turn, retreat, retire. 

p izJH^ ji ba/r gashta, upset, overturned, in- 
verted, turned upside down. 

Pj^yi-iUo J bar gumushtan, to depute, appoint. 

p /¥J baram, I might (or would) bear (or bring) 
(rt. (ji^ burdan). 

p U^ bar md, on us. 

p Ju I j<* rJ bar ml dyad, (it) comes out, it rises. 

p ^ji birinj, rice. 

p ~^^y, birinje, one grain of rice. 

p i^j^rl bar nagdrad, beareth not (rt. jji^j ^ r^ )• 

p aiLJ J bar nay dram, I will not bring out. 

p (^(Jc^LJ J bar naydmadan, not to happen, to 
fail (rt. (^J*^ I j) bar dmadan). 

FtJ baru {foTj\j bar u), on him, her, or it. 
JBi rav, go (rt. ,j^j raftan). 

p jj. J baru bar, upon him. 

p Cl^»;J burnt, whiskers, mustachios. 

p Ji-i^^ barumand, fruit-bearing, fruitful, 

P ^o birun, without, out, outside, forth. 

p cJj^ bar vat, on him, at him. 

p SJ bara or barra, lamb. 

A j^^J hirhdn, demonstration, conclusive proof, 
strong argument, conviction; clear judgment. 

p j^Jj *J^^ barham zadan, to strike together, 
slam, close hastily, (jjj |»-&j c:..^.«iJ dast 
barham zadan, to wring the hands. 

p ^S^ji barahnagl, nakedness, nudity. 

p i^^ji barah7ia, bare, naked, stripped ; void. 

A i_5;J barii-, clear, quit, free, innocent ; care- 
less, p ^^yi..!^ J ^ji bari ddshtan, to exempt. 

P ^.j> birydn, fried, broiled, parched. \J^.A 
^J:^\^ birydn sdkhtan (or ^Ji^ kardan), to 
fry, broil, grill, roast. 

p i^<^iy. burldan, to cut, cut off, amputate, 
separate the part ; to prune. 


( 18 ) 


p ^"-V. r? burridan, to cut ; to prune. 
p *tX>;J hurlda, cut ; cut off, chopped off, am- 
p ^j harm (for ^j^}j> iar In), on this. 
A jh^ bazzdz, draper, mercer, clothier. 

p jY^jjj luzurj-mihr, name of the prime 
minister of Nushiravan, king of Persia. 
'J huzurg, great, venerable, grand ; grown 

up, arrived at years of discretion. 

p f^jji huzurgdn (pi. of c^-ftJj huzurg), ances- 
tors ; great men, superiors, grandees. 

vjii^jji huzurgtar, greater, grander. 

p i)J\j ^^jji huztirg-zdda, high-born. 

V j\Sj\i huzurgwdr, great. 

p LJj^^jy. huzurgwdrl, greatness, excellence. 
Buzurgwdre, a great man. 

p ^.JL"^^ *— 67? huzurg-himmat; high-minded. 

p J\^:.^->Mb ^^j\\ himirg-himmattar, higher- 
minded, more magnanimous or high-spirited. 

p ^jj\ huzurgi, greatness; adultness, maturity, 

riper years, superiority in years. Buzurge, 
a certain great man. 

p (Jjj la zanl, thou shouldest strike (rt. ^j^S). 

p nyi haza, sin, crime, guilt. 

p ^juJ has, many ; enough ; enough ! sufficient ! 

hold ! no more ! ^^j'^S {j^^ bas kardan, to 
stop, leave off, give over. 

p \-u*j hasd, many a, many a one, 

A LLuJ hasdt, wide plain, extensive surface. 
Bisdt, bed, carpet, rug, anything spread. 

p ^^JcomJ histdn or hisitdn, take thou (rt. (^jjli-j 

sitdndan). Bustdn, garden, 
p j^ histar, bed, cushion, pillow. 
p (^^i*i*J hastan, to shut, close; to bind, tie, gird 

on, attach, fix ; to form, frame, jj^i*^ J*^' 
naid hastan, to fix a shoe, 

p Jl'c><,m> ha sitand, they take or accept. 

p iz^Ji hasta, tied, bound, girt ; shut, closed, 
fastened; stopped, hitched; locked; sct,fi-xed, 
formed; fettered, shackled. 

p jjiX^I -uyj ha sar dmadan, to come to an end ; 

to arrive at perfection, to excel. ^xLj^ 
ha sar shudan, to come to an end. 

p ^^j^\ r**J ha sar dvardan, to bring to an end. 

p ^iijijMjJ ha sar hurdan, to carry to an end, 

to finish; to agree, harmonize, 
p i^>xLjMjj ha sar shudan, to be finished. 
A ixuxJ hasata, he spread, he diffused widely. 
A *-u*j hism (for a-jIj hi ismi), in the name of. 
p i_5jAuJ ha suyi, in the direction of, towards, 
p ie*«J hase, much, many ; sufficient ; many a 

one ; many a day, often ; a long while. 

dJ\AJ ^e'^- hase na mdnad, much remains 

not, it wants but little. 

PjL**j hisydr, much, many, numerous; great, 
often, ofttimes. 

p i_,%«x>- '^***: hisgdr-Masp, very sleepy, som- 
nolent, drowsy. 

Pj^4:^ jLa»*j hisydr-Tihwdr, groat eater, glutton, 

p ^j\^j^_ hisydri, abundance, large quantity, 

A I2--U*-) haslt, wide spread, extended, level sur- 
face, superficial ; simple. 

A *--wJ haslm, affable, smiling. 

A 'ij\jLi hashdrat or hishurat, good news, joyful 

A JLj hashar, man, mankind, mortals. 

A ^yij hasharat, skin, surface-skin, outer cuti- 
cle, epidermis; outside. 

A <ijjAj hasharlyaf, human nature, humanity, 
p yJLi hishnav, hear, hearken, listen (rt.^^ Jy»-1 ). 
p i^y^ ha shuwi, thou mayest wash, 
p J^J^-i^ ha shuyad, washes (rt. ^^^p-uJi shustan). 
A Jl^ hi sdlih, as virtuous. 

A i ^ Basrat, city of Basrah in the Persian 
Gulf, usually written Bussorah. 

A ii^Lij hizdtat, capital or stock in trade, mer- 
chandize, goods ; a share in a mercantile 
_adventure or commercial enterprize. 

A Lj halt, a duck. 

A -&ILj hi tdhirin (equivalent to^Us tdhirun), 
clean, pure. 

A Jlki hattdl, idle, vain, false. 

A aiSliaJ hatdlat, vanity, idleness, trifling talk, 

A ij^_ hatsh, power, authority, severity. 
A ijloj lain, belly. 



( 19 ) 

A (Jaj batis-, slow, tard)', sluggish. 

A L^-wJaj hi tlhihd, on account of their sweetness. 

A Joo ha^ (also V j\ Sxj ba-^d az), after. 

A Jkju iMc.<?, distance. ^^j-jjA^l j^xj bu^u 'I 

mashrikain, distance of the tropics. 
vyLZJjxi ha ijAzzattar, in higher estimation, 

more precious. 
A p i5*^' ba^e, some, certain ; a part, a portion. 

A Jjo J«c./, lord, master ; husband. 

A '.*■ >;■ *; bacalbahh, Baalbec in Syria. 

A ^^_ buaun, by the aid of. 

A s^ baud, distant, remote, far. 

A J\jJu Bagdad, Baghdad, a city on the Tigris. 

p Jjo ha gh l. arm-pit. 

A \Ju ba gh au. they would be insolent, they 

had rebelled (rt. ^Jc hagha'). 

A ^Jc haghy, rebellion. 

A j-yo hi ffhair, without, except. 

A 'lib Ja^at, duration, permanence, continuance, 

A Juj bakkdl, green-grocer ; grain-merchant ; 

AP^JUb bakdte, a duration, a permanence. 

A dxh bukt^at, region, dwelling-place, house, 

edifice; monastery. 
A <uJij bakiyat, remainder, residue, rest. 
A p i^-^, bakli/ate, some remains, a remnant. 

p ijX*l j\>J bakur amadan, to be of use, ser- 
viceable or useful, to serve a purpose; to avail. 
A ^jivi^j Buktush, name of a certain athlete. 
A Xj Bakr, a man's name. 
p \J^, ha kash, draw thou. Bu kush, kill, slay, 
p citlio bukshui, open thou (rt. ^JjAi). 
A jS-J bukm (pi. of jS^_\ abkam), dumb. 
A <uL»^ bikamuUhi, by his perfection, 
p^' Jk>o bu guzur, allow, give leave, suffer, permit, 
p ^zJSj bu guftu, he (or she) said, 
pyj hagu{bago, hugu or bugo), say thou, speak, 
p i>jyo ba or J(< guyad, says (rt. ^^usS guftan). 
p J^-L ifl ^ira^?, seizes or will seize (rt. ^li^). 
A jj..' bal, but, nay. 

A '^ haldt., calamity, trouble, evil, misfortune, 
affliction; scourge. 

A jL hildd (pi. of i jJj haldat), cities, countries, 
provinces ; an inhabited country. 

A iL haldgh, arrival ; conveyance, /^s. t« 

41J1 11 J ^-^^ '"'^ t^^^ '^ fd'^^^i '^^" '^ hald gh , 
the prophet has only to deliver his message. 

A isih bald gh at f eloquence ; puberty, adultness. 

A (_Ji^ baldiO, a calamity, trial or affliction. 

p JJj bulbul (pi. (^LL hiilhuldn) nightingale. 

p LL bulhuld, nightingale ! 

p -f. jBa7M, a city of Khurasan (ancient Bactria). 

p (^.s: . balkhl, native of Balkh. 

A jJa balad, country, s^ haladahu, his country. 

i.^^ hulddn (pi. of if»>Jj haldat), cities, towns. 

A ijjj haldat, city, town. 

A p Jci-J JJJ 5« lizzattar, with greater delicious- 
ness, more delicate or luxurious. 

A jJj bala gh a, he attained or reached. 

A jJj hall igh , cause to arrive; convey, com- 
municate (imp. of ^L hallagha, 2nd form 

p iiJJj Ja?^j, but, moreover; nay. 

p JjJj baland (or buland), high, lofty, tall, ex- 

p j\j| jaJj haland-dwdz, loud-voiced. 

p ^Ij S:^J baland-hdld, tall of stature, high. 

Pi^Jijv j»Jj baland-hdng, loud-sounding, noisy. 

p t_5'JuJj bulandl, height, elevation. 

AP j^ hallur (or hillaur), crystal. 

P|^t-;j Jj hillaunn {ovhallurln), made of crystal. 

A C^ bulu gh . adultness, puberty; maturity. 
p jJj Ja/e, yes, true, certainly, indeed ; well, 

i'ight ; but. 
A <lJj haliyat, misfortune, sore trial ; infliction. 
A '.::---Ij hulUu, I am tried or afflicted (passive). 
A ^Jj haligh, great, vast ; full, perfect ; cogent, 

forcible ; eloquent. 
A L*j hi md, with whatever ; according to what, 
p jJUj ia mdnad, (he) will remain, 
p A J^' ha malhal, for example. 


( 20 ) 



A ^^/♦y.j^ hi mistna^, in mine ear. 
A ^^ imfl», with whom? to whom? Pc: 

ba manast, is to me. 
r -»^ 5fl^ W2ir, die (rt. ^j^>r^ murdan). 

ha nilrand, they should die. 

A ^jJ Jm (for ^1 «S», when placed between two 
proper names), son. 

p ^ hun, bottom, root, end, ^_ j --* sar tc hun, 

head and tail, beginning and end. 
A Uj hind, with us. 
A ^bj hinds-, building, edifice, fabric, structure. 

A jliJ hind bar (built upon), because, on account 
of, by reason of. 

p djLj hanut (pi. of l::-.^ i«w^), daughters. 

lI-jLJ ij:-;l:j handti nahdt, daughters of grass, 
i.e. tender herbage. 

p , JiiSLj bimd gosh, cavity of the ear, lower 

part of the ear. 
p /♦Lj ha nam, in the name. 
A jjbo handn, finger, tips of fingers. 

p i>:j hand, bond, confinement, captivity, impri- 
sonment, durance ; gyves, shackles, fetters ; 
trap, snare ; trick, artifice, sleight of hand, 
manoeuvre in wi'estlirg; imagination, idea, 
thought, scheme, hope, expectation ; (imp. of 

i^y->**i hastan), fix thou, attach. C^-jJ S^ 

handi dast, handcufi's, manacles. j^J«.^i Sui 

hand far mudan, to order into confinement, to 
send to jail, to imprison. 

p ^ISJuJ handagdn (pi. of i J>ij banda), servants, 

p (<Ji^^J bandagl, service, servitude, slavery. 
p f^i^ handan, to bind, 
p s^ handa (pi. ^jISjcj handagdn), servant, 

slave ; your humble servant, your slave. 
Pj^bjjj bandiydn{^\.oi i_s^ 5««(7!), prisoners. 
p ijj hi nih, place thou, lay (rt. ^^^^J nihddan). 
A /~JJ hunaiga' , darling child (dim. of^:o hanag 

for ^jj\ ibn, son). 
p oLiJ hunydd, foundation. 
A aJI ^ij hanl ddain (sons of Adam), men. 
A *£ ^i hanl utmrn, nephews, 
py hu, smell, perfume, scent, odour, aroma. 
Ay hu (for yi abu), father, parent, or author. 

L— ->.s*\ ^ hu^l ^Jah (father of admiration), 
a wonderful thing. 

A 'i--j\^ hawwdh (p pi. ^}^_ hawwdhdn) door- 
keeper, porter, warder. 

AP ^^cs-ly ha tvdjihl, suitable, merited. 

p (Jy biivad, may be, shall be, should be. 

p j^i^y hudan, to be. 

p lJ^^. hude, he habitually was, he used to be ; 
there would be. 

p bj»j huriyd, mat, coarse matting. 

p I 'i\A)jy> huriyd-hdf, weaver of mats, mat- 

p jo^y bostdn (place of perfume), flower- 
garden ; garden in general. 

p <U;»j husa, kiss, ij^''^ '^^. husa dddan, to 
give a kiss, to kiss. 

p (J j».wJ»J husldan, to kiss ; to rot. 

p j^»^ y hu kalamun, of various hues (as shot 
silk or the like) ; the chameleon ; changeable, 
capricious, inconstant, variable. 

A *»j bum, owl. 

p |*»j hum, country, region, land, ground. 

p i_>y ha vai, to him. 

p ^_^»j hu (or ho), odour, scent. Ji ^^i hu^i 

gul, perfume of roses, 
p ^iXJ»^ huiidan, to scent, diffuse perfume ; to 


p ^.i ba or hi, to, for ; in ; with ; of (sometimes 

p dj bih, quince ; good, excellent ; better, best ; 
preferable; well, cured, healed. 

A <)J hihi, by, with, concerning, or about (him 
or it). 

p ^j bahd, price, value. 

Pjl^j hahur (pi. ^^^j^J hahdrdn), spring. 

p l5;^ bahdri, vernal. 

¥ \\ ij hi az, better than. 

p aj^j hahdna, pretext, excuse, shift, subter- 

p »:>- <Sjl^^ hahdna-j'u (or LSy>- <^V ^^^^^^' 
jug), seeker of pretexts, shifty, shuffling. 

A J^J hahds-im (pi. of <U*.^ hahlmat), beasts, 

Tj^j bihtar, better. 



( 21 ) 

r i^J^, hihtare, a better person. 

A <)LsrW hahjat, beauty ; gladness. 

p aUy^ Bahram, name of several Persian kings. 

p i»r Aj^^ Bahram Gor, sixth of that name, 
a king of Persia, of the dynasty of the Sas- 
sanides, surnamed "Gor" from his fondness 
for chasing the wild ass. 

p >^jS (*\ -^-J bahram gore, a Bahram gore. 

p c^A*«.^j hi hast, is better. 

p c:.^.*..^ la hasht, in eight. Bihisht, paradise. 

\JL^11^ Jjsl ahli bihisht, the blessed, 
p jJiA^ bihishti, of paradise, paradisaical, 

celestial, heavenly. 
p .1 ^^^>*>^_ bihishtl-ru, heavenly -faced. 

p *>^ Ja^rtOT, together. jj*V«l jJ (*^^ hahambar 
dmadan, to be displeased, disgusted, enraged ; 
to be distressed, discomposed ; to rise in op- 
position or rebellion. [j'^jA f^. baham bar 
zadan, to convulse. ^Ji^j j^^j baham bar 

kardan, to distress, displease, pain ; to upset, 

p xjyJlS *^j baham kashlda, drawn together ; 

knitted, frowning (brow). 
p X"^^ bahamand, are together. 
p ^^ hihl, quince-like. J,S ^^^ bihl-gard, 

quince-like dust, rough down on the face, 
p ^^J^, hihln, best. 

■p . ^ hi, without (prefixed to many words). 
A ^ hi, with me, unto me. 
p Lj hiyd, come thou (rt. ^J^l dmadan). 


p j^V^ biydbdn, desert, wilderness. 

jjyg Jj biydbani kuds, the desert of Jerusalem. 

p ^^^-jlJ (_^Ij^ biydhdn-nishln, sitter in the 

desert, scenite. 
p v>jLj hi ydbad, may obtain {it. ^^[i yd/tan) . 
p ^iji^ ^j> hi abruil, dishonourable act. 
p (Jj>-^ ^J hi aj'al, not reached the fatal hour. 
PjLiri-^ ^g) hi ikhtiydr, without the will, 

without choice or self-control, unconscious. 
p L-Jj\ jj hi adah (pi. ^^S\ ^ hi adabdn), 

ill-mannered, uupolite, rude, imcourteous. 
PjLj hiydr, bring thou (rt. ;j<^jl dvardan). 
p Ju.^|^.Lj hiydrdmld, ceased (rt. (jJw*Ul ). 

p JkJ^jl-J biydrdyad, should adorn (rt. ^ji^\j\). 

^ J^j 1 (fiJ hi dzdr, without pain or trouble, in- 
noxious, harmless. yM\ ^<^ bidzdrtar,moTe 
harmless, more innoxious. '" 

p J.ULj biyd%drad, torments, vexes, harasses 
(rt. i^^jj\ dzdr dan). 

p io'^\iW^ biydzdrdan, to afflict (rt. j_^J;'jl). 

p *j iljLj biydzdriyam, thou grievest me. 

p ^[^jLj biyuzmdi, prove, try (rt. ^^i^y\\). 

p,JLjLj 5j>/asaiz, thou wouldest rest (rt.^J^l ) 

A ^Lj haydz, note-book, blank book, common- 
place book ; fair copy, thing written out fair. 

p A jLxcl ^} hi i<dihdr, without estimation or 

consideration, disesteemed. 

p jj^Lj biydldyad, taints (rt. ^'^y\ dludan). 

Y \y%'^ biydmoz, learn thou (rt. ,^y.:>-yt\). 

A j^l-J haydn, explanation, disclosure, exposi- 
sition, illustration. 

V ii\\iX)\ ^ hi anddza, without measure. 

p uJLajl ^ hi insdf, without equity, unjust, 
p ^Liil J hi insdf I, injustice; partiality. 
Fji^bl bar, without fruit, unfruitful, 
p i.^Sj ^ hi barg, leafless, 
p A -it' |<j hi hasar, without sight ; senseless, 
p Hj^^^ ^ hi hahra, without a portion, destitute, 

unfurnished; unprofitable, vain. 
A c:i-^ bait, distich, couplet, verse ; house. 

JUll '-^i-^ baitu 'I mdl, chamber of finance, 

paLiUc^^ bl tahdshd, without ceremony, 

unceremoniously . 
PA -JJJ (gj bl tadblr, without deliberation; 

A p j»:uJ haitam (for ^ <-^.t^ baiti man), my 

paJ-^' ^ bl tamlz, void of discernment, stupid, 

duUard (not so correct as the next). 
p A U--4J' ^J hi tamylz, undiscerning, undiscri- 

p dji J ^ bl tosha, without provisions, pro- 

visionless, unprovided. 

I p A (J^yj j«J hi tauflk, graceless. 


( 22 ) 


A \j^ laithd (p pi. of A u:-^ lait) verses. 
^ , gi-j laite, a verse. 

p j_^l:snj ly'an, lifeless. i^j'^S ^j'^^ Mjd?i kar- 
dan, to deprive of life. 

PA ^J^'♦«^ 15J i^ jamdli, want of beauty, un- 
comeliness, plainness. 

PA (-r>^^ ^. lijawab, unanswerable, irrefu- 
table ; without reply, having no answer. 

p ^^Ls^ hlcharagi, helplessness. 

F ijlsnj llchara (pi. ^li^lsnj huharagdn), 
without resource or remedy; helpless, re- 
mediless; in despair. 

p w;*snj hi chun, without equal, peerless ; God. 

p A fJ^\ssXi bi hdsil, unprofitable. 

p A Jk>. jj ll hadd, unlimited, beyond bounds or 

just limits. 
PAu::,-v*^ ^ Mhurmaf, disrespectful, uncivil, 

unceremonious, irreverent. 
p ,A^j=>- (c? ^^ hurmatl, rudeness, incivility, 

discourtesy, disrespect, absence of ceremony. 


Lu«w Ji hi hisdh, incalculable, countless. 

^ hi hamlyat, spiritless, 
p ^j hlldi, root, (j;*^ f\^. ^^M Cardan, to 

take root, 
p A -»^ hi JJiahar (p pi. ^\j.J^ hi Jdiahardn), 

without information, unaware, unconscious ; 

uninformed, ignorant, unmindful. ^c,-»iaj 

hi TJiaharl, thou art ignorant. ^\j^J^^ hi 

Tdmhardnand, they are ignorant. 
p^L:k\j hi-Miwdhl^ sleeplessness, loss of sleep, 

want of sleep. 

p (jyi- jj hi Tdiwud, beside one's self. 

p i^-j hed, willow. clXi^ S^ hedi mushlc, 

PjIjuJ hiddr, awake; sober. 

p ^jl jt-j hlddrl, state of being awake, waking, 

wakefulness, vigilance, want of sleep, absence 
of sleep, forbearance from sleep. 

p ^jiJ^JwJ hi ddntsh, ignorant; ignorance, 
p i^Ailjwj hi ddnishl, foolish act, folly, indis- 

unstinted, liberal. 

p j-J^J (fiJ hi diregli, unsparing, ungrudging. 

p ci-'w-jJ |J hi dast, handless. 
p jjk-j haidah, pawn at chess, 
p J J |J hi dil, without heart, out of heart; 

ignorant, silly, 
p ijjJ ^ hi din, irreligious, infidel, 
p ^^,'^ igJ hi dine, an infidel ; a miscreant, 
p le'*-^ (<J hi rasnil, irregularity, bad prece- 

"dent. ' 
paLs^ ^ hi rizd, without satisfaction, 
p i^jfj i«J hlro%l, unaided by fortune, without 

luck, luckless, hapless, unlucky, 
p i^jr^ hlrun, out, outside, without, abroad, 

p jj ^ iz zar, without gold, moneyless. 

A jji**JU his-sa, fie ! out upon ! 

p c^-vuwJ hist, twenty. 

p li , ,-j J Ji sar u pd, without head or foot, 
poor, destitute of everything, wretched. 

p (^Ij J )-= ^J il sar updtl, wretchedness, com- 
plete destitution. 

p (ji-J hesh, greater, exceeding, more ; any 

p yxA-J heshtar, more, more abundantly ; for 
the most part ; more intent. 

s^^jJ^i gj hi sharml, shamelessness, impudence. 

Pji) ^^) hesh-zor, of great strength, very 

PAuXia ifij hi shalclc, without doubt, doubtless. 

hi shumdr, innumerable, incalculable, 

p<LJuu».> hlsha, desert, wild, uncultivated country; 

forest, wood. ^^^^ hlshas-e, a forest. 

A i^-J hatzat, egg. 

AjUa-j haitdr, horse-doctor. 

p A ui-Ajlla Ji hi tuhat, without strength, weak. 

p j;J;lla..J hi tdhatl, weakness, inability, want 

of power to support, incapacity of endurance, 

p %-^ ^^ hi tam^, without longing or hanker- 
ing, undesirous. 
A «_-j hai^, selling, buying, commerce. 

p A ijl*:^ hi ^zzatl, dishonour. 



( 23 ) 


p *i ^ Jz gham, unconcerned, without sorrow. 
-^ gi hi ghaml, (thou) art unconcerned. 

p ^Joli -J hi fdiida, useless, ineffectual, un- 
availing, fruitless, unprofitable. 

p t>lii-j hiyuftud, he fell (rt. ^jjl::i\). 

p Jcii-J hiyuftad, he falls (rt. j^^jl^ii^ uftudan). 

TA.jSs ^ hi Icadr, without power or value, 

p A j^ jj hi kardr, restless, fidgetty. 

PA(jygLiL-j hi ^t'yas, without measure or number; 

incalculable ; immense, imcompreheusible, 
inconceivable ; untold. 

p jLjLj ha yalchdr, all at once. 

p jjiii i^j hi kafsh, shoeless, discalceated. 

r^^-lii |j hi kafshl, lack of shoes, shoelessness. 

p ^Ix-J ^2yaW«(pl.uUoU-»J Jlyawfl^aw), foreign, 

strange, alien. 
p ilx-j hi gdh, out of season. 

p ^J]/^ hi giran, inestimable, great, large, 

immense, excessive. 
p i^UX-j hi giimdn, without doubt, assuredly. 
p ilix^j hi gundh, guiltless, innocent, 
p ^J6ux-j hi gundhe, an innocent person. 
p (J-J hll, shovel, spade ; pickaxe. 

p (_^Uil-J Bailkd7i, name of a city in Armenia 
Major, near the ports of the Caspian Sea. 

p *-j him, dread, fear ; danger. 

Pjl*-J hlmdr, sick. 

PA uls^i^ hi michdhn, without respect, un- 

vki.ZJ»ij^ ^ hi muruwat, unfeeling, unkind, 

pjx^ ^ hi maghz, without kernel, marrow less. 

p ^ hain, desert. Baina, between, betwixt. 

p |M-j hln, behold (imp. of j^>X;ti dldan). 

p u-j hind, seeing, possessed of vision. 

p JC-o hlnad, sees, seeth (rt. ^>X>0 dldan). 

p u:-x=i-lAi-j hiyanddMt, he overthrew, he 
upset (rt. ^j:;^ljjl anddkhtan). 

p fjSjjX^ htyandesh, reflect, consider (rt. 

p jji^ hlnash, behold (of) him (her or it.) 
Bltiish, sight, vision. 

r (O^ i<i i^ nishdn, without sign, mark, or 
trace ; " inscrutable. 

PA -4=^ jj hl-nazir, matchless, unequalled, peer- 
less, unmatched. 

A tl>i^ haiiiaka, betwixt thee, between thee. 

p V...O hlnam, I see (rt, j^Jo^ dldan). 

p jUJ ^ hi namdz, prayerless. 

P 1-5)^ 15^ ^^ namdze, a prayerless fellow. 

pL:.-j hi wa2i'a,withoutfoodorvictuals,indigent. 

p ^J)y ^ hi nawus-l, indigence, indigency, 
want of food, fasting, destitution. 

A -:.-o hainl, between me, betwixt me. 

p ^XjJ hml, the nose ; thou shalt or mayest 
see ; thou seest (rt. j^JOt^ dldan). |cr^ ^^ 
naml hlnl, thou seest not ; seest thou not ? 

A ^ij«J s/'^. cJ^. ^*'^* yadai ha-^ihd, in the 

presence of her lord. 
A <0 Ju (j-j hain yadaihi, in his presence, 
p *-^ hlmyam, thou seest me. 

p A (J^^ hi wafdil, want of payment, failure 

in performance ; faithlessness, ingratitude, 
p A c:-^j ^eJ hi wakt, unseasonable, 
p i^ hlva, widow, 
p ^\ iy*i hlva-zan, widow woman, 
p J.J^ 1^ hi hunar (pi. t^j^ ^_ hi hunardn), 

stupid, unintelligent, unskilful, inapt; devoid 
of merit, worthless ; graceless, ungodly. 

p j*Usij& |j hi hangdm, unseasonable. 

p S-i^^^ hlhuda (or *J^^ hlhuda), absurd, vain, 
nonsensical, senseless, useless. 

p \j pd, foot, leg ; base, foundation ; power, 
ability, strength. 

p /^^ j\j pdddsh, retribution, requital, retalia- 
tion, reprisal. 

p ilijb pddshdh (pi. j^biLijij pddshdhun), 
king, monarch, emperor. 

p sJ\j iLijlj pddshdh-zdda, king's son, prince. 

p ^Jbliiob pddshdhl, condition of a king, 


( 24 ) 


royalty, kingly rank, dignity or office. 
^<^f jeiiLijjb pudshuhl Jcardan, to act the 
king ; to reign, rule, govern, 
p JfcLijlj pddshdhe, a certain king. 

p il> par, over, across. 

p ijjjj^ Pars, Persia. 

p LoiU pdrsd (pi. j^uL^lj pdrsdt/dti), abste- 
mious, pure, holy ; devotee, ascetic. 

p irjU \^j\j pdrsd -zdda, saint's son. 

V ^\^^j\j pdrsds.1, purity; holiness; asceticism. 
Pdrsdie, a certain devotee, a pure, holy man. 

p ^c-J;b Pdrsl, Persian. 

p iXi pdra, torn to pieces, in rags. 

p iij\i ^b pdra pdra, patch upon patch. 

pjjj njo pdra-doz, patcher, botcher. 

p ^jb pdrina, ancient ; elapsed, past. 

p (jwU pds, watch, guard, defence ; regard, 

consideration. .i?l>- ^^li pdsi Widtir, at- 
tention to wishes or wants. 

p jjU-jlj pdsbdn, watchman ; shepherd. 

p i^ls-'b pas yhdtir, attention to wishes ; for 

the sake of, in deference to. 
p gJ\i pdse, one watch, a single watch. 
p ^Jk--ilj pdshldan, to sprinkle, strew, scatter, 
p jj*--ilj pdshida, strewed, scattered. 
p cJb puk, pure, clean, cleansed, bright; free. 

i^i^S CJli pdk Jcardan, to make clean, to 
cleanse, to clear, to free, to winnow. 

p jL^l.) pdJc-hdz, sporting harmlessly; honour- 
able' lover. 

p (O^ t-^b P^^ hurdan, to carry clean off. 

p i^\^ cJl» pdk-ddman, pure-skirted, one 
who keeps his garments clean and pure. 

VjjijJ[) pdk-rav, upright in conduct. 

p ^jisi-^ cJb pdk sokhtan, to consume utterly, 

to burn clean up. 
p fj^Ju cJ[) pdk-nafs, pure-souled. 

p ^j-^l> pdklza, pure, chaste ; cleanly, neat, 
p ^Jjj ^j^^ pdklza-run, clear-faced, 
p (.^S^j^Wj pulhang, bridle, halter, 
p iSJ\j pdnzdah, fifteen. i<2Lj if Jpb pdnzdah- 
sdlagl, the age of fifteen years. 

p fc_?u pai, foot, leg ; foundation ; stand, pedestal ; 
basement, d.-^.^ P^y(^t) thy foot. tj^\> 
pdyash, his (her or its) foot. |»jI> pdyani, 
my foot. j^fc^l:Jl ^\i j\ az pdi uftddan, to 
break down on the road. ^\^ j^ ol> j\ 
az pdi dar dmadan, to slip, trip, tumble, fall. 
t* i_5l' J J dar pdyi nid, in our wake, ^fb 
ij2>-i^J pdi ddslitan, to hold one's footing. 

^J^J> (.^b fdi giriftan, to obtain a footing, 

to take root, 
p (jbb pdydn, end, extremity, close, 
p <X<J ^\i pdi-hand, foot-bound, tied by the leg. 

*j JOJ t_f l) pdi-handem, we are tied by the leg. 
p ^^y^\i pdi-posh, (foot-cover) shoe, 
p ij^y t_fb pdi-posM, covering for the feet. 

Pj^JjI) pdi-ddr, firm, fixed, stable, perma- 
nent, lasting, enduring. 

p iiuju pdi-gdh, dignity, rank ; office, post ; 

p JUjU pdi-mdl, trodden under foot ; ruined ; 

p iJO-^b pdyanda, firm, perpetual, permanent, 

lasting, durable, 
p iOb pdya, rank, grade, dignity ; step, degree, 

point, promotion, 
p ^b pds.e, a leg. 

p /^iXob pdndan, to stand still or firm ; to 

halt, hesitate ; to last, endure, 
p ^j^i^ pukhtan, to cook, boil ; to concoct, 

imagine, entertain an idea, conceit, or notion. 

p &:u^, puTdbta, cooked, boiled ; matured, ripe ; 

rich in experience. 
VjSi pidar, father. '^LJjSi pidarat, thy father. 

p Jj)ji>J padrHd, farewell, adieu. 

p <X>kX) padid, clear, evident, plain, manifest, 

public. io'^*l 'V.'^ padld dmadan, to ap- 
pear, become manifest, 
p J jj pazlr, accept thou. 

p ^:ii^ jj paziruftan, to accept, receive, submit 
to, consent ; to experience, undergo. 

p J par (or J parr), feather, wing. Pur, full, 
filled, crammed, glutted, satisfied ; much. 


( 25 ) 


p sJjS\jJ pardganda, scattered ; disturbed, un- 
quiet, restless, uneasy, distressed; ruined. 

r J J iSi^\j pardganda-dil, heart-wounded, 
confused in mind, bewildered, distracted. 

p tJjv ^'^^A P"'>'S.ganda-rozi, disordered in 
one's circumstances; one whose worldly affairs 
are in confusion. 

p iiji partav, ray, light, beam of sun or moon. 

p iJ^r) partave, a ray, a single or solitary ray. 

F jS»~ J pur-hazar, full of caution, heedful ; 

ware, wary, cautious. 
p ^\s-.j purJchash, battle, war, conflict, strife, 

brawl, quarrel. 
vjas>-j pur-ldiatar, full of peril, dangerous. 
p ci-%:>-1jj parddJM, engagement, business, 

affair, dealing ; attention. 
p ^j:j>'\Jij parddlchtan, to quit, leave, abandon ; 

to execute, finish; to arrange, prepare, set 
in order; to have dealings; to wait upon, to 
mind, attend to, be attentively employed, 
closely and busily engaged, or taken up with. 

p icj>-\jj parddihta, engaged, employed, occu- 
pied ; attentive. 

p t^tJ/ pur-dard, full of pain, painful. 

p « Jj parda, veil, curtain ; musical key orraode; 
or style of music. ^^Is'i £J>jj parda^i alhdn, 
musical scale, gamut. ,J^_ ^^^ pardan Mnl, 
the cartilage that separates the nostrils ; the 
septum of the nose. Jjwl.^ ajj pardas-i 
cushshdk, (melody of lovers), name of a cer- 
tain musical mode. tSJo^ Ll^^AJ& i^j pardas-i 
haft rang, veil of seven colours; worldly 

Pj^J «J^ parda-ddr, chamberlain. 

V Jt^j parastdr (pi. u^^:^>~j/ parastdrdn), 
worshipper; servant, waiter, waiting-maid. 
p ijcz>^j parastanda, adoring; worshipper. 

p juj^ ptir8ad,h.e (or she) should ask or inquire, 
p (j*ujj pursish, question, enquiry ; condolence. 
p jji^ Jk---y pursidamash, I asked him (or her). 

p ^iJk-y-j^ pursldan, to ask, inquire, interrogate, 

p (j^LJ J parniydn, a kind of fine painted 

Chinese silk ; any garment made of the same. 

p \*j parrva, care, concern, anxiety, thought, 

attention, heed, 
p i^j^*y parwdrl, fatted, stall-fed. lJj^^j^ y^ 

guvi parwdri, fatted ox. 
p ^\^ji parwdna, moth. 

Pjl^J^jj J parvardagdr, the Deity (as nourisher 
and supporter of all). 

p i^'^j*ji parvardan, to rear, foster, cherish, 
nourish, bring up, pamper. 

vii^jtj ^«ryar<?a, brought up, nourished, reared, 
fostered, educated ; foster-son. 

p i^jjji parvarish, bringing up, rearing, pa- 
tronage, support, sustentation, sustenance, 

maintenance. l::--%-1 i«j parvarishat, thy 

p ii^jiji parvarinda, cherisher, bringer up, 

fosterer, nourisher, trainer, 
p \^'^,jyji parvwrldan, to bring up, to train up, 

foster, cherish, nourish, 
p ^.tflj fJ Parwin, the Pleiades, 
p a J parra, side, border, ^^i-j ay parra^i blni, 

the nostrils; the sides or walls of the nostrils. 
p ^jx^Xibj parhekktany to be on one's guard ; 

to abstain, refrain ; to practise moderation, 
temperance and sobriety. 

p J-Jby parhez, abstinent, temperate, chaste, 
continent ; abstinence, continence, controul 

over the passions, sobriety, j^t)^ J*Jby parhez 
kardan, to abstain, refrain. 

PjlT^JV parhezgdr{-^\. ^^j^jn^y parhezgdrdn), 
sober, abstinent, chaste, temperate, abstemi- 
ous, moderate, cautious, careful. 

p ^_Sj€y^ji parhezgdri, chastity, temperance, 
continence, restraint, moderation. 

p ^ji pari, fairy, elf, fay. 

p ^_SJi purl, thou art full, filled, crammed. 

p il-j ^j parl-paikar, fairy-faced; beautiful, 

comely, handsome. 
p ^J^y parldan, to fly, to flutter. 
Vj\mj^j ^jJ pari-rukJisdr, fairy-cheeked. 

p jj ^jj parl-ru (pi. (^V.j>j t-^ P^^''' fO^gdn), 
fairy-faced; handsome, comely. 

p^\jSjJj pareshdn, dispersed, scattered ; discur- 
sive, roving; confounded, confused ; incohe- 


( 26 ) 


rent, desultory, rambling, random, hair- 
brained, harum scarum; afflicted, sad. 

p Jl>. i^JJLiJ pareshdn-hul, distressed, ruined. 

p JUw (^luj J paresMn-hali, a distressed, sad, 
and ruined state; distress, misery, perplexity, 
vexation, trouble. 

T^j^Jjj M^'^r' paresJidn-rozgdr, distressed m 
one's circumstances, ruined, broken, bankrupt- 

p iJ)\j!Ljj paresTiani, distraction, dispersion, 
rout; distress, desolation; insaneness, vagary. 

p ^'^y*'^ pazhnurdan, to fade, wither. 

p ^'^j^y pazhmurda, withered, faded. 

p jj»^ pas, behind, after; then ; therefore, con- 
sequently ; hence, afterwards ; the rear. 

p c:..-<Auj pasty low, short, dwarfish. Pasat, be- 
hind thee, after thee. 

p i::Mjj pista, pistachio -nut. 

p -u*j pisar (pi. (j^ r***J pisardn), son, lad, boy, 

p ^juj^ pisare, a boy, a lad, a son. 

p (^iX^ I JCkAuj pasand dmadan, to be pleasing, 
acceptable, approved, reasonable. 

p j^jc-w pasandan or (^JjuXi.ujj pasandldan, to 
approve, applaud, commend. 

p Jo JOmJ pasandid, he approved ; approved. 

p if Jo iXUuj pasandida, approved, applauded, com- 
mended; acceptable, grateful; warranted. 

vJi}iSiX>jMj pasandldatar, more approved. 

p ^j^ pasich, march, marching ; preparation, 

p |^u;l^ pasiniydn, followers, those who come 
after; the moderns. 

p ^z-JmJ pusht, the back ; support, prop, stay. 
j^olj iJi^Lj pusTit dddan, to turn the back, 
to fly, to flee. u ui-A.> pushti pa, instep. 

p i:JLi pushta, bundle, pack, load ; faggot. 

p jc^iAj pushti, aid, help, succour. 


^_^w-uuw pushtlbdn, supporter; prop, buttress. 
p <»jij pashm, wool. 

p <Ii1j pasha or <1«1j pashsha, gnat. 

p J-jIlj pashlz, any little piece of money, small 

p |^U---i1j pashlmdn, penitent, repentant. 

p ^JU«--iJ pashlmdm, penitence, repentance. 

i^iJ^i^c^ (3l.4-.jlj pashlmdm Jdnvurdan, to 

repent, to grieve, to be sorry, 
p (jw^ palds, coarse woollen cloth, such as is 

worn by dervishes, sackcloth. 
p 1^^ u^L' palds-posh, clad in dervish's 

attire, dressed in the garb of a dervish, 
p ij-iy. tjw^ palds-poshi, a being dressed in the 

garb of a dervish, 
p i^S-Xi palang (pi. j^UoL palangdn), leopard, 
p ijiil i^S^ palang-afgan, leopard-killing, 

overthrower of leopards, 
p iJ^ij palangi, peculiar to, pertaining to a 

leopard ; the nature or ferocity of a leopard, 
p J-Jj palld, filthy, dirty, impure, defiled. 

V Jt^i palittar, dirtier, more nasty, filthier, 
p Aui pandh, protection, defence, shelter. 

p i5.&liJ pandhe, a shelter, a refuge, 
p iLjj pamha {or pumha), cotton, 
p J^ J <Uij pumha-doz, carder of cotton, 
p -^j panj, five. 

p iLsaj panjuh, fifty. 

p M^i panjum, fifth. 

p dj:sXi panja, claw, talon; hand with the fingers 
expanded. ^xS3\ji^ ij:^i panja dar afgandan 
(or i^i^S ijs^.j panja Jcardan), to grapple, 
contend, strive. 

p Jjj pand, advice, warning, admonition, counsel. 

V J\SUi pinddr, conceit; esteem, good opinion; 
suppose, imagine (imp of ^^y^\x^). 

V j^::-ii Joj pmddshtan, to think, consider, sup- 
pose, imagine, fancy; to esteem ; to conceit. 

p (_5-Jcj pande, a bit of advice, hint, suggestion. 

p ^l.^ pinhdn, secret, hidden, concealed, sup- 
pressed. jj^>^ u;^^-' pi^^o,n shudan, to be 

p _»ij panlr, cheese (for which the panther is 
said to have a predilection, or at least to bo 
satisfied with a small piece or morsel thereof. 

p LJry^ panire, a cheese. 

p ti-^jy post (pi. l^A-jjJ posthd), skin, hide, 
rind, coat, peel, shell, slough (of a snake). 


( 27 ) 


c:—-^^ J ''-^-~*=^ ^''*'^ ^'^'* j3(»s<, coat upon 

coat (like an onion). 
p i^ry^^ postin, fur cloak or garment, dress 

made of skins, ^^jj ^j^^yi postin darldan 

(or ^it>'v:ii^ j^j-i~jy ^iJ dar postin uftadan or 

ij^^i raftan), to speak ill of, to tell the faults, 

to slander. 
p ^i^J r;0«jy postln-dozt, business of one who 

makes garments of skins ; trade of a furrier. 
p ^i-i-jy postinl, made of fur, fur-wrought. 

r ^Ju^y poshidan, to cover, hide, conceal, 
mask ; to wear, put on ; to dress, clothe. 

V iS^y poshlda, hidden, concealed; covered, 

clothed, clad. 
p Jiy puldd, steel, 
p jju J^jj puldd-bdzu, steel-armed, i.e. having 

an arm of steel ; brawny, sinewy. 
p ^V,y put/an, running. 
p ^J^y puildan, to run. 
PjL^j pahlu, the side under the short ribs, 
p ^ pai, heel ; footstep, ti'ack, trace ; muscle, 

nerve; after, in pursuit of. ^'^y J^ azpais-i 

ma, at our heels, after us. 
p jLj pai-d-pai, step by step, successively. ■ 

p i^il-J piydda (pi. ^^lijLj piyddagdn), foot- 
passenger, pedestrian ; pawn at chess. 
p jLj piydz, onion. 
p ^Lj paydm, news, message, errand, 
p -iU peek, turn, twist. 

p ^^JlJLstj pechdnidan, to twist ; to turn away, 

p ^ -iU pech pech, twisting and coiling. 

p |^*X-:sX; pechldan, to coil, wind, twist, writhe, 

bend ; avert, turn away ; to roll, to rumble 
(as the bowels). 

p1a-j paidd, produced, created; plain, distinct, 
evident, manifest. 

p^ pir (pi. J^j^^ pirdn), old, aged ; holy man, 
saint ; spiritual guide, prior, abbot. -j 
c:-^_ys plri tarlkat, spiritual guide, superior 
of a religious order or community. 

p ^ju^\j^^ perustan, to adorn, patch up. 

p ij^l .-J ptrdman, and^y«U-j plrdmun, about, 

around, round about, environs, skirt, 
p <OU-j plrdna, like or worthy of an old man. 
p ^^-S>U-J plrdhan, loose vest, tunic, shirt, 
p &-i\jfJ perdya, ornament, decoration, 
p (^ r^' plr-zan, old woman, 
p iSjr^ plr-zane, a certain old woman, 
p i^y% j^ plr-mard, old man. 

^ jtrfJ piroz, victorious; prosperous; favoured 

by fortune and opportunity. 
p ^j ^-»j plra zan, old woman. 
p ^j^ plrahan, shirt, shift, smock ; tunic, 
p ^j^ plri, old age, decrepitude. 
P i^-»J plre, an old man. 
p (_^^-o pesh, before, in front of, in the van ; in 

the presence of, to. Payash, at the heels of 
him or her, after it. 

Pj! {Ju^ pesh dr, take (imp. of ^ J^i^ 1 (ji-J 

pesTi dvardan). 
^c^- '^ U^ P^^^ ""^ ^^> before this, heretofore. 

p lO-^*' lA-^ P^'^^ dmadan, to come before, 

meet ; to occur, to happen 
p kJtL-j peshdnl, forehead, skull. 
p c:^^A-j peshat, before thee, in thy presence, 
p .".1*.^ peshtar, before, foremost, 
r ^!j (^-J pesh raftan, to go a-head ; to succeed, 
p 5^A-j pesh-rav, leader, captain, 
p ^^jxs^fj^ pesh giriftan, to propose to one's- 

self, to adopt, embrace. 

p^»i (^/i-j pesh gir (imp. of ^^^ ^J^ pesh 
giriftan), take, select, pick, choose. 

p A-iJL-j pesha, business, craft, trade, habit. 

V jtiJL^ peshawar, artificer, craftsman. 

p ->. ! >■ ) peshln, primitive, preceding, former. 

p ^L;.-JL»j peshlniydn, those gone before, they 
of primitive times, the ancients. 

p /♦U-J pa igh dm (or *i-j paighatn), message. 

Vj^.^^k^^ paigham-har (pi. ^J^j^^ajuj pa igh im- 
hardn), messenger, prophet. 

p l1>-j paik, courier, messenger. 

Pjl^y paikdr, battle, conflict, contest. 

P ^j^^ paikdn, javelin, dart, spear. 

( 28 ) 


^ Jr-'i'^^ (P^- e-'^.i^'^"")* elephant, c^***^ J-j 
j92?« viad, furious elephant, elephant in rut. 

r i^U^ pllban (pi. ^ULLj pllhandn), ele- 

p (^t^ii-J pil-tan (elephant-bodied), big, huge, 
bulky, burly, gigantic. 

p j^^ pilawar, pedlar, huckster. 

p <U-j plla, cocoon of the silkworm. 

"v *• 

p ^U-J paimdn, promise, treaty, covenant. 

p ^\y^ paimmia, measure either for wet or 

dry goods ; cup, goblet, bowl, 
p -»/»-j payam-lar, messenger, prophet. 

p ijJ^lj ji'^*^ payamlar-zddagl, birth or de- 
scent from a prophet. 

p ^J^^yf^ paivastan, to join, unite, associate 

r i^^^y^ pmvasta, joined, united ; constantly, 
habitually, uniuterruptedly. 

p a3j-j paivand, kindred, relation, connexion ; 
conjunction, joint, articulation. 

p iSJ at, of thee ; to thee. 

p Ij td, until ; in order that, so that ; as soon 
as, as much as ; so long as, as long as; ere; 
lo ! behold ! beware ! have a care ! 

p <-->u tdh, heat, warmth, lustre ; power. 

p^IjU ^aJdw, lustrous, bright, shining, dazzling. 

p ^CauJu tdhistdn, summer. 

Pj^JoIj tdh-ddr, bright, shining, glossy. 


ib'b' Tatar, Tartars, Tartary. 

j^\j tadhir, influencing, impressing, irapres- 

A .«J 

siveness, efficiency, efficacy. 
A -\j tdj, crown, diadem, coronet. 

apj1a:>-Ij tdj-ddr, wearing a crown, crowned, 

A .>-lj tdjir, merchant, trader. 
^ ,^j>-\j tdjire, a merchant, 
p Jaj>-lj td chand, how far ? how long ? 

V ^^j:^s^\j tuTihtan, to attack, rush upon; to 
gallop, to walk fast; incursion, iiTuption. 

kj^p>-\j ^«tM!r, delay, postponement, reserva- 

1Sjj\j tdrih-dil, black-hearted ; be- 

A L^.>Jl!> tatdlh, erudition, instruction; chas- 
tisement, correction, discipline. 

p —\j\j tdrdj, plunder, devastation, destruction, 

waste, desolation ; dissolution. 
P(j/(lj' turah, top, summit ; crown of the head; 

point of a spear. 

A fCj^ tas^rllJi, date, day of the month. 

p CS^j\j tdrlk, dark, dull, cloudy. 

p J J 

nighted, depraved. 

p .S^j^'i tdrilil, darkness. 

p i JjjU tdzanda, galloping, cantering, prancing. 

p ^ju tdza, fresh, verdant, blooming, blushing. 

Pj^j irjlj td%a-halidr, fresh spring. 

p jj ij<J tdza'Tu, fresh-faced, smiling. 

p i_>jb td%l, Arab, Arabian, Arabic language. 

p ajL) jb' tdziydna, scourge, lash; whipping, 

flogging, caning, 
p ^jJdJU tdzldan, to run. 
A i_iL:U ta^asmf, grieving, regretting; grief, 

sadness, anguish, pain. p^^Jjjri- u.p..-0' ta^as- 
siif lihwurdan, to grieve. 

A u-:\j tas-assufan, of grief, from vexation, sor- 
rowfully (ace. case employed adverbially). 

p (^yiib tdftan, to shine, sparkle ; to spin, to 

twist, twirl ; to turn away the face, 
p CJ\j tdh, vine, tendril ; clasp. 

p Is^ Ij td hujn, how far ? to what extent ? 
p ^ b" td Icai, how long ? tiU when ? 
A k— iJU tadlf, composition, compilation. 
A J*^\j taiammul, reflection, meditation, con- 
sideration, thought, 
p ^^^b tdwdn, mulct, fine, amercement, 
p 4_/j b td wai or vaiiiov ^\ b td u), until he. 

A Jj^b" tas-wll, explanation, interpre.;ation, ex- 
position, commentary. 

A li^^b ta-yid, aid, help, assistance. 

PjLJ tabdr, family, tribe. 

p iLj' tabdh, ruin, destruction ; ruined; ruinous. 

p ^^ft>bJ tabdh'i, ruin, wreck, perdition; wicked- 
ness, depravity, dissoluteness. 

A Jj J^J tabdll,chax\ge, alteration, permutation. 


-«. _• 


( 29 ) 


A cJyjJ tdbarruk, felicitation, benediction, con- 
gratulation; abundance, plenty. 
A ***A-J tahassum, smiling, smile, 
p <LJ tabah (or <Uj for iLj tahdh), ruin. tLJ' 

,^ji-i^ tahaJi gashtan, to become marred, to 
be spoiled. 
^ lJJ^ Tatari, Tartary. ^J^ i^ kuldhi tatarl, 
a Tartar cap such as is worn by men of dis- 
tinction. Tatare, a Tartar. 

A a^«:ij tatimmat, completion ; appendix, sup- 

A iij\ssr tij'urat, traffic, trade, commerce. 

K j^\ssr tajdsur, boldness, hardihood. 

A <0^psr tajrilat, experiment, experience, proof, 

A ^..^jjssr tajrlh, trial, testing, proof. 

A ^^***Lsr tajassus, spying, watching, search, 

A (J^^ tajalli, lustre, brightness, brilliancy. 

AP ^i^S ls^^ tajalll Icardan, to reveal, make 

clear or manifest. 

A u-^^'lsT ^ayawwMS, avoidance, ap ^^ji^ i_JJsr 

tajannub kardan, to shun, eschew, avoid, re- 
frain, desist. 

A J Jt=c^ tahzir, bidding beware, setting on one's 

guard ; threatening, cautioning, warning. 
kjijssT tahrir, manumission ; writing correctly. 

A <Uj jssr" tahrlmat, rendering venerable or sa- 
cred ; commencement of prayer. 

A \y^M*s^ tahsihu (the gezmated form of |^»-*urcr 
tahsibuna, aor. of i_>*L^r*. ), ye will reckon. 
tj«^<....?g^ 1' la tahsibunl, do not consider me. 

A t^«M.-«c^ tahsln, commendation, applause, ap- 
probation, approval, a p i^ji^S ^^«*>rv^ tahsln 
kardan, to applaud, approve, commend. 

A jj-t-oas^ tahsil, collection, gain, acquisition. 

A djissT tuhfat, present, gift ; rarity. 

A ^Aac^ tahklk, investigation ; truth, cer- 
tainty. ^jJissT Jj&^ ahlt tahklk, divines, doc- 
tors of divinity. 

A /J«^=K^ tahakkum, commanding, ruling; do- 
minion, rule, authority. 
A J./«c3c^ tahammul, bearing, carrying a load ; 

supporting, bearing with ; patience, en- 
durance, forbearance. 

A ^.^rsKT tahlyat (pi. ^.zj\^jsr tahlydt), congratu- 
lation, felicitation. 

A^,l=c^ tahaiyur, astonishment, amazement, 
bewilderment, confusion. 

p i^^riT taJJit, throne. 

A ^>L'V takhlls, release, deliverance, rescue, 

p *csr tukhin, seed ; fruit-stone ; egg. 

p*JJj\Sj taddruk, reparation, making amends; 
precaution, preparation. 

A --Jt>j" tadblr, deliberation, counsel, advice ; 
arrangement, management, skill, prudence, 
shift, contrivance ; controul, government. 

A jjj tadri {gezmated form of ^^JJ tadi-l, aor. 

of the defective verb cJ^t), he knew), thou 

hast known, or knowest. 
A i_^tJ^' tadrl (aor. of the verb i^j^^), thou 

knowest, or knewest. 
A ffUj^'j tadrlj, gradation. 
A u-'^ju' tazhlb, gilding, 
p J tar, wet, moist, fresh, green (also a particle 

which, added to an adjective, forms the com- 
parative degree). 

p \jj turd, thee ; to thee ; for thee. 

p »j\J tardzu, balance, scales. 

A ^J\J tardnl, thou scest me (aor. of t^\j rata, 

irregular, with the affixed pronoun). 
A hjj turbat, grave, sepulchre, tomb. 

A ^ J tarbiyat, instruction, discipline, tuition, 

education, training, bringing up. 
A i^^y' tartlb, arrangement; preparation, 

getting ready ; composition. 
A J-J J tartll, reciting with a clear voice, 

chanting, intoning, intonation. 

A /»^=-y" tarahkum, commiseration. 

A JJJ" taraddud, coming and going, continual 

movement to and fro; irresolution, hesitation, 
doubt, wavering. 

p Ly tarsd, infidel ; pagan ; christian. 

p .LoJ tarsdn, fearing, dreading ; afraid. 

p Jk-jJ tarsad, (he or she) fears, or should fear. 

p c:^.4~jJ tarsamat, I fear thee. 


( 30 ) 


p i^Ju-j^' tarsidan, to fear, be afraid, alarmed 
or apprehensive ; to stand in awe. 

p jA;J" tursh or turush, sour, acid ; crabbed ; 
austere, rough, morose. 

Pj-iy tursh-ru, sour-faced. 

p (^ rr-i» lA/ turush-shirin, sour-sweet. 

p Jt^ lJ^? turush-ta^n, sour-flavoured, acid. 

p ^J^y turshl, acidity, sourness. 

A iffSy taralcki, rise, ascendant, promotion, 

p i-lO tark, abandonment, forsaking, quitting, 
leaving, relinquishment, giving over, renun- 
ciation, neglect, dereliction ; abdication. 

<__5jl CSp tarlci adah, rudeness, abandon- 
ment of due respect, breach of good manners. 

AP ^l>- CSp tarlci jdn, leave of life, farewell 

to life. i^'^S ^y iC'fk Icardan, to leave, 
quit, forsake. 

PA <-Li/ Turk (pi. ^J^JJ turkan), Turk. 

A <ti J tarikat, bequest, legacy, leaving. 

p ^^CmSjj Tiirkistdn, Transoxiana. 

A -s^" turunj, citron ; orange. (See the chapter 

of the Kur'an entitled "Joseph.") 
A *JJ tarannum, singing, modulation, humming 

to one's-self. 
p sjj tarra, green, pot-herb. 
A ijV.y tiryak, treacle of Baghdad, esteemed 

an antidote against poison. 
A Si J turtdu, thou desirest (aor. of Ji^i ardda, 

4th form of j|^, concave j wdio). 
A JJJ tazdad, thou wilt increase (gezmate of 

J\jj tazdddu, aor. of jl Jjl izddda, 8th form 

of the rt. j\\ zdda, concave ^J ye). 
A .^-***»J" tashlh, celebration of the praises of 

God ; chaplet of beads, rosary. 
AP ^^ "f^.-l^ tashlh-JJiwdn, a singer of the 

praises of God ; one who tells his beads. 
p l::-^auJ" tast, or tust, thee it is, is thine. 

e:.^ 'ij> bar tust, on thee (devolves). 

A ^*Jr***J tusrifu, commit excess (gezmate of 

^^jujj tusrifuna, aor. of i__i;~sl asrafa, 4th 

form of the rt. 



A ^J.***j" tasallij cousolation, solacinf 

A *-Ju*J tasllm, delivery, surrender, consign- 
ment, submission, resignation ; health, se- 
curity. A Pj^t^S' (»-L*J tasllm kardan, to give 
up, resign, surrender. 

A <U;JL t ' tashblh, comparison, simile. 

A lL^Aj tushrika, nasbated aor. of lICI^ he 
gave a partner, 4th form of the rt. CSJ^ . 

A i^JijJij tashrlf, ennobling, honouring, con- 
ferring honour ; compliment 

p .ioul.; tishnagl, thirst, thirstiness, 

p tUAJ tishna (pi. ^^IxiAj tishnagdn), thirsty. 

p j»AJ" tashwlr, anguish, distress. 

A i^Juj^JLj tashwlsh, bother, harass, confusion, 
alarm, disquietude. 

A i_a-J l^' tasdnif (pi. of *_g.;.rt}' tasnlf), lite- 
rary compositions, books, works, writings. 

A ^j^Xjsj tasdik, verifying, attesting ; receiving 
as true, credence. 

A (__i;-^' tasarruf, conti'oul, power, grasp, dis- 
posal, use. 

A «_:»»3J tasannUi^, artifice, speciousness, dis- 
simulation, display. 
A c_g.>;>.'3,!>' tasnlf, compiling, composing. 
A jy^dj tasauwur, imagination, fancy, idea, 

image, a p j^f-V^ j^ tasauwur kardan, to 
imagine, image, picture, portray. 

A (__?^-^ tasauvouf, contemplation ; Suflsm. 

A <T j^ tazarru^, humbling of one's self, pro- 
found submission, earnest supplication or 

A J^'^i' tatdwul, oppression, usurpation, con- 
quest ; rudeness. 

A .Lj" tatir, gezmate of -Ij tatlru, aor. of the 

rt. J^:s tdra, he flew or fled, concave ^^ ye. 

A j-ikj tathiM, riseth(aor. fem. of j_i\? talaui). 

A c^i tatauwti^, doing a good action gratis, 

supererogation, c ^kiJ hi tatauwu^, volun- 

A > ^Ai'j tatlhi, thou art sweet (aor. of the rt. 

t_;lls tdla, concave ^ ye). 

A , J^J tabula', he was exalted (3 pers. pret., 

Gth form of ^I.i , often joined to the name of 
God in an optative sense, May He be exalted I 
and usually rendered adjcotivoly, MostHigh. 


( 31 ) 


A j-otji tacobbud, worship, adoration, devotion. 

A liJuxj tacbudu (gezmate or nasbate oi ^^>Xm 
tacbuduna, aor. of Ju£ cabada), ye worship. 

A <U->n7 taMyat, arranging, exercising, insert- 
ing, fixing. A.v^xL 'U-JtJ' taJ>ia shudan,to be 

A i--*J ta^lr, interpretation of dreams. 

A K_ -y^ ta^jjub, astonishment, surprise. 

A J.:^s*^ ^ac.yi?, haste, hurry, precipitation. 

A JkXJ ta-^uddu, thou enumeratest (aor. of the 

verb <Ac ^adda). 

A i^Jju ta^addi, assault, hostile encroachment, 
hostility, violence, oppression. 

A k_^o jotj" tatzlb, infliction of punishment, tor- 
ment, torture. 

A ,^j*J ia^arruz, finding fault, objecting ; dis- 
approbation, opposition, resistance, aversion, 
annoyance, exposure ; presentation. 

A <Uj*j ta<i%iyat, condolence. 

A u- .-.^ir" ta-^ssub, partiality, tenacity, bigotry, 

A (J-li»J' ta-.tll, suspension, interruption ; va- 
cation, holiday. 
A fjiju ta^lluk, attachment, dependence. 
A A^1-*J ta^im, teaching, instruction. 
A t.::^^*? taionnut, reproach, taunt. 

A S^AJ ta^ahhud, minding, looking after, at- 
tending to, tending, taking care of; agree- 
ment, promise. 

A ^^\xj ta gh dhm, defrauding one another; 

vexation, peevishness, fretfulness, disap- 

A -j*j taghaiyur, alteration, change. 

A ji-Ui" tafukhtcr, boasting, glorying. 

A (JJ,j^ tafdrtk (pi. of (J^,Jo tafrik), inter- 
vals, divisions; instalments. 

A ci-JjUi" ta/dwut, difference, odds. 

A ^ji>^ " .. B . !' taftlsh, inquiry, search, rummage. 

A ^joi?^ tafahhus, investigation, search. 

A r--;AJ tafarruj, recreation, walking for amuse- 

A p jir -r^y^ tafarruj-gah, place for recreation, 

A d^jSG tafrikat, division, distribution; discord, 

disunion, dissension, p ^i-^S ^JH tafrika 
kardan, to distribute, separate. 
A SAsii tafakkud, strict search, diligent inquiry. 

A SJu tafakkur, thinking, contemplation, 

A ij^\}AJ tafwiz, confiding, making over, con- 
signment, transference. 

A Lslaj takdzd (originally jc-sUl'' takdzi), ex- 
action, dunning. 

A iXcliJJ' takdiud, backwardness, hanging back. 

A -sAAj tukabbihu ( aor. of ^'s kabbaha, 2nd 

form of thert. ^jJ), thou detestest. 

A ijM Jjij fakaddasa, he was sanctified (3rd 

pers. pret. 5th form of (jwJ»j) ; used opta- 

tively. May He be sanctified ! and usually 
translated adj actively. Most Holy. 

A J jjij' takdlr, decree, appointment, fate. 

A t_^yu takarrub, association, intimacy ; pro- 
pinquity, nearness, closeness. AP^^Jy+J i~-ijSu 
takarrub namudan, to approach, draw near. 

A J Jij' takrlr, averring, averment, avowal, re- 
cital, statement. 

A -».42iij" takslr, deficiency, fault, failure, short- 

A JyiJ' takulu, she says (aor. of the rt. ^JU 

kdla, concave J wdw). 
A Js^ takwa\ piety. 
A ^yij takwiyat, strengthening, invigoration, 

A *jyiJ" tahclm, straightening; an attempt to 

make straight, 
p CSj tak, gallop, course, heat. 
A J-jUo takdsul, indolence, sluggishness. 
a.JSj takabbur, arrogance, pride. 
A ^_ -■■aV taksibu thou mayest acquire (aor. of 

the rt. u,'^*"^ kasaba, he gained). 

A i»_aiio" takalluf, ceremony ; dissimulation, in- 
sincerity ; extravagance, profuseness. 

A \y)Xij takallamu, speak ye (imp of 5th form 
of the verb *K). 

A LSj takiyat, pillow ; reliance, support, de- 
pendence, p ^i^j <UxJ" takiya zadan, to lean. 

p iJi i^Sj takiya zada, reclined, reclining. 


( 32 ) 


p i,^S^ tag, canter, gallop ; course, heat. 

A j}ckj talutama, (the water or wave) dashed 

(6th form of the verb Jal). 
A 2ckj taldtum, buflfeting, dashing. 
A ^_/*.-«>ij talhls, fraud, trick, deceit, disguise, 
p -f^ talWi, bitter, 
p .uii -J^ taWi-guftdr, bitter in speech, satirical, 

p^^^ tallJii, bitterness ; bitter disappointment ; 

thou art bitter. 

p a 



taWil-chashlda, tasted bitter- 

A ;_aUlj talattuf, kindness, courtesy, blandness, 

A («_alj' talaf, consumption, squandering, waste, 

ruin, destruction. aPj^JuI e_alj talaf shiidan, 
to be lost, to perish. 

p iiiji (--filj talaf karda, wasted. 

A ^_^-iJj talflk, sewing together ; dressing, 

A tX-.^" talmlz, scholar, student, pupil, disciple. 

A i^Sj talauwun, changeableness, versatility. 

A ^Jj tuliga (pret. pass, of L' tala'), it is read. 

A J^'J tamma, was (or is) completed. <_->li^\ *J 

tamma 7 Icitubu, the book is finished. 
A Lit^J tamushu (originally -.iiUJ tamdshl), 

spectacle, sight. 
A /kUj" tamatn, complete, perfect; sufficient; 

concluded, ended; finish, end, completion. 

p e^Uj ij ha tamdml, altogether, in to to. 

AP ji^Uj tamdmtar, more complete. 

A ^-^^ tamattu^, enjoyment. 

kj^ tamr, a date. «jU»^^ji^yi j ^\j_j^\ 

at tamr ydnic wa '« ndtur gh air indnic, the 
date ripe, and the keeper not preventing. 

Aj^ tamurru, thou passest by (aor. of the rt. 
j^ marra). 

A ^j^S^ tamkin, power, authority, dignity. 

A (jLtj tamalluk, fawning, flattery, blandish- 
ment, cringing. 

A \Laj tamannd (originally ^J-Xi tamanni), 
wish, desire, longing for. 

A ,j>^' iamnun (gezmate of ^' tamunnu, aor. 

of ij.^ manna, he upbraided (or reproached) 

on account of benefits conferred). 
A J»4J tamuz, Syrian month (July). 
A J*.^' tamiz, judgment, discernment. 
A (Jw«J tamllu, bends (fem. aor. of JL* mala, 

concave ^ ye, governed by loj-^ gh usun). 
p ijj' tan, body, person, individual ; bulk, ^jj 

^jIj tan dadan, to engage, mix one's self, 

meddle ; to yield, give in, surrender, 
p jJLjI ^J: tan-dsdni, ease of body, personal 

comfort or indulgence. 
A Jjvij" tandwul, taking food, eating and 

A 'U-ij tamhih, warning, caution, admonition, 
p j^ ^'J tan-parvar, luxurious, voluptuous, 

pamperer of the body. 
p {^j}ji ijj" tan-parvari, pampering of the body, 

luxury, voluptuousness. 
A itj^j tantahi, gezmate of ^cir*-^ tantahl, thou 

desistest, aor. of j^.^^^, 8th form of ^.^j . 

p JOJ" tund, hasty, violent, impetuous; stern, 
severe, austere. 

p i^j^ >^^ tund-JJiu, violent-tempered. 

p (^^^ >^ tund-JJiun, violence of temper, ve- 
hemence of disposition. 

p C^-i^JcJ tan-durust, healthy, hale, sound, 
well, in rude and robust health. 

p ^^ji^ tan-durustl, soundness of body, 
health, healthiness. 

p ^Su'J tundl, greatness, bulkiness; height; 
hastiness, haste, impetuosity, vehemence, 

A Jj }iJ* tanzil, revelation ; the Kuran. 

A lAiJ tansham (3 per. sin. fem. aor. of UJ), 
shoots, or may shoot upwards. 

A f^^.UJ tana^cum, happiness, luxurious enjoy- 

p lLS^ tunuk, shallow. 

p {.^Jjj tang, strait, narrow, tight ; pained, an- 
guished, distressed ; insatiate, avaricious ; 
vexation, affliction, annoyance. 

p c—jI k^S^ tang-dh, shallow. 


( 33 ) 


p <»-!L>- ^^S~ui tang-chashn, (narrow-eyed), 
covetous, insatiable, greedy, insatiate. 

p e:— ^ J i^J^ tang-dast (pi. j^^l^i-Jt) t^S^ tang- 
(ffls^aw), poor, indigent, necessitous,distressed. 

p jA-jJ i^iJ imig-dastl, penury, indigence, 

straits, poverty, 
p Jj i^S-^ tang-dil, sad, melancholy, dumpish, 

vexed at heart, grieved, 
p i_$\t . (.^^ij" tang-rozi, pinched for food, 

straitened for daily bread, 
p ^S^ tangi, distress, straits. 

Aj^' tannur, oven. 

p l^^" tanha (pi. of ^Jj tan), bodies ; alone, by 
one's self. 

p ijl^' tanhdil, solitude, retirement, loneliness. 

p JCs^ ^-ij tane chand, several persons, some 

p y tu, thou; of thee, thy. 
A f-J^y iawdhi^{^\. of «_jIj tdbi^), followers, 

dependents ; effects, results, consequences. 

A j-^W 

tawdzui., humility, self-abasement, 

submission ; politeness. 
A *\y tuwdtn (p pi. ^^^^ tuwdmdn), twin, 
p ^y tuwdn, it is possible ; one may or can. 
.,ly tuwdn rast, one may escape. 
f^\y tuwdn guft, one may say, it may 

be said or spoken, it can be said, 
p \j\yi tuicdnd, powerful, strong, able, stalwart, 
p (J^\jJ" tuwdnun, power, ability, strength. 
p Ju \y tuwdnad, it is possible, one may, one can. 
p ^JlJ*>j ty tuwdnistan, to be strong, powerful ; 

to be able ; to obtain the mastery, 
p ij^J tuwdngar (pi. i^v^V tuwdngardn), 

rich, wealthy, opulent, affluent; great, 
p VJ^y tuwdngar d, rich one ! 
p w-^*♦J^ yO ly tuwdngar-Tiimmat, high-minded; 

rich in grace, 
p i_sS^\^ tuwdngarl, opulence, wealth; power- 
fulness, greatness. Tmvdngare, a certain 

great, powerful, or rich man. 

p ^ly tuwdnam, I am able or capable. i^\y 

^\ tuwdnam dn, I am capable of that, 
p (J^y tuwdnl, thou art able, thou canst or 

mayest. ti W ^' i^ tuwdtn, as much as thou 

canst, as far as thou art able. 
A i>y taubat, repentance, penitence. 
A ^-jy taublkh, reproach, reproof, upbraiding, 

chiding, scolding. 

A ^■^y tawajjuh, turning of the face (<S-?-j wajh) ; 
conversion, attention ; favour, countenance. 

A iX»i>y tauhid, a profession of the unity of the 

Godhead, unitarianism, anti-trinitarianism. 
A f-;;<^y taudl^, bidding adieu, taking farewell ; 

dismissing ; depositing. 
^ cIp^^jJ taurlt, the Pentateuch, 
p <Liy tosha, provisions. 
A ^J^*iy taujlk, divine guidance, favour of God; 

completion of one's wishes, success. 
A «Jjy tawakku^, hope, expectation, expectancy. 
A i__fljy tawahkuf, delay, hesitation, pause, halt. 

AP ^i^S u_ ajjj tawahhuf kardan, to delay, to 

pause, wait, halt. 
A J^y tawakkul, confiding, trusting in God. 

V d^ y tu ki, thou who, thou that. 

A J-^y taukll, committal to custody j charge, 

p jjy tuil, thou art. 
p ij tih or tah, empty. 

A jji^^J" tahdwun, neglecting, negligence, slight, 
carelessness, remissness. 

A I.— ^,v\J tahzih, adorning, correcting, amend- 
ing, adjusting, polishing, finishing. 

A a^^vy tuhmat, suspicion ; calumny. 

A tUj^j tahnuat, congratulation, felicitation. 

Aj^^' tahauwur, fury, boldness, rush, onset, 
violent assault, attack. 

p ^.\,j tihi or tahl, empty ; thou art empty. 

p ci-wJ |_^^' tihl-dast (pi. 1^^'"^ i^y tihl- 

rffls^aw)," empty-handed, poor, 
p Ji^ LSir' tihl-maghz, empty-brained, addle- 

pated, shallow. 

Vj>j tlr, arrow, ap^* Sc ^Imi tlr, science of 

V \\^\ j^ tir-anddz, archer. 

p SfJ tlra, muddy, turbid, obscure, dark. 

p \s^6ir Sj^ tira-bakht, unhappy, unfortunate. 


( 34 ) 

p ^^^ ij^ ttra-haMtl, thou art unfortunate, 
thou art (or wilt be) miserable. 

PA ^\j SyJ tlra-rdi, dark-minded, of beclouded 

p ^^\tij iyJ tlra-ravdn, dark-souled. 

p j-j' tez, shsu'p, keen ; fierce, hot. 

p jJsXs- j-j" tez-cJiangl, sharpness of claw, ra- 

p i^^JuJ j*j" tez-dandun, sharp-toothed. 

Pjjj-j' tez-rav, sharp-going, fleet, swift. 

r <Lak-J" tlsha, axe, adze. 

p j-y' te ff h, sword. 

p jU-J tlmdr, care, attendance on the sick ; 
grooming and currying a horse, ^j J;^ ^U-J' 

tlniar khwurdan, to receive a rub, to get a 

A Ll-oU thalit, firm, fixed, stable, confirmed, 
established. kv^xL lII-oU ihdhit shudan, 

to be fixed, ratified. i^^S i-::-^^ thdhit liar- 
dan, to make firm, to confirm, to ratify. 
A ijij iharwat, opulence, riches. 

A by thuraiya\ the Pleiades, 

k jyi^ tTiu gh ur (pi. of jo tha gh r). passes, j^ 
4t\Ji\ thu gh uru 7 islam, the passes, straits, 
or frontiers of the lands of true faith. 

A J thumma, after that, then, afterwards. 

A ijAJ thumrat, fruit. 

A (j--^ thamm, precious, valuable, costly. 

A 'Uj thandt, praise, encomium; compliment; 

A <—j\y thawdh, reward, recompense. 

^ ^^J thawdhe, a reward, a recompense. 

p \s>- jd, place, room. Is*- <UJ& hamajd, every- 

A (jM^\^ j'dsus, spy, scout, emissary. 

A ^j»^b>- jdsusi, espionage, spying. 

i^jMy^\:>- Jdllnus, Galen, the physician. 

A ^^l:>- jdmi^, a princi^ial mosque or duomo 

where the prayer (oration or sermon) called 
<i.-lx>~ kJmtba is recited on Fridays, 
p (Luljs- j'dma (pi. l^-^lsf jdmahd), garment, 
clothes, dress, raiment, robe, vest, vesture, 
garb, stuff. iU*i i^\s>- jdmas-e ka^ha, a cover- 
ing of black cloth embroidered with silver, 
in which the square temple at Mecca is 
arrayed, and which is renewed annually. 

ij^ii^ tji^f^^" jdmahdyi hihan, old clothes. 

P (^U- jdn, life, soul, j^*^ (•rA**^ (S^ Li)^ 
jdn ha halcJc tasllm kardan, to surrender the 
spirit to God. jSj i^^ j'dni pidar, soul 

(of) thy father ! ^•X^ ,^1^ jdn kandan, to 
dig out the soul. 

p (j;'^'^ jdndn (pi. of ^;^- y«w), souls; dear 

A t_^ l^ jdnih, side, direction, quarter. 

p ^^■i^\s>-jdnsitdn, soul-seizing, life-taking; 

V jy\s^ jdnvar, animal, living creature. 

p ,^jyi\s>- jdnvari, (thou) art an animal. 

^ 'S^ jdne, a single soul, a soul, a life ; any 

living soul. 
p (j)\d^\:>- jdwiddni, eternity; eternal. 

F J^.jl;^ jdwld, immortal, perpetual, lasting, 
everlasting, enduring, permanent, eternal. 

p &[>- jdh, rank, dignity, position, post, place. 
t.::.^JfcU^ jdhat, thy rank. 

A ^^^ JJ&U^ jdhaddni (dual of the prct. 3rd form 

of the rt. J^y>- ), they both contend, or wage 

war against. cJ\si!i\p'- jdhaddka, they both 
fight against thee. 

A ^[s>-jdhil (p pi. i^^Us- yaMaw), ignorant. 

p i^\s^ jdi (pi. \^^\s^ jdihd), place. \j*JCi ljW" 
jdtji nafas, room for breathing. ^Ij J tJ^^ 
lajdyi zandn, to woman's estate, womanhood. 

p ^'^}s>- jdi-gah, place, spot ; point, degree. 

p i^\^jdte, one place, particular place, point, de- 
gree ; fresh place ; respect, regard, reference. 

p 'U-jlr*- jdiS-gah, place, locality. 

A ij[^ jibdl (pi. of (J.*=^ jobal), mountains. 

A.j^s>-jahr ox jahar, restoration, repairing da- 
mage, as setting a bone, or repairing the 
broken fortunes of a friend. 

T^'- d| 

( 3o ) 

A Jjr«5»- Jahrll (or J-o^-j?- jahra^ll, or J-ol^-»5>- 

jahrunl), Gabriel, the archangel. 
A ^y^ jahal, mountain. 
A iX^ j'ibiUat, nature, constitution. 
A ^},»s>- jibilliy, natural, original, innate. 
A ^jr:^s>- jahln, temple, side of the forehead. 
A Sp;- jud, bestow thou, be bountiful (imp. of 

the rt. j[:>- jdda, concave j wdw). 

A Ss>- jadd, earnestness, seriousness, exertion. 

A ^y^Ss^ jidcd, strife, disputation, squabble. 

p ^^>\^ jnduil, separation. 

A «— ' j^ jazb, drawing, attraction. 

A j>- jarr, drawing, dragging, trailing ; de- 
riving; the mark hasra ('), placed bencatli 
a letter, and equivalent to our vowel /. 

^^:s:'^ J-^lt ^dmilu 7 Jarr, one who drags 
or draws down, depressor ; (in grammar) a 
governing power or particle that must be 
followed by the genitive or oblique case. 

A J\j>- jarrdh, surgeon, chirurgeon. 

A i^^js>^ jirdliat, wound, sore ; a wound on any 

part of the body except the head. 
A ^j>- jards-im (pi. of (L*jj:>- Jarlmat), crimes, 

offences, sins, trespasses. 
A AjS^ jurm, fault, crime. 
A ^\ijS>- j'araudn, flowing, running. 
vjs^jm, except, save, besides, all but. 
A *U5>- jazdt., recompense, retribution. 
A jtjp^jazm, amputation, cutting, breaking off; 

decision, determination; decided, positive. 
A ^jJjsr jazlrat, island ; peninsula. 
A ^j*>^ j'assa, he touched, felt, fingered. 
A 'ij[,MS>- jasdrat, daring, presumption, boldness, 

hardihood, audacity. 

>- jastan, to spring, leap, bound, jump. 

justan, to search, seek, aim at, strive 
to win ; to hunt after, pry into. 

kSmjs>- jasad, the body (of man, genie, or angel) ; 
the calf of the children of Israel (spoken 
of in the Kur'an). Iju**:?- jasadan (ace.) 

KjM^jiar, bridge. 

A *-u*5»- jism, the body. 

A *--us>- j'aslm, corpulent, portly ; majestic. 

A 'Uxsj- ja^at, quiver, case for arrows. 
A i^Jlxs^ ja<jj'ari, the finest kind of gold. 
A Jjt5»- ja^la, he placed, made, appointed, or 
constituted (used optatively). 

A *U:>- jafds-, tyranny, ill-usage, maltreatment, 
oppression, cruelty, severity, violence; in- 
civility, insolence; coarseness. 

A f^\sis>- jd/die, an insult, an outrage. 

p \.::^Jis>-juft, pair, couple, brace ; partner, mate ; 

fellow, i^ii^ \j:^'Jis>- juft giriftan, to take a 

partner, to marry, to pair, 
p x^ys^ jigar-hand, liver, lungs and heai't ; son. 
A Jj>- jalJa, he shone in glory (epithet of God). 

Ic J ijs>-jalla wa ^la', may (He) be glorified 

and exalted ; High and Glorious. 
A ^_\s>' jull, housing, horse-cloth. 

A Jis>- j'alldd, executioner, headsman. 

A fjh>-jaldl, majesty, glory, ap ^Jll^s^-jaldlash, 

his glory. 

p ^S^ jaldli, the new Persian era, so called 

from Jalalu'd din Malik Shah, under whose 
reign, which commenced a.h. 465, the Per- 
sian calendar was reformed. 

A ^UA^ julasdi (pi. of ^jj*Xs^ jdilis)} com- 
panions, comrades. 

A jUijp- julndr (from PjLli' gtilndr), pome- 

A (jui»-L:j- jails, companion, associate. 

A jU.5>- jamdd, not growing, inanimate, inor- 
ganic (as a stone). 

A (S^\a^, meeting, society, congrega- 
tion, crowd, multitude, troop, swarm. 
A ^^:^[,*^ j'amdiate, a troop. 

A ^J\As>- j'amdl, beauty, comeliness.' i* 
jamdlihi, by his beauty. 

p sJ!Las>- Jamshed, an ancient king of Persia, 
being the fourth monarch of the first or 
Peshdadyan dynasty. He built Istakhar or 
Persepolis, and was dethroned by Zahhak. 

A j_.«j>-ya/»^, company, class, sect; conjunction; 
the plural number; collected, composed, tran- 
quil; united, a p ^sJ^ %-^t^ jam^shudan, 
to become collected ; to have carnal con- 
nexion, ^x^s^ janiiand for Jul ^^^A^jamz. 
and, are collected. 


( 36 ) 


A Jt^^ ja»i'i<>, a company. 

A A*x^:>' Jam^lt/at, collection; reflection; tran- 
quillity, quiet, calm. 
T ^^Lis>- Jumhffi, completely. ^JLissT ha jiim- 

lagl, in the mass, altogether. 
\v Aac>- jumla, sum, whole, all, total number; 

gang. A Aa^SJsJi Hjumla, on the whole, to 

sum up all, in short. 
A ^_-^>- Jdi'ii^, all, the whole. 
A ^^^>- Jamil, good, beautiful ; fair, honourable. 
A |^:>- j'hin, fairy, genius, 
r ^s^\^:^ jumbunldan, to cause to be shaken, 

to make to move, to wag, wave or nod. 
p jjJi--.:^ jumbidan, to agitate, shake, stir, 

p as^f^sy' Jumhlda, stirred. 
A |^-,-i5>- jambaini (obi. of loV'^^ jmnhdni), 

both sides. k^S^^^ jamlaika, thy two sides. 
kd:^ jannat (pi. (SJ\Ls^ jannut), garden. 
A fjMS>s>- Jins, genus, kind, stock, sort, 
p i^;S^ y««yj war, battle, fight, strife, conflict, 

contest. (^iJijl {^S^jang uvardan, to wage 

war, to fight. (Uci j (.SJoj?- jang u fitna, 
war and strife. 

p lit^y»j\ i*jCx=»- jang-dzmuda, tried in war, 

experienced in battle, veteran. 
Tj^l <^S-^ jang-dvar {^\, ^^j^\ i^J>us^ jang- 

uvardn), warrior, 
p (_f;^l i,^S^ jang-uvarl, aggression, strife. 

P ^ t^-=r jang-ju (pi. ^jbyr (.s/^ i««^- 

juydn), war-seeing, pugnacious; warrior, 
p fJ^s^ j<^i^9h warlike, martial, 
i. (ov»5f- junun, insanity, madness, frenzy. 
Kv ^Jap^ jinni, demon, spirit. 
V y>- Jav, barley. Ju, river, stream. 
A L-j\^ j'awdh, answer, reply. 
A c^^^sf jawuhe, an answer, a reply. 
A j\^ jiwdr, neighbourhood. 
p ^y^^ juwdl, sack, bag, sacking. 
pJ^J l)^^^ jiJi'Wdl-doz, large packing-needle. 

p (^\j=r jawun (pi. ^^^^^ jawdnun), youth, 
joung man. 

p djAJ\y>- jawdn-mard, brave; honest fellow, 
brave lad ; liberal, generous. 

p ^J-4JL:>- jawdn-mardl, manliness, courage ; 
liberality. Jawdn-marde, a certain brave man. 

p ij,\^:>- jawdm, season of youth, youth, juve- 
nility, adolescence. Jaiodne, a youth, one 
young man, a certain youth ; a lovely youth, 
a graceful page. 

p ^ »5s- jav jav, grain by grain, barley-corn 

by barley-corn. 
A l)^?- jud, liberality, bounty. 

A j»=>- jaur, violence, severity, oppression, in- 
sult, outrage, injustice, tyranny; brutality, 
churlishness, boorishness. 

A p iJL^ j^ jaur-jpesha, inured to tyranny, 

tyrannical, brutal ; tyrant. 
/LJ^s^j'auz, nut. 
A t^JAS^ j'auziy, vendor of nuts, ^ji _ .ill^\ 

^5;»^9- ahu 7 far of bin j'auzi, name of a 

celebrated preacher at Baghdad. 
A (J^^- j'ausak, lofty edifice, palace, kiosk, 
p iri^^r josh, ebullition, ferment ; clamour, 
p ^lA-j ^j^ joshdnldan, to cause to boil, 
p wf-i) *=f- jaushan, coat of mail, 
p lS^ (J^y?" Jaushan-Mdi, piercing the coat 

of mail. 

p |^A*-i)»59- joshldan, to boil, effervesce ; to 

fume, fret, fly in a rage ; to hum, buzz, to 
be all in a bustle, to spirt out ; to beat, pal- 
pitate, pulsate, throb. 

h Jby>- jauJiar, jewel; essence, staple, nature, 

root, origin; element, 
p /Hj rJ j^i^- jatihar-farosh, seller of jewels, 

p loV^y?" j(tuharlgdn (pi. of ^j&y>- jauharl), 

p i^y>- jave, a single barley-corn, a grain of 

barley. *---j i^y>-jave slm, a grain of silver, 

silver dust. Jug, stream, river; seek thou. 

p (. )V.y=r y^^y^") seeking, 
p ^y^ javin or ^ ^ javvln, of barley, barley- 
made, i^iy^ (j^ ndnijavln, barley bread, 
p ^^,^>^^z>- jundan, to seek. 

K \\^^ jahdz, ship; paraphernalia of n brido, 
her trousseau. 


( 37 ) 


A J^^ juhhdl (pi. of ^\s>~ j'dhil), ignorant. 
v^[^^ja?idn, world; {T^art. o( ^S^^Jahldan) 

dancing, quivering, flickering, flashing. 
p ^ji \ ^[.^ j'ahun-iijinn, world-creator, God. 
p ilij ijj\'=T' jahdn-i)anah, asylum of the world. 

p ijj^<^ uW^ jahdn-ddrl, possession of the 

world, empire. 
p ^^Jj[^^ jahdndan, to leap, dart. 

p is<Si,iJ\.^ jahdn-dlda, one who has seen the 
world, great traveller. 

p (Jl;^ jahdne, a world, a vast multitude. 
p i^Ji-Jl^ jahdnidan, to impel, urge, to cause 

to leap, force to gallop. 
A i^j^jihat, mode, reason, cause ; wages, salary. 
A ^A-{f>- jihate, a salary, wages. 

A A^(^ jahd, laboui', study, endeavour, care, 
pains, diligence. 

A J-;^ jah.1, ignorance, stupidity. 

p ^y^ juhud (pi. ^^y^^ juhuddn), Jew. 

A i}y^ j'ahul, extremely ignorant. 

p ijiXj^^ jahldan, to gallop off. 

A »— ---^ jaii, bosom ; breast of a garment ; 

A i^:..'J<s>- jitta, thou camest (pret. of the rt. *l^ 
jdiU, concave i_$ ye), ^j:.::.m>- jiitam, thou 
comest (or camest) to me. 

A ^J\;i^ jlrdn (pi. of JUj- Jdtir), neighbours, 
(JL»5»- jlrdnl, my neighbours. 

A (ji*-^ jaish, army, military resources. 

A ijus>- jifat, carcase, carrion. 

p {1Sj\s- chdhid, active, smart, expert, alert. 
p 1 jIs- chddar, sheet : veil reaching from head 

to foot. 
p j^ chdr, four, 
p b j\:>- chdr-pd, four-footed, quadruped. 

p <ij\j jU>- chdr-pdya, (four-footed) bedstead, 

p ijb j^ chdr-pdte, a quadruped, 
p ajl>- chdra, remedy, resource, help, 
r (jj^l>- chdldh, vigilant, alert, smart, active. 

p iU>- chdh, well ; pit ; dungeon, i^'^j *^ 

" chdhi zinddn, dungeon, prison-hole. (.:u%fcl>- 
chdhat, thou in the well ; thy well. 

p i_^^r»- chap, left side, left hand. 

p \y>- chird, why ? wherefore ? for what ? what ? 

p 9\r^ chirdgh, lamp. 

p ic^|r>- chird gh e, a lamp. 

p i^\y>~ chard-gdh, grazing-place ; meadow, 

mead, pasture, 
p j^Jul ^ f>- charkh-anddz, cross-bowman, 
p ll^'vmjs^ chust, quick, brisk, smart, sharp, 

p aAj^ chashn (pi. ^^J^aJL.^- chashmdn), eye, 

sight, view ; hope, expectation, 
p aj l.s:'*''^^*^^ chashm-Mdtia, socket of the eye. 

p JjJ *A:>- chashm-dard, pain in the eye, oph- 

p <Uul.>- chashna, fountain, spring. i^^JL>~ 

^yp^ chashmati haiwdn, the fountain of 

life, or immortality, j^ c-^JL^^ chashmaii 
hor, fountain of light. 

p j^iX»A.=»- chashldan, to taste. 

p i Jt»Ai»- chashida, tasted ; proved, experienced. 

p ^xSj>- chakldan, to drop, drip, trickle. 

p iJk-i^l>- chnklda, dropped, trickled, dribbled, 

p ^J^y^^>- chigunagl, state, particulars, the why 

"and wherefore, 
p ^^^ chiguna, how ? in what way ? 
p aj X:>- chigunate, how art thou ? 
p Ji»- ehil (for J-|(^ chihal), forty. 
p <JLj Jj»- chil sdla, forty years old, 
p (Ls"*^ chamcha, spoon. 

p lo^^'^*' chundn, like that, such as, such as that, 
in that manner, just the same, in such a 
manner, so, to such a degree or extent. 

p aJolij»- ohtmdnki, as that which, such as, just 
as, exactly as, in the same manner as, ac- 
cording as, to such a degree as ; so that. 

ii\^ iij\:..s>- chundnhi ddnl, as thou knowest. 

p Jc^ji- chand, so as, such, some ; a few, sundry, 
several, much ; how much ? how many ? how 

oft ? JCO-- , ^' tane chand, some persons. 


( 38 ) 


Jc^ i^j*j roze chand, a few days. 
J^jsi- kalimaa chand, a few words, 
p j^1iXx>- chanddn, much, all that, so much, so 

p <itx5iJCo>- cTiandun lei, as long as, as soon as, 
whilst, to the extent that, so much that, so 
much as that ; ere, or ever ; how much soever, 
however much, although, notwithstanding. 

r ^J1Jc^>- chanddne, a good deal, more than 
enough, much, very much. 

p Jj^ Sus-- chand ro%, some days, a few days. 

p |^_JU5- chandin, some, certain, much, such, 
such as this, or these, so much as this, so 
many, all this, all these. 

p cS,^o.js- chang, crook, claw, grasp, clutch ; 
harp, lute, guitar. 

p JUj..^- changul, claw, talon, gripe. 

p (j-;^ chunin, thus, like this, such as this or 

these, all this, so much, thus much, in this way. 
p y>- chu, like ; when, whilst, since, whereas, 

if so be (a contraction of ^^^ chun). 
p (-r>ys>- chuh or choh, wood, stick, bludgeon. 
V ^^s-- chupdn {or ^^V^^ chuhdn), shepherd. 

p ijb^:*- chupdnl, pastoral office, duty or 
business of a shepherd. 

p ^^lij^ chaiigdn, game of horse-shinty; the 
bat used in the said game curved at one end. 

U*'y^- ' ic)^i^ chaugani uhnus, an ebony bat 
(to which flowing jetty curls are compared). 

p j^^ chun, how ? when, whenever, whilst, 
as, like, such as, so much as, whereas, since, 
because, how. 

PjiUj^s- chun tu, like thou. 

p \J^j^ ehunl, how art thou ? how farest thou ? 

how do you do ? 
p tiws- chi, what ? why ? how ? what matters 

it ? or, how ! how many ! what ! t/'^V <'^-=^ 
chi hude, how would it be ? would to heaven ! 
I wish it were. 

Pj^^ chahdr, four. 

p l» J>-\(»~ chahdr-pd (pi. ^\j j\,»^ chahdr- 

pdxjdn, four-footed, quadruped, 
p (*;^^ chahdrum, fourth, 
p ijl> ^ chi pun, what! dost thou stand still ? 

why dost thou hesitate? (rt. ,aJIj pundan.) 


p ci-vfti Lj*'^ ^^^^ ''^'* Idkwush guft, how well 

spake ! 
F Iftjs j4> ij>~ J ^^j ji^ i^»^ chi dar ru tea chi dor 

Jcafd, what before one's face, the same behind 
one's back. 

p Jui <IL>- chi shud, what has happened ? 

p djS <L>- chi gunui-e, how art thou ? 

p Jw(^-s- chihal, forty. 

p |^.s>- chi (for J-js«- chi%), thing, anything. 

p j^>X«.:>- cMdan, to pluck, gather, pick, peck, 

glean, collect, 
p lijfp- chira, rude, uncivil, bold, impudent, 
pj-js- chi%, thing, 
p i^'j^ chlze, something, a little, any thing, 

p KJL ^■■■--^ chlst, what it is : what is it ? what 

•• V 

is? e:^vw*-.5>- J U"- Ad/ cAls^, what's the matter? 

p ,^^«-2>- Chin, China ; (imp. of ^'^^^ chldan), 

gather, pick, collect, 
p <!U;».e^ china, grain ; pickings for birds, 
p j..>.-!>- Chlnl, of China, Chinese. 

A i^lls *jls>- Hdtim Tdtl, name of an illustrious 
Arab of the tribe of ^Is taiy, celebrated among 
Eastern nations for his liberality. 

A ^Is- hdjj, pilgrim to Mecca. 

A Cl.?lr»-U- hdjdt (pi. ^W- hdjat), wants, 
necessities, necessary matters. 

A 'ds>-\s^ hdjat, want, need, necessity, occasion ; 

urgent, pressing case. ap^jO-j^^t^ cz-^^ls- 
hdjat khwdstan, to pray, state one's wants in 

AP4>k:w*::L5^l>- hdjatmand, necessitous, in want, 
in need of. 

A j:>5»-L>. hdjate, a private business. 

AP^s^L>- hdjly, a pilgrim to Mecca. 

AviJjls*. hddith, occurring ; occurred, happened. 

A (J jU» huzik, acute, sharp, intelligent, skilful, 

A iXAs" hdsid (p pi. (j^ JujU- hdsiddn), envious. 

A J.^l>- hdsil, gain, acquisition, result ; mani- 
fest. A p iO»^ J>"*^ hdsil shudan (or J-^U- 




( 39 ) 

jj Jj J^ hdsil gardldan), to be gained or pro- 
cured ; to happen, befal, arise, occur. J-tfW 
^i^Ji hdsil kardan, to get, acquire, earn. 

A -i?l>- hazir (ppl. (^U-tfl=»- hazirdn), present, 
ready, prompt, in attendance, waiting. 

A j^\s>- hakim (p pi. ^U^U- hdkimdn), governor, 
ruler, magistrate, judge. 

A JW hdl, state, condition, circumstance; state 
of feeling; ecstasy, rapture ; instant, moment. 
p c:,.v«,-j>- JU- hdl chist, what is the matter ? 

A XJlr*. hdlat, state, quality, condition, circum- 
stance ; ecstasy, rapture ; a p thy state, p ^l?^ 
»j:.-v^U>- chi hdlat ast, what has happened r 
what is the matter ? 

A ^JW. hdlate, a state, a condition. 

A ^[s>~ hale, at the time, at the instant ; one 
state, a state ; whilst, p <)i ^U- hdle ki, the 
instant that, forthwith that." 

A J^l>- hdmil, carrying ; carrier, bearer. J^U^ 
^.1^ »il\ hdmila 7 ghawdshl, (as) carrier of the 
saddle-coverings. <d.^lr>- hdmiluhu, its carrier. 

A il^[>- hdmilat, pregnant, teeming (female). 

A ^tf^^ hdml, defender, protector, guardian. 

A IL>- hibhan, in point of affection (ace, used 

in an adverbial sense). 
A <U»- habbat, grain, seed, berry. 
A ^j.u^-fc- ?uib8, confinement, imprisonment, hold, 

durance vile. 
A jJ-»- habl, rope, cord, ^j^^ J^*" hnblu 7 

wand, jugular vein (of which one is situated 

on either side of the neck). 

A L— ^^.«;^>^ hiblb, beloved, sweetheart, friend. 
A !«::>*- hatta', until, so that. 
A ,^r^ hajj, pilgrimage to Mecca. 

A ^^4^ ^W"J (P^- of T^ ^W)i pilgrims to 

A t-_i-jjj .,i ^7^=*" ^W'V ^'^ Yustif, name of 

a Governor of Arabian Irak under the Caliph 

Abduhnalik, a.h. 65. 

Ajl^ hijd%, Mecca, and the adjacent territorj', 
Arabia Petraea ; one of the principal modes or 
styles in Persian music, viz. ; 1. ^V^^] isfa- 

hdn ; 2. 'i\ 

^irdk ; 3. 


l:5" hijdz. Nine 

others are enumerated. 

A (_ijLsr^ hijdzly, native of, belonging to Hijaz. 

•* *^ . 

A <i>^sr*" hujjat, argument, argumentation, warm 

discussion; reason. 
A j^ hajar, stone. 

A i^ hujrat, closet, chamber, cell, cabin ; nup- 
tial chamber. 

A J»£«- hadd, bound, boundary, extent, limit, 
degree ; just limits. * -i Jo- haddi shar^, 
legal punishment, requirement of the law. 
A i_5A2sr; ba hadde, to a limit, extent, degree, 
or point. 

A i^Jva*. hiddat, passion, sharpness, vehemence. 

A CjJo- hudth, novelty, recent event. Radath, 
young man, youth. 

A J-X»- hadathe, a certain youth. 

A (_i->.^Jk^ hadith, discourse, history, story, 
legend, tradition ; especially the traditions 
regarding Muhammad. (Those related by 
Abu Huraira amount to more than five thou- 
sand three hundred.) 

A ijbiX>- hadikat, enclosed garden ; palm-grove. 

Kj'ss>~ hazar, caution, warning; guard, care. 

AP Lj^S j^^ hazar kardan, to beware, to be 
on one's guard, to exercise caution. 

A^a*. ?uirr, heat, warmth. 

A Li-jLs^ hurrdth (pi. of k.l^U». hdrith), farmers, 
agriculturists, ploughers. 

A d-jLs*. hirdsat, custody, guardianship, care, 

A f*^js>- hardni, unlawful, forbidden, illicit, pro- 
hibited, disallowed. 

A p iii^\y*\js>- hardm-zdda, bastard, villain, rogue, 
rascal; villainous, rascally. 

A (tf^)/»- hardmiy (p pi. ^L^»Us^ harumti/dn), 
robber, outlaw, assassin, brigand, bandit. 

A ^Jwy>- harrasa, he protected (2nd form of the 

rt. (>*/*■)• ^^ W*^^ harrasahd 'lldh, may 
God defend her ! (the pret. used optatively.) 
A «— 9/>- harf, letter, word, vocable, particle. 

A p -^(_ip- harf-glr, captious; censurcr, critic, 

A ^js>~ harfe, a single letter. 


( 40 ) 


A i^j>- harahat, motion, act, action, movement; 
conduct, behaviour; improper act, unbecom- 
ing action. 

A ^^^js^ harakate (usually harlate), an action. 

A *y>~ hararn, sacred ; the sacred enclosure at 
Mecca; female apartments, harem. 

A io^/*- harmdn, repulse, disappointment. 

A i^jS" harmat, honour, respect, reverence, 

^j^j^ hurur, heat, warmth. 

A I— J«f2>- huruf (pi. of uJ^ Jiarf), letters, 

^ jlj>- Tiarir, silk. 

A {j£>i^j=>- harlSf greedy, eager, ■wistful. 

A (— flJ ,£^ harlf (p pi. ^^j»~ hartfdn), com- 
panion, fellow, associate; impudent, loose, 
or audacious fellow ; rival. 

A mjJJ*- hazln, sad, mournful, plaintive. 

A (j*k>- hiss, feeling, sensation. 

A c_jLu^- Awa J, account, reckoning, calculation. 

A i_^.>*u>- hash, computing, reckoning. iU*u»- 
hasbuhu, his sufficiency ; sufficient for him. 

Ax3\t e-^A«^»- hasbi wdki^a, according to cir- 
cumstances ; suitably to the case, p u-^au*- .j 
bar hasbi, according to ; in confoimity with. 

A Juur>- hasad, envy. Pjj*^ Juus*. hasad burdan, 
to envy, to bear malice. 

A jLwjv- hasrat, grief, regret, vexation, p lI^mo- 
(Mt^*^ hasrat ]dmurdan, to sigh for. 

A ijy*u»- hasrate, a vexation. 

A (^;*>*5^ hasuna (fern. L::^i*ur>- hastmat), he (or 
it) was fair, beauteous, good. 

A -j;au»- husn, beauty ; goodness, excellence. 
-oJj ^jms>- husni tadblr, wholesome disci- 
pline. <__jlla^ M*****- husni Tdiitdb, elegance 
of address, polite conversation, i_J\j ij^^*=^ 
husni rdi, just observation. ,\J^ ij-****- husni 
zann, good opinion. Hasan, beautiful, ex- 

A CLjUwui^. hasandt (pi. of i>:>ja j* -), good works. 

A ^,^:„A'^ (J*'**- Hasan Maimandi, Khwajah 
Ahmad bin Hasan, called Maimandi, from 
the town of Maimand, where he was born, 
wasthcWazir of Sultan Mahmud, of Ghizneh. 

A ^J'mjs>- hasanl, beauty, comeliness. 

A JjA**5>- hasud (p pi. (j^(J)».v>»=»- hasudun), en- 
vious; envier, maligncr. 

A *-u».2>- hasham, pomp, retinue, suite, train; 

AjLa*- hisur, fortified town, castle, fort, for- 
tress; siege. 

A ^J\„^3s>. hisdre, a fort, a fortress. 

A "^L^:*- hasbds-, gravel, pebbles, shingle, beach. 

A iUi*- hissat, lot, share, portion. 

A J^5>- husul, acquisition, gain. 

A t<^ii»- hasa^ (or La^- hasa^), gravel, pebbles. 

A 'iyds>- hazrat, presence, court, majesty ; his (or 
your) Grace, Eeverence, Lordship, Worship. 

A jy^ss>- huzur, presence, court. 

A aHj^. hufdm, anything dry, brittle ; anything 
_small, paltry or minute ; rubbish, trash. 

A li»- hazz, delight, pleasure, enjoyment, gra- 
tification; flavour, taste; part, portion, stock. 

A a;«£iA»- Hafsat, name of Omar's daughter, one 
of the wives of Muhammad, and frequently 
styled j^«j^^t Ai umniu 7 muttninin. 

A lift^ hifz, custody ; memory. 

A (Jj>- hahk, just, true (an attribute of God) ; 
God; right, truth, justice; just right, due, 
or claim. LlXi't.^1 

'\*£. ^j-»~ hakka cibddatika, 
the due of Thy worship, or as Thou deservest 
to be worshipped. CS^y*^ (J^ hakka ma^ 
rafatika, the right of the knowledge of Thee, 
i.e. as Thou oughtest to be known. 

A Hi.- hakkan, really, truly, verily, in sooth. 

A 'ij\ls>~ hakdrat, contempt. 

A p (jjuLii (js>~ hakk-shinds, grateful. 

A p ^~ju-i fjs>- hakk-shtndsi, gratitude. 

A p ^jwu-ii> U (J^>- hakk nd shinds, ungrateful. 

A Jjyi^ hukuk (pi. of ^Jfrv- hakk), rights, duties, 
dues, just claims. 

A -JL>. halcir, base, contemptible, mean, despi- 
cable ; a wretch. 

A ^ULiiii- hakrkat, truly, reality, fact. 

A Lljl>. hikdyat (pi. c:^bl^.s^ hikdydt), story, 

tale, fable, narrative, narration, anecdote, 


( 41 ) 

A ,«js^- /mkm, order, command ; rule, dominion; 

check, restraint; decision, judgment. 
A 'UX=- huhamui (pi. of *-il=>- hahim), sages, 

wise men, philosophers ; physicians. 
AP ;^Jul ♦x^- //iiiffj-ffnfffls, obedient to orders ; 

hitting the mark ; skilful archer. 
A <uil=»- hikmat, philosophy, wisdom, wise saw 

or saying, axiom; wit, cleverness, r d.j>- ^j^ji^ 

c:.,^-^A*'l*♦X^*- dar In chi Jiihnatast, what's the 
wit of this ? in this what wisdom is there ? 

A L^Sjs- hukumat, sentenceof a judge, decision, 

A *-.x.=^ hakim (p pi. i^U-Xs- hakimdn), sage, 

philosopher; physician. 
A ^S.s^ hakvne, a certain wise man. 

A Jil:>- haldl, lawful, legitimate, allowable. 

A i(jjL>- haldwat, sweetness. 

A I— ^ia>- Halah, Aleppo, a town of Syria. 

p iJ^ halabi, of Aleppo, Aleppine. (Some 

five or six centuries ago Aleppo was the chief 
depot for mirrors and glass wares from the 
manufactories of Venice destined for the East.) 

A (_»!»- halk, throat. 

A <uL>. halkat, ring, ear-ring, circle; assembly. 

A p 1/-^' <uL:^ halka ha gosh, (ring in the ear, 
as badge of servitude), obedient. 

A iJii>=»- halke, a throat, a windpipe ; hence, a 

musical and melodious voice. 

A As>. hilm, mildness, meekness, clemency, gen- 

A *iyL=>- halwut, a sweet cake or pudding made 
of butter, flour, and milk ; sweetmeats. 

A <t-i;>- hill/at, splendour, external appearance. 

A (»:r>-=>- halim, mild, gentle, meek, t*-!:?- ha- 
llman (ace. used adverbially), meekly, mildly. 

a.j\as>^ himur, male, jackass ; stupid fellow. 

A jU>s«- hammul, carrier of burdens, porter, 
bearer ; laden, loaded, charged. 

A aUo- hammdm, bath; warm bath. 

A tV.^-*"^*" himdyat, protection, defence, safeguard. 

A JoUo»- hamuiid (pi. of ijk--4v=>- /iflwii^a^), laud- 
able acts, praiseworthy deeds. 

A jk/«j>- hamd, praise ^d! <\a^\ al hamdu IVlluh, 
praise be to God ! 

A ,J-«ja- haml, load, burden ; pregnancy, p J^'*>^ 
^•^S haml kardan, to impute, ascribe, charge. 

A aLl^*- hamlat, assault, attack, charge. 

A , ^s- hamcC (for /»jUc»- hamdiim), doves. 
L^*^ \JJ3 t^'wr^vi 7 hama' , the brown (or the 
dusky) of the pigeons. IIima\ pasture-land 
which is reserved exclusively for the horses 
of the ruler; inaccessible, forbidden, inter- 
dicted; a place from which the public is 
debarred and excluded ; any secluded spot. 

A ^•^^A-=- hamlyat, warmth, zeal, nice sense of 
honour ; impetuosity. 

A Jl»<«.^- hamld (fem. ij>^As>- kamidat), praised, 
lauded ; laudable, praiseworthy. 

k ~y^s>- hamlr (pi. of jL«o-A«»2ur), asses. 

A i .^1=.. hanjarat, windpipe, larynx, 

A JliXft- hanzal, colocynth, bitter gourd. 

A -iil»>. hawdshl (pi. of ^uJil^ hdshiyat), 

followers, attendants, domestics. 

A ^^»=w hawdlat, a recommending, or entrust- 
ing to the care of another ; transference. 

A Cl^»»- hut, large fish, whale. 

A j^>- hur (pi. of ^\j^ hawrd^), fair, white- 
complexioned; celestial brides, houries; (used 
in the singular) celestial bride, hourie. 

p i^jy>- hurdn (p pi. of a .^ hur), celestial 

brides, virgins of paradise, houries. 
A ^^%^ hauz, reservoir, tank, cistern ; pond. 
A dii^ haulahu, round about him. 
A ^a^ haiy, tribe (of Arabians). 

A iL:>- haydt, life, a p i,^:.^a*JL5>- haydtast, 
is life. 

hairan, perplexed, harassed, bewil- 
dered, confounded, at one's wit's cud. 

A ^^->- haif, oppression, violence, injustice ; 
a pity, a sad thing. 

A J-«J^ hiyal (pi. of <il-r>- hllat), tricks, devices, 
stratagems, (vulgarly) dodges. 

A <ij-*^>- hllat, artifice, stratagem, device, trick. 

AP ^J-J^ hiyalhd (ppl. of (J-»i>- hiyal), tricks, 
stratagems, arts, devices. 

A (j-.5^ hln, interval, period of time. 

A ^y:^ Aawd?j(pl. Ci;l)l^-j>- haiwdndt) ani- 

'^ Jjn 

mal, brute, beast. 
A iy;^ haydt, life. 


( 42 ) 


A ♦I'lrs' khatim, seal ; ring, finger ring, 
A ii^Ui- khatimat, end, conclusion; seal, 
p (j^y^ IJiatiin, lady, matron, dame. 
¥ j\s>~ khCir, thorn. Ci^jis- Marat, thy thorn. 
^j \:i-j& har Mare, every thorn, each thorn, 
p \.Ui. Mara, hard stone, rock. 

p (jr^^ Mar-bun (pi. j^Lj,1:>- Mdr-hundn), 

root of thorn or bramble. 
V ^Ji^ Xs>- Mdr-lcash, carrier of thorn-fagots, 
p (jV^ Mar-A-ffw, one who roots up thorns, 
p ,::-.^lii- Mdstan, to rise, to get up, arise ; to 

occur, happen. 
p t'ww.-lri- Mdsta, grown up, sprung up, risen. 
A ^Ui. Mass (p pi. j^iUjUs- Mdssdn), special, 

particular, private, peculiar; intimate, select, 
choice ; special favourite ; confiscated, con- 
fiscate, forfeit. 
«*) . 
A p ilrfiVri. Mdssa, especially, particularly. 

A <U..tflri- Mdssiyat, peculiarity, property, spe- 

&.Jc\s^ Mdtir, heart, mind, thought, idea; will, 

choice ; spirits, feeling ; account, sake, 
r (jJUi- Mdk, dirt, clay, earth, soil, ground, 

land, dust ; hence, lowly, mean, j J (jJl>- 
Tdidki dar, earth of a door (or visitation), 
where one's wishes are obtained. cJUi- 
idj^ khaki murda, ashes of the dead. 

p Jjll (jjl:>- khuk-dlud, begrimed with dirt. 

r \) C>1=>- khuk pa, dust of the feet. 

p jU CJl>. Muk-zdd, s^vyxng from earth, earth- 
born, earthy. 

PjUo-^ls- Muksdr, mixed with earth, earth- 
like; humble; abject, base, grovelling; sor- 
did wretch. 

t?jxj^^[»- Mdkistar, ashes. 

p iS\s>~ khdkam, I am earth. 

p i/^ Mdkt, earthy ; humble, abased ; thou 

art earth. |<^^ j^ «2 Mdkt, from earth thou 

A jJ^ khdll, empty, void, free from; desti- 
tute, deserted. 

p j*ld- khdm (pi. ^l^'ci- Mduiun), raw, crude; 

p ^y*\:>' Mdmosk, silent, taciturn ; silence ! 

p ^»^l>. Mdmoshi, silence, taciturnity. 

p ^^jkJ'l>- Mdnddn, family, race, line; house, 
household, home ; court, king's household. 

p i\Aj[£>- Munkdh, monastery, convent, religious 
house for darweshes. 

Pjjt* J e;^ M«w M man, house, family; riches, 
and especially hereditary possessions, move- 
able and real. 

p 4)l>- Mdna, house, abode, home ; nest. 

Vi^j 1 Jj <)j l>- Mdna-pardd%1,diomes.i\c economy. 

p liX>. tU Ls^ khuna-kJmdd , master of the house, 

p (^ly«jl>- Mdnmdn, house, family. 

A (_?«^ khdwi, empty, void. M;^J^ s^J^ 

Mdwi 7 hatn, empty-bellied, 
p <L)lri- Maya, testicles. 
p j^Ju5l>- Mdndan, to bite, gnaw, chew. 

A <ijLri- Maldthat, wickedness, malignity, ma- 
lice, malevolence. 

A fc-i-^-rs- Muhth, malignity, malice, malevo- 
lence ; impurity, obscenity. 

A -kCs- Mahar, information, intelligence, know- 
ledge, acquaintance, report, rumour, news, 
account, description, sacred story, tradition; 
prophecy, prediction. 

A ij^ Mulrat, experience, trial, proof. 

A i^^^»<- Mahlth, impure, malicious. 

A <iii>;j-»- Mallthat (pi. ci^li;*^ khahlthdt), 
impure thing (fem. of tJ^.. ^ Mallthat). 

A ^ Mahithm{6h\. pi. oi i>^^»*'^ Mahlth), 

A >:x>- Matm, seal ; completion, conclusion, end. 
APjjJul j*::^ Matm shudan, to be stamped or 
scaled, a ^Tj *:;^ Matmi hir'dn, perusal of 
the Kur'an from the beginning to the end. 

A ^'♦^i:^- Matme, a complete perusal of the 
Kur'an from beginning to end. 

p :>::■<- Mutanl, Chinese, of Chinese Tartary. 

a i-ll^ Mijdlat, shame, blush, bashfulness, 


( 43 ) 


p <fci*ujS" Mujasta, happy, auspicious. 

A ^y^ Miajil, blushing, ashamed. AP^,Op J^ 
Majil kardan, to shame, to put to the blush, 

A ttL^ JihajJat, bashfulncss, blush, shame, funk, 

p \*X>- lihudd, God. 

p L::^-wKy liXrU Jdiudd-parast, God worshipper, 

A *Ms-^ kkudddm (pi. of *j\s>- Mudim), do- 
mestics, servants. 

p Jjjljei- khuddwand {y>^. ^^X)j\j^ fJiudd- 
tvanddti), lord, master, seignior, owner, pos- 
sessor. .JLJis^ Jkj.ljci- khuddwandi kakikl, 
the real master, i.e. God. 

p iS\\ Ju.\ji:>- TUmdd wand-zd da (pi. Juj^Jvri- 
^b jU khiddtcand-tddagdn), nobleman's son. 

p^Ui>ij^A=i. klmddwandacidr. Creator of the 

p ^Ajjl Ji^ khuddwandi., lordship, sovereign tj'', 

divinity, providence ; your Majesty, High- 
ness, Lordship, etc. 

P i^^*i>^ khuddi, God. 

p V.^Jc>- kkuddyd, God ! 

p Lijjk^ kJiuddird, to God, for God. 

V (^Ijci- khuddt-i, divinity, deity, godship. 

A <L»Ss- khidniat, service, ministry, tendance, 
attendance ; homage. 

A p (Uc^Jo- khidmatgdr, servant, waiting or 
serving man, personal attendant. 

A ^z^S:>. khidmate, a particular or special ser- 
vice; the particular service. 

p^ri- kJiar, ass, donkey. Jl:>- J^ri- Mari dajjdl, 
the ass of Antichrist. 

A t-_j|^ khardh, destroyed, ruined. 

A cl^L'lyi- khardlut (pi. of ij|3- khardhat), 
ruins, devastations ; tavern. 

A ^}js^ khardbat, devastation, ruin. 

A (LAj:>. khm-dha, ruin, a ruin. 

A ^}y>- kJtardhi, ruin. 

A j^]^p>- kJiaruJ, tribute, tax, revenue, rent. 

p ^L)L=U khurdsdn, the province of Persia bor- 
dering on Herat, Khorassan. 
p jjl«ji^ Murdsdnl, of Khorassan. 

p ^..V^^ ^ khardshidan, to scratch, scrape, 
graze, lacerate, wound, grate, irritate. 

p j^U\p- khardmdn, strutting, swaggering, 
waving, jaunty. 

p j^Ju^^^ Mardmidan, to walk proudly, 
jauntily, gracefully, to strut, wave to and fro. 

p ^X=>- liharhuza, melon, cucumber. 

Vj\\ ijy>~ kharhuzazdr, cucumber bed, melon- 

A -yd- kh^arj, expenditure, expense, outgoing. 

p — ^ kharch, expense, outgoings. -^j^ 
i^Jj^' kharch namiidan, to spend, expend. 

p Jp- khurd, little, small. Khirad, wisdom, 
good sense, sound judgment. 

p Jc^Jp- khiradmand (pi. ^^^X^^J^^ khirad- 
manddn), wise, intelligent, judicious. 

p i Jp- khurda, fragment, particle, scrap, crumb. 

p »_ft3p^ khurdi, infancy, childhood, first part 

of life. e:--.Ji.i^ Murdiyat, thy childhood. 

p e:^-^^ kharast (for c:^-j1^^ Jchar ast), is 
an ass. 

p ijS^y>- Tcharsak, leap-frog, or blind-man's- 
buff (a child's game). 

A (*j-/^ khartum, proboscis ; bowsprit. 

A t— Jr^ l^arif, doting old man, dotard. 

p i^jd>. khtrka, religious mendicant's garment 
made of shreds or patches, garb, habit. 

p (py Aij>- khirka-posh (pi. ^j^*\ ^jS>^ 
khirka-poshdn), clad in shreds and patches 
dervish, religious mendicant. 

p ilij>- khargdh, royal tent; court, palace. 

p Aji- kJmrram, pleasant, delightful. 

p ^jS>- khurmd, date (a fruit). 

p i.»^ r>- khirnian, harvest, corn reaped and 

stacked, but not yet threshed out. 
p ij^y>~ khnr-muhra, a small shell used in 

some countries as coin. 
V ^g^jd>^]Jmrraml, delight, joy, glee, happiness, 
p J*Jj>- kharand, they purchase (rt. (j^-V.y>- 

kharidan) ; are asses (for jj^^p- khar and). 
V j\jjS- kharwdr, ass-load. 
A -';y>- kh^truj, egress, going forth, exodus. 

_i!J^ JJf — j5r^^ cf khuruj kabia ' I tculuj, 


( 44 ) 


(provide for) egress before entering, (look be- 
fore yuii leap). 

F tjjjtyi- Murus, cock, chanticleer. 

p , Jj.y5- Murosh, loud noise or cry, clamour, 

shouting. ^*j- 

iJ dar khuroshyloud, vocal, 

p j^j»-»^j^ Mmroshldan, to make a loud noise, 
or outcry, to shout, clamour, cry aloud. 

p t/j^ khare, an ass. 

Pj^Aj j>~ hhanddr, purchaser. 

p |^jjj>- khandan, to purchase, buy. 

p ^jd^r^ Tdiande, he used to purchase, he 
would buy. 

A u-ajj^ khnrlf, autumn. 

A Jri- khazz, silk, raw silk. 

p ^jU>- khazun or khizdn, autumn. 

A tij^jri- Jditzutiat, treasury, exchequer; store. 
t..^,--c <!jU:i- kkizdna>i ghnib, hidden stores. 

A ^U>- kha%d'^in (pi. of <ijU>- Jihizdnat), trea- 
suries, treasures. 

A I jjri. Jihazaf, potsherd, bit of crockery. 

A ^J>- Maz7««^,treasure; treasury, exchequer, 

p ^y^»- khas, thistle ; weed. 
A i il***ri- Masdrat, loss, damage. 
p ^_V.-wturs.- khuspidan, to lie, sleep, slumber ; 
to lodge. 

A <Uu£^ khissat, vileness, baseness ; tenacity, 

p iS^Aui^ khasta, wounded, hurt, infirm, sick ; 
sad, dispirited. <fci-u*cs. ^J^-^*^ dilhdyi khasta, 
broken hearts. i)>2uw*>- khastaie, thou art sad. 

p A Jslci. iz.MS>~ khasta-khdtir ( or p ^J^^ Aiumc^- 
khasta-dil), pained at heart, annoyed, vexed. 

A ^j*,.^M*s>~ khasis, sordid, vile, low, base, worth- 
less, grovelling. 

A L_^ui*:>- khashah, dry wood, timber. 

p \.::^Jmj>- khisht, brick, tile. 

yhishti invoza, turquoise-coloured bricks. 
p ^J (jUvu^d- kkisht-zan, brickmaker. 
p jiA~- kkinhte, a brick, a tile. »J ^^^ 

khishte du, a couple of bricks, 
r CSJ^:>~ kjnishk, dry, sere; arid, barren. 


khushk-rude, a dried-up stream. 
L^A~- khushh-sdl, dry year, barren 
year, year of drought and dearth. 

p JL: CS-^s>^ Mushk-sdll, scarcity, dearth. 

p\x^ tl>jl-»- khushk-maghz, dry-brain, noodle. 

p AjLs- khushkl, dryness, dry land ; drought. 

p ^jlL=>- khishm or khashm, anger, wrath, rage, 
fume, fury, pet, passion. ^jiXi Ji*6^ jJ dar 
khishm shudan (or ^^$ («-i*^ Idkishn gi- 
riftan), to fly in a rage, to take fire. 

p ijJl ♦As- khishm-dluda, overflowing with 
rage, sullied with anger. 

p c3li^*-u<t:i- Mishnndk, angry, raging, furious. 

A ^^y^^ Miasliuna, he was rough ; (in the as- 
sertion of a general proposition, the preterite 
is often employed for the aorist), he is rough. 

p t^yJL^ khiishnud, pleased, contented. 

A i!j JLs>- Tdmshunat, roughness, ruggedness j 
asperity, severity. 

A JUa^ khisdl (pi. of <iiLi&. "khaslat), quali- 
ties, properties. tdLs^ khtsdlthi, (of) his 

A cOu^ais- khaslat, quality, disposition, habit. 
A ^.A-^ khasm, enemy, antagonist, opponent. 
A ^4-^i>. khasml, enmity, contention. 
A i^*>a!>- khnsus, particular. ^jOy.jis^\ ^JL^ 

^ala 7 klijisus, in particular, particularly, 

A Lty^is- khusumat, enmity, strife, quarrel, 


A i_-.-~a>- khastb, palm-tree. Khusaih, name 
_of a man. 

A L^ Matt, line, boundary ; character, hand- 
writing, letter ; moustache, beard. \^ ad-^ 
khatti sahz, down upon the face (like that 
upon a peach), incipient beard. 

A lk:>- khata', fault, error, sin, offence, mis- 
take. PCU-~:lk=i- /^«^as^, is a mistake. lk=s- 
lo^S^ Mf/M kardan, to commit a fault, to sin, 
fail, miss. X^«^ s^^^^^ khatdyi munkar, 
atrocious sin. 

A k_->lli=^ khtidb, address, harangue ; sermon, 
homily; discussion; charge, accusation; re- 
proof, chiding, displeasure. 



( 45 ) 

p wf^iari^ khatui, Scythia beyond Mount Imaus; 

A ,^lli>- hhatus-e, a sin, a fault ; any particular 

offence ; a single slip or failure. 

A'Ll2:>-M«^rtid(pl.of. ..-i2^^«^!5), preachers. 

A <uk=i- Miitbat, an oration delivered every 

Friday, after the forenoon service, in the 
principal Muhammadan mosques, in which 
they praise God, bless Muhammad and his 
descendants, and pray for the sovereign. This 
was generally pronounced formerly by the 
reigning Caliph, or the heir-apparent. 

A (i.W.< Jchitfai, country, district, region, city. 

A,Jas>- Matar, danger, peril, risk, jeopardy, 

Kv Cj\jS2s>- hhatarnah, dangerous, hazardous, 


A t_.^Ja:s- Matlb, preacher, public speaker, 

AjJn<~ Matlr, great, important, grave; ha- 
zardous, perilous, critical. 

p <JLs>-li=i. Mafdcha, name of a certain banditti 
of plundering Arabs. 

A <Uri- Miiffat, lightness ; frivolity, weakness. 
4_f1j (..ii-v&rs- Miiffati rai (or ,JJic l::^A=L 
Uiiffati \ald, weakness of intellect. 

p c:^A^ Miuft, sleeping, nap. 

p ^j3.As>- khuftan, to sleep, to lie down. 

p d::ju>- khufta, slept, sleeping, asleep, lying 
down ; sleeper. 

A A-iri. Miufijat, concealment, secresy. pajJ 
<Ui^ dar yhiifya, in secret, privately. 

a <uA=i- yhapyat (fern, of yJ'^ l-hafly), secret, 
hidden, latent. 

p i^\s>- ]{hUdh, clay, dirt, mud, mire, filth. 

A ,^^l>- Ichalds, liberation, release, escape, de- 

A ; iis>~ khilflf, difference ; opposition, contra- 
diction, dispute, disputation ; opposing, con- 
trary. A P ^^^ i J^^ khilof kardan, to op- 
pose, contradict, violate, break. 

A tij^Li- khilCifat, vicegerency,caliphat; imperial 
dignity, monarchy. 

A ^^^ Mullun (pi. of J-iri- Malll), intimate 

A (Jjhi- khaluiik (pi. of tU-L^- khallkat), peo- 
ples, creatures, nations. 
A jX=i~ khallada (3 per. sin. pret. 2nd form of 

the rt. J^Li- used optatively), may (God) pro- 
long or perpetuate. 

A iJo.>. khihat, robe of honour. 

A j4^ Malk, creatures, created things, people, 
folk, men, mankind. Khulk or khuluk, 
nature, habit, disposition. 

Pjljl (Jp^ khalk-uzdr, man-tormentor. 

A j^lai>- khulkdn (pi. of 4_yi>- khtdk), tattered 

threadbare garments. 
^ iJii-=*- k/iaike, a mote of people, a host of 

folk, a crowd ; any created being ; hence, 
a form, figure. 

A jl>- khalal, fault, flaw, defect, leak, injury, 
damage, detriment, harm ; disturbance. 

A i» Ari- khalwat, retirement, privacy, seclusion. 

F ^^j^MjJ LLJyj>- khalwat-nisMn, sitting in retire- 
ment, recluse. ic^rr^'- '■^^•>- khalwat-ni- 
sJilnl, thou art a recluse. 

A "i^^i^ khahfat, vicegerent, the title of the 
successors of Muhammad, first assumed bv, 
or given to, Abubakr. 

p *ri- Mam, curl ; coil, noose. 

kJiumdr, efi'ects of intoxication, crop- 
sickness or head-ache after drinking. 

A -♦ci- khamr, fermenting ; wine or any fer- 
mented drink. 

p JiJ^ *r>- kJiam-kamand, noose. 

p ij!^y4ji- kJiamosh, silent. 

A.j^y^^ khamlr, dough, leaven. 
kham'ir kardan, to kuead. 

p ^,y.j>- khanddn, laughing, smiling, giggling. 

A JjA:»ri- khandak (or JjAici- khanzak), ditch, 
trench, moat, fosse (a word derived from p 
SiXS kanda, dug, digged, excavated). 

p iSu6>- khanda, laughter, laughing. 

p ^Jj JOii- khaiidldan, to laugh, titter, smile, 

p CS^:>- khunuk, happy, fortunate ; cool, tem- 

V y>- khu, nature, habit, disposition. tiV*- 
Jkj khuyihad, bad temper. ^^^Jc^Jp- Sr^ 
khuyi Jdiiradinanddn, disposition of thu wise. 



( 4G ) 


p t_->ijri- khwuh, sleep, slumber, dream. 

p iUj'»:>> Jdiwdh-guh, place of sleep, dormitory. 

p i>:>-\y>^ khwdja (pi. |^Uc>-l»:>. khwujagdn), 

mau of distinction, lord, master ; gentleman; 

good-man; Mister; teacher; merchant; owner; 

eunuch. Jlc i^\y>- Mtwajati ^dlam, lord 

of the world (Muhammad), 
p /tilj' <^:9-^»r!- lihwdja-tdsh (pi. ^l^lj' &^\:>- 

Micdja-tdshdn), schoolfellow, playmate, com- 

Y j\^ Tthwdr, contemptible, mean, despised, 

abject. ^^:J:i\i^ J\jS- Mtvdr ddshtan, to hold 

in contempt, to despise, (in comp.) Eating, 

(from ^^jy>- Uiwurdan, to eat), as f*^-* 

j^^ mardum-ldiivdr, man-eater, cannibal. 

Ajl^ri. khuwdr, lowing, bleating (of oxen, 
sheep, etc.). 

p j,jj\^ khwdrazm, the ancient Chorasmia, 
lying along the banks of the river Oxus or 
Jaihun, and extending to the Caspian sea. 

p *Ll /♦; )'*^ Mtvdrazm-shdh, title of the Sul- 
tan Xks'* .,jj\\ '^ii t aldiU 'd din Muhammad, 

who reigned in Kharazm from 1200 to 1220 
of our era. 

p Lii— j^^ri- kkwdst, solicitation, begging. 

p ^^y^\^ Idiwdstan, to want, desire, wish, will, 
ask, beg, crave, demand, require ; to design, 
intend ; to seek, covet ; to be willing ; to call 
down ; to wed, espouse. 

K^js\j=>~ khawdss {yl.of l^iri^Jdidssat), nobles, 
grandees. ^^^ j u^^y^ IJiawdss u ^wdmm, 
nobles and plebeians, gentle and simple. 

p jo'*^ khwdn, furnished table, tray, dish. 

p j^Julȣi- Jchwdndan, to read, recite, repeat, 

chaunt, intone ; to call upon, invoke ; to sum- 
mon, challenge, proclaim; to lay claim; to 

p iJJi»c>- khwdndas-e, thou hast read. 

p i^^>- khwdh, wishing, desiring; wanting, re- 
quiring; whether, either, or. 

p -&'^^ khwdhar, sister. 

p iXJt>\yi^ kJiwdhanda , he who asks or wishes ; 
beggar, mendicant, suppliant. 

P^J^l^ri- ]ihtinhl, thou wishept ; dost thou wisli? 


r i-Jy>- Muh (pi. ^V^^ khuldyi), good, beau- 
tiful, fair, well. 

V tjiyi>~ khub-ru (or ^*j t_ju^ but pronounced 
Mub-ru), fair-faced, handsome, comely. 

p ^jj i-r'y^- Ichub-run, thou art fair-faced. 
Khub-ruie, a handsome-faced person. 

p Ll^jya i-r^yi^ Mub-surat, comely, handsome. 

'^y^ ]ih}>-bman%ar, fair to behold, 
comely in appeax'ance. 
p 15^*^ Mubi, beauty, comelines.s. 

p Jyi- khwud, self, himself, herself, itself; 
one's own. 

PA ^\j J^ IJnoud-rdi, self- opiniated, head- 
strong, opinionative, conceited. 

p k_?J*^ Ichwudi, one's own; pride, vanity, con- 
ceit ; egotism, selfishness. 

p .,iJtfc>.- Tihicurdan, to eat ; to drink ; to swal- 

low, devour, consume, corrode ; to gnaw ; to 
experience, enjoy, suffer; to fret; eating. 

p ii^j^ hhwurda, eaten, i^w^ ifj.»ri. Ichwur- 

dati ambun, crumbs in a wallet, 
p ^^JJy>~ khumrdl, infancy, childhood. ^^u^wrtfe, 

(he) was accustomed to eat. 
p ^jL^i^j^ Mwurdiyash, his minority, his 


p tj^jy>^ Mwurish, food. 

thy food, thy nourishment. 
p Ji-»-ijj»rs. k/nvurshed, the sun. 
p (♦j%>- kkwurrain, joyful, pleasant. 
p SiX)jy>- kJiwuranda, eater; fed, maintained, 

victualled ; household, 
p j.'i^^*- khwush (but made to rhyme with ^JUA 

kash), pleasant, agreeable, delightful, nice, 

palatable, grateful, happy, good, well. 

p j^JwJI-1^^ khoshdnldan, to cause to dry up. 

p j\^\ ir'f^- khwush-dwdz, pleasant- voiced, 
sweet-voiced, having a melodious voice. 

P cJjV lA>^ kJiwush-dwdze, one with a sweet 

p ^yyti^ khwushbu, sweetly-scented, fra- 
grant, odoriferous. 

vj:J^^:>~ khwushtar, pleasanter, more agreeable. 

p »i-^^:>. khwush-khu, of pleasing manners, 


( 47 ) 

p .^s*^ Lj^y^ Mwicsh-suMan, well-spoken. 

p «_jl; iT-y^ M_wush-tab'^, good natured. 

p ^:l«*j^ lPj^ Mivush ginstan, to weep abun- 
dantly, or ad libitum. 

p c^i^ L>^t^ khwiisJt guft, he well spake. 

p J^:wi)y=^ JJncnishiud, content, satisfied, well- 

p iJ^y>~ kJiusha, ear of corn. 

p ^^Jltyi- Jchwushl, gladness, mirth, gaiety, 

cheerfulness, pleasantness, agreeableness, de- 
light, enjoyment, diversion, fun. 

p ^iX»J^y>~ MwsMdan, to wither, dry, parch. 

p i)X>JL^:>~ kJioshlda, withered, faded. 

A ^^ Mauz, wading, fording; plunging into, 

entering precipitately ; resolving, purposing, 
deliberating, consulting, taking counsel. 

p Sii^ yi- Mu-karda, habituated, 
p ^f^ Idiun, blood ; killing, murder. 
V j\ykr^ khun-khicur, blood-devouring, san- 
guinary, blood-thirsty. 
p £j\yi^yii~ khun-Mwdragl, ferocity. 

p i^y^ khuy (the same as }:>- khu), habit, tem- 
per, disposition. 

p A^^^ kJiawld, green corn, wheat or barley 
not yet in ear. 

p ^jM.>y>~ khwesh, self; one's own; (my, thy, 

his, her=<, its, ours, your, their) own ; kins- 
man, relative, relation. 

p Jj^lij^^ kJiweshdwand, kinsman. 
p ^::ulLjj:>- Mwesh-tan, own person, self; own. 
Pj^J jji-ijy>- khweshtan-ddr, temperate, ab- 

-j»^ khweshtaned, of your own ye are. 

A (LoL khigdr, cucumber. 

A Jl^^i- Mayul, imagination, fancy, thought, 
notion, idea, conceit, whim, caprice; phan- 
tom, ghost, spectre, apparition, v^^jij^j JW^ 
khaydl bastan, to suppose, imagine, form a 
notion, entertain an idea, dream of. 

A ilLsi- khagdlan (ace.) as an apparition. 

p ^_^_AJl JL:s- khaydl-andesh, fantastic, chim- 
erical, conceited, whimsical, vain. 

A iiU^. khiydnat, perfidy, treachery, treason, 
disloyalty, insincerity. 

^ -ujK^ khiynnate, an act of disloyalty, a 

case of treason, an instance of treachery. 

^ r-p^ Midir, well ; good, virtuous, fair, happy, 
honourable ; goodness, kindness, kind atten- 
tion ; any desirable moral excellence ; goods, 

riches, good things. apc^..wj^ -H=*- khair ast, 
it is well ; is it well ? 

p ij^ Idara, malignant, malevolent ; indolent, 
toi-pid; stupid, grovelling; angry, moody. 

p y_^j ij^ Unra-rdi, of dark or mean under- 
standing, grovelling. 

Pjj ij^ Mira-ru, shameless, impudent. 

p — J a->-< yftra-sar, headstrong ; eilly, stupid, 

p ^^j^ Miezdn, rising. ^\\^% yj^^ uftdn 
u kJiezdu, now falling and now rising, i.e. 
with difficulty. 

p i^ju j-j>- khezldan, to rise, spring. 

p J-^ khail, troop, body of men ; tribe. 

p jJjliL^ khailtdsh, fellow-soldier, comrade ; 
commander, general ; name of an athlete. 

p <UUi~ (J^>~>- kkail-kJidna, illustrious family. 

AtU«j>- khatmat, tent, tabernacle, ap ^J)j <U-»si- 
khaima zadan, to pitch a tent. 

Jb Jy 

p jb ddd, he gave ; gift ; justice, measure, re- 
dress; cry for redress or justice. 
tuwu7i ddd, one can give. 

p ^jb dddan, to give, surrender, resign, yield ; 
to give leave, allow, suffer, permit. 

p ^_,-jb ddde, justice, judgment (emphatically) : 

he used to give. 
V j\d ddr, keep (imp. of t:;-!^ ddshtan). 
p ..b ddru, medicine, di'ug, physic, remedy. 

•J^ tJ*)^'^ (?arMy« talkh, bitter medicine, 
p -»i' . lb ddr u gir, pomp, bustle, consequence, 
p (^« '^'^ ddru^e, a certain medicine, a drug, 
p ^_Sj\^ ddrl, thou boldest, supportest, keepest, 

maintuinest (rt. ^jiJ^\^ ddshtan). 
p M^ tb ddraini (obi. of ^^^^1 J ddrdni, du. of jb 

dd7'), two worlds, both worlds, 
p ^:;J;»1 J ddshtan, to have, hold, possess, keep ; 



( 48 ) 


to keep up, maintain ; to place, deposit ; to 
withhold, withdraw; towear. ,.fi^^J •i-v-jJ 
dast dusJdan, to hand over, to restore. 

A js^^f^ dci-A, inviting, stimulating; the author 
or cause of anything. 

A i^z\j du^jat, cause, source ; claim, preten- 
sion, call. 

p /»\c> dam, snare, net, gin, springe. 

r *\j duma, mr.y he (or it) he perpetual, or 
continue (3 •^ex. pret. concave ^ wdw, used 
optatively). £lC1-« j^lj ddma mulhihu, may 
his kingdom endure ! 

I- jI^Ij dumad, son-in-law. 

p j^»^iJ daman, skirt of a garment ; base of a hill. 

p j«^*^J ddmanam (for ^^ ivr*'"-^ ddmani man), 
my skirt, the skirt of my robe. 

p ^i-^lo ddmane, a skirt, a whole skirt. 

p i<<^J ddml, (thou) art the snare. 

p ^Ij ddn, know, consider (imp. of |j:u«jlj). 

p Ij'i J ddnd (pi. ^\j\i^ ddndydn), wise, knower, 
wise man. 

p JUIj ddiidtar, wiser. 

p (_Jl)lj ddndii, knowledge, science. Hundtc, 
a man of wisdom. 

p ^:i*uJ^J ddnistan, to know, consider, esteem, 

F ^:uuj^ J duniste, he might know ; he used to 


p j^^^J ddnish, knowledge, science, learning. 

p 43iiy»-i*3l J dunishmand, wise, intelligent, know- 
ing, learned. 

p ^ Jki/»..i* J \ J ddnishmande, acertain learned man. 

p t^^L^ dung, a weight, the fourth part of a 
dram ; the sixth part of a dinar. 

p^lt)f?awrt, grain, corn, seed; bait; bead; bead 
of a rosary. 

p iS^i^ ddnl, thou knowest (2 per. pres. of 

j_^"-juJ1j ddnistan). 

A Jji J JDd^^ud, David, king of Israel. 

jLi'i_$J»\jJ)dttidi, David-like, resembling David 

the sweet singer of Israel. 
p^j^J ddwar, judge, ruler; God. 
A a^^cV/dttVa^, circle, circumference, orbit; cycle. 

A Jlj ddnm, lasting, unintermitting, ceaseless; 
always, perpetually. 

p aj\j ddi/a, nurse, foster-mother. 

A (_»-J J dahlk, name of a small town in" Egypt, 
where they manufactured stuffs of gold tissue, 

which were called JujJ dahikl. 
A Jl^J dajjdl. Antichrist. 
A al=s-j dijlat, the river Tigris. 
A ,^>-'^ duja' , darkness. ,5=^0^^ (^d duja\ the 

darkness (the same for all three cases). 
V jUs>~ii duMtar (pi. ^ji^i^ duJihtardn), 

daughter; damsel, girl, lass. ^jX^\^ jxsS-J 

dukhtar khwustan, to ask a girl in marriage, 
to court, betroth. 

p (Ji^ir^J duJchtarak, little girl, young virgin, 

A J^ J dakhl, entering ; income, receipt, re- 

A J»^t^ dukhul, entrance, ingress, access, 

p J J dad (pi. ;^^i.3i3 daddn), wUd beast, beast 
of prey. 

p J J dar, in, into, within, among ; concerning, 

about, respecting, on, upon, at; under. ^;jSi 

1 J ba daryu dar, in the sea ; (pi. l&j J darhd), 

door, gate, avenue ; topic, subject. 1 J \\ az 
dar, by the door. 

A jj darr, milk, especially such as flows spon- 
taneously from the udder in a copious stream. 

Durr, pearl. *^^ ^J durri yatlm, rare, in- 
comparable pearl. 

p jl.J dard%, long ; outstretched, extended. 
iji^r'j^}'^ dardz kardan, to stretch forth. 

p (_fjM'^ dardzl, length. 

A 'iJ\j^ dirdsat, study, reading; lesson, lecture. 

p |^:ii-il J J dar dshuftan, to be disturbed, 

A alcljj durr di at, upper garment of cotton. 

p (jJ^I j^ dar dmadan, to come in, enter. 

p ^x=i-»^«l jJ dar dmokhtan, to teach. 


IjJl iJ dar anddlchtan, to hurl, cast. 


V ^\^\jJ dardnldan, to tear, to cause to burst, 
p lOi^^ijT .J dar uvardan, to bring in ; to bring 


( 49 ) 


V ^s£r_j\ J J d(ir utvelyhtan, to fasten on, to lay 

hold of, cling, liang to. 
p <!c>rsr\l jj dar dwekhta, suspended, 
p o' i"^ ^d'^' "*> enter thou, come in. 
A 'V.b'^ dirayat, knowledge, science ; quality ; 


p (^/i^U ^O dar hufxhtan, to play, stake, gamble 
away ; to lose at play. 

p j^Vj^ darlun, porter, doorkeeper, warder. 

p J jt> dar har, on, or in the breast ; in the 
arms. i^^r> j- j^ dar har Icardan, to put on 
(clothes); to wear, assume, ^^ui^ j ji^ dar 
bar giriftan, to put on, assume, wear. 

p ic^ ji^ darbasta, having the door shut, with 
closed doors, shut in. 

p JCJ J J dar band, in the bond ; enslaved. 

p j_^ jt> dar pas, in the rear. 

p «J jJ dar pa i, at the heels or footsteps. 

p (jii-J I J dar pesh, before, a-head, in front. 

p ,::lj»-j jJ dar paivastan, to join ; to be en- 
gaged in. 

p ^Ci^^ j<^ dar paivasta, engaged in. 

p CLJjJ darat, thy door, thy gate. 

A ^ 1 J darj, infolding, collecting, preserving, 
comprising, holding. Durj, casket. 

A O^U*- (J darajut (pi. of <ij>- i J darajat), steps ; 
ascendingdegrees(opposed tcJl^'li ii,^rfrtfrfl^-«^). 

A ^^j^ darajat, stej), degree, rank, dignity. 

A ^c^J»^ durje, a casket. 

p A jjlrw J J dar hul, immediately, instantly, 

p A fj^- J J dar halck, in reference, respect, or 

regard, concerning, on behalf. 

p <j:^s>-ji} diralcht (pi. ^l::.ri.j J diralMun), tree, 
shrub, bush. 

p t_;^^^' I'J rfrtr Jchwub, in sleep, asleep, jj 

• t^^y^- i<iy yhicubi, (thou) art asleep. 

p <^j^ j^ dar kkwurd, worthy, suited. 

p l)iJ dard, pain, ache, anguish. 

p ^J,J dardu (interj.), alas ! 

p ^^, jl Jj J dar dudan, to submit, yield, surrender. 

p Jc.-* J^iJ dardmand, afflicted, aching, suffering 
pain, pained. 

p aJ Jc^i^J dardmandlm, we are pained. 
p^,JjjjjJ dar ruludan, to seize, snatch, carry 

off; to save, rescue; to steal upon, 
p ^sJl^j J J dar rasunidan, to bring in. 

p ^ Jk-sT. . J dar ranjidan, to be annoyed, vexed. 

A {jMj^ dars, study, reading. 

p ^j:^\^ jLi dar sdMitan, to do with, to agree 

with ; to be satisfied and content, 
p l::-w^J darast (for l::^— -1 jJ dar asi), is in, 

is comprised. Durust, complete, entire, 
sourid ; just, right, true, valid ; healed. 

p iJ'ji Li c:_^^iJ durust nd harda, unfinished, 
not done correctly. 

p ^Siy^ ji^ dar siteztdati, to strive obsti- 
nately and pertinaciously. 

p .-• jj dar sar, in the head. 

p l::-^j J dtirusJit, hard, harsh ; rugged, rough ; 
thick, firm ; stem, surly. 

p »>- c:.^-ij J durusht-Mu, rough-tempered. 

p », c:.-,wijL> dicrusht-ru, crabbed-faced. 

p Ji-ijiJ duriisJiti, roughness ; unkindness, 
harshness, severe treatment, severity. 

p ,^>^l:iJ ji^ dar fidddan, to fall, to fall in. 

p A Ui J J dar kafd, behind. 

A Cl-il^.J darahdt (j)l. of dSjJi daralcat), steps 

for descending, descents. 
p Jjl ili^J dar kdr and, are at work, are busy. 

p i jLl.^ jj dar-kushdda, open-doored, having 
the door open. 

p i^jk-JLi ,J dar kashldan, to draw in, con- 
tract ; to suppress, restrain, refrain ; to drag. 

p ili I J dar-gdh, court, gate, threshold ; shrine ; 
palace, king's court. 

il Jo jj dar guzdshtan, to pass by ; to pass 


p ^jk-j|^iAS'jJ dar guzrdnidan, to cause to pass. 

p j^:i-i Jo iJ dar guzashtan, to elapse, to pass 

on, to pass over, pass by, pass away, die. 
p ^^Sj'^ dar giriftan, to take effect, to impress. 

p ^fcV * S ji^ dar girav budan, to be in deposit, 

in pledge, in pawn, 
p ^r.,w^o iJ dar gusistan, to be broken or 

twisted, to break down, fail. 


( 50 ) 


r ^xJImSji^ dar gmildnldayi, to snatch, twitch, 

wrest, wrench, 
p /♦^(J daram (for ^J^ j<^ dart man), my gate. 

r >»jt> <?«>«>« (pi. \^j^ diramhu), money ; a 

silver coin worth aboixt twopence ; di'am 

p pJjU« jj dar mundagi, distress, sorrow, 

melancholy, depression, sadness ; want ; in- 

p ^jJU« iJ dar mundan, to be in want, at a 
loss, at a standstill, to stick, sink, flounder ; 
to be distressed. 

p aJc'L* jL> dar manda (pi. j^oJjl^^J dar man- 

daffdti), distressed, imfortunate. 
Pj\t> /•^J diram-dar (pi. ,^J^^ (*j'^ diram- 

durun), possessed of wealth, monied, rich, 
p ^<^ii diranie, a single dirhem. jc*:*- ls^*^ 

dirame cJiand, a few dirhems, a little money, 
p i^Li i^\y* ji^ dar miydni shun (for ^^U.^ jJ 

j^Luijl dar miyuni esTidn), among them. 

p lo^^-^ (v)W* j'^ ^^^ miydn nihddan, to lay 
before ; to entrust ; to expose ; to speak of. 

p iJjjJ darrinda, that which rends, rips, or 
tears ; rapacious, ravenous. 

p {.^J^jii dirang, delay, hesitation. 

p i5>Jji^ dirangl, tardiness, lingering, delay. 

p ^^jy) it> dar navardan, to travel. 

p ^^JkJj^ijJ^O dar navardldan, to wrap up, to 

fold together ; to obliterate. 
Pjj^J dar u, in him, in it, thereon. Dirav, 

harvest, reaping, 
p ij\ji<-^ daricdza, door, 
p 9j )J dtiro gh . lie, falsehood, untruth. 
p ^j 9})'^ durogh-zan, false, untrue, liar. 
p e^j (f-^ duroghe, a lie, a falsehood. ^'^ ^y f^ 

duro gh e hi, a lie that, 
p ijj^'^ darun, within, in ; heart, inside. 
p cJ'jj'^ ^^ '^^h upon him; in it. 
p ^j'^jj'^ diravidan, to mow, reap. 
r ^jio^jJ danvesh (pi. ^^Lio .jj darweshdn), 

poor, needy, indigent ; religious mendicant, 

p ClJy--> jjikJ^jJ darwesh-sirat, poor in spirit, 

of a humble disposition, having the manners 
or temper of a dervish. 

p L::_^i-<s ^^jLi^ • lO darioesh-sifat, dervish-like, 
endued with the qualities of a dervish. 

p i^jij^j J darwesM, the condition of a dervish, 
poverty. Darweshe, a dervish, certain dervish. 

p li^J darhu (pl.jt) rfrtr), doors; gates, l_?^;^> 
j^L*«j1 darhdyi dsmdn, windows of heaven. 

p *JS> .J dar ham, together; perplexed, con- 
fused, intertwined ; pell-mell ; vexed, an- 
noyed. Dirham, a drachm, a dirhem. 

p jjl:Ji f^J^ darham uftuda, fallen into chaos 
and confusion, embroiled, entangled. 

p j^Ju..i»i t^jJ darham JcasMdan, to draw to- 
gether, to contract. 

p LJji^ dare, a door. 

p Uj J daryd, sea, ocean ; any large river, as the 

Indus or Nile, l^ Jt^ i_s\i ji^ darydyi ma^rih 

Western Sea, Mediterranean. <iJ'U:iO t_5^j'^ 

darydyi haftgdna, the seven seas. jJ ^j'V 
bar daryd dar, in the sea, into the sea. 

p c-ib jj dar ydh, know thou, consider, be 
wise (imp. of |^j:xJU ^J dar rjdftan). 

p i^uil) jj dar ydftan, to discover, find out, 
apprehend, understand, comprehend. 

p ^VsTjj daricha, window, small door. 

p i^JkjjJ darldan, to rend, tear, rip. 

p ifJojJ darida, rent, torn. 

p f-i^j^ diregh, alas ! what a pity ! pity, harm ; 
denial, refusal; repugnance, reluctance, un- 
willingness ; sorrow, vexation, grief, remorse. 

jjL)^.»=i- j-rlj-^ dire gh JJiwurdan, to grieve, to 

be vexed. |^,:x.l^J 'f->j^ diregh ddshtan, to 
deny, grudge, refuse, withhold, keep back. 

p Uj 1 J direghd, alas ! ah ! well-a-day ! 

p 1^ tO dar'in, in this ; in these (another mode 
of writing ^.^ j<^ dar In). 

p i>Wj<^ daryuza, mendicancy, mendicity. 

p JJO duzd (pi. Lr)^-^]^ dusddn), thief, robber. 

p i^^j^ duzdl, theft, robbery. Dmde, a cer- 
tain tluef, a robber, 
p .,Joj;j duzdulan, to steal, rob, thieve, 
p w::->-c J dast (pi. L;:—- J dasthd), hand ; paw ; 



( 51 ) 


pre-eminence, superiority, victory. l::..'^~)Jj 
i^^j»^ id dast uvardan, to gain, secure. 

p .U-jJ dastdr, turband ; apron; apronful. 

p l::.-a^-Ju c:-.w!j dast la dast, (from) hand to 


zadan, to wring the hands 

Li-wjJ (fas^ bar dast 




J J (f/z«< ia/* dushtan, to withdraw 

the hand ; to leave, let alone, 
p i^JuLlLJj c:-.%-j J (fo«< lar Jishundan, to rub the 

hands together (for joy). 
p ^S^ o^-jJ dast-tangi, straits, penury, 
p ^^t3^ J l::— sJ <f«.?< dCidan, to give a hand ; to 

help, aid, assist, favour, promote. 

p (-.J Vi.:^—0 dast-ras, come to hand, obtained, 

within one's power; means of subsistence, 
livelihood ; friendly. 

p il>c-»jj dast-gdh, help, relief; power, strength, 
means, ability ; wealth. 

p ^jJc^J dast-glri, taking by the hand ; aid, 

help, assistance, iji-^J t_>;tr^->~*'^ dast-giri 
kardan, to hand over. 

p *i-;J dastam, my hand. 

dast u pa, hand and foot. 

:,-».-.0 dast u pa hurida, amputated 
in hands and feet. 
V jy^->i dastiir, custom, habit; prime minister, 
p <ii~)J dasta, handful, bundle ; handle. 

p (^f^iib f^::^^-^ dast yuftan, to get the hand, 

to triumph, 
p e:.-^J dasht, desert, plain without water, 
p ^^Y*^^'^^ dushnan (pi. ^^..aJ^^ dushuandn), 

foe, enemy, foeman. 
p -^li ^jAJtiJ dushman-kdni, (foe's wish) death. 
i-> dashmanl, enmity, hostility. 

p ijjj b ^ 

p *li-ii^ dushndm, abuse. 

p ^l:-lJ dmlmdme, an abusive word; abuse, 

incivility, rudeness. 

p (^»-iJ dushwdr, not easy, difficult; harsh, 
painful, distressing. 

A 'It J dUiUi, prayer, invocation, intreaty, sup- 
plication ; benediction. r;>>- (-/^-^"^ dutdgi 
khair, prayer for welfare. 

A ^Uj duid^e, a praj-cr ; an imprecation. 

A. \^ii da^aw, they called upon (or, they call 
upon) (pret. of the rt. IcJ, defective j wdw). 

A i^i^ da-jwat, prayer, suit, petition ; invita- 
tion; convivial meeting, feast, banc^uet, en- 
tertainment, a p^jU^^i J dacwatash, his prayer. 

X ^ys:J da-^a\ claim, demand; plea, excuse; 

plaint ; petition, suit at law, prosecution ; 
assumption, pretension. 

p lij daghd, imposture, cheat, fraud. 

p j^liJ daghdn, impostor, hypocrite. 

p Jlc J daghal, false, base, spurious ; vice, fraud. 

p i_jj daf, a single drum, i.e., with only one 
skin; tambourine. 

py^wij daftar, book, register, journal, record, 

folio, volume. 
A «_ij dafi^ repelling, parrying, averting, 

checking, keeping off. a p ^J^^ ^ ^ ' f-^^duf^ 

anddkhtan, to refuse, defer, postpone. 
A|^ J dafn, burial, sepulture, interment, a p ^ji J 

^i^S dafn hirdan, to inter, bury. 
A ^J daklc, defamation, calumny, slander. 
A <iiLJ-^ daJcikat, particle ; nice point, subtlety. 
A ^iliJ dukdn, shop, 
p ij digar (pi. i^^^ digardn), other, different ; 

any more, again. 
-p j\i ^^ digar bdr, another time, again, 
p ij\j ^J digar hdra, again, once more, 
p ijS^ digar rah, another road; another time, 
p oy>J digar e, another. 

p Jj dil, heart. (^^^^-J J-> dil nihddan, to 
set the heart. 

p Aj^>^ dil-drdm, heart-pleasing, heart-refresh- 
ing, solacing, delightful ; lover. 

p <Sjj 1 i,.::..-wjJ j\ J J dil a% dast rafta, one who 
has lost his heart ; lorn, forlorn. 

p iJ.jl J J dil-dzarda, displeased, irritated, 

nettled, provoked, pained, distressed, 
p <Jai-i)l J J dil-dshufta, distressed in mind, 
p \^ji\ J J dil-afroz, heart inflaming. 
A ^^ J daldlat, indication ; proof, evidence. 

p iJj dil-dvar, stout-hearted, bold, brave, in- 
trepid, valiant. 


( 52 ) 

T^j^ii^dil-uvan, intrcpi(lity,boldnoss; contest. 

p ifcisTj^ J dil-uweJchta, enamoured ; loved. 

t \}Jij dil-uwez, heart- attracting, alluring, 

charming, ravishing. 
p J J dil-har, charming ; charmer. 

p lJj^'^ dil-harl, captivation of the heart. Dil- 
bare, a captivator of the heart, ii charmer. 

p ^Szjm^^ dil-bastagi, attachment, heart-union. 
p i!;j.A**Jj dil-hasta, united in heart, attached. 

p JkiJo dil'land, heart-binding ; agreeable, 
lovely, charming, fascinating. 

p c:.--!j dilat, thy heart, thine heart. 

r j.^.^Uj dil-tang, heart-sick, disheartened, 
sad, vexed, distressed, out of spirits. 

r ^S^ ^ dil-tangl, distress, depression of spirits, 
sadness; heart-burning; oppression. 

p , ,i».s'J dil-l-hwrcih, pleased, satisfied, con- 
tented, cheerful, glad ; appeased. 

p )l ji J dil-dur, possessing or holding the heart ; 
. charming. 

p ^--ilj^ f^j^\ Jo dil zijdn bar ddshtan, to 
give up Uie hope of life. 

p j_^l:x«J J dil-situn, heart-taking, fascinating, 
p U^J dil-froz, enlivening, glad, joyous. 

p * -,j .i! J dil-farlh, heart-stealing, cheating, 

bewitching, deceitful, 
p j^Ij dalk, dervish's habit, rags, 
p (^^ilxij dil-hash, heart-attracting, alluring. 
plxLil! J fW-^7M72a,heart-expanding, exhilarating. 

p sJ^ J J dil-murda, dead, at heart, cold- 

p ^J dile, a heart, a single heart. 

p jjj dillr, bold, brave, audacious, courageous. 

p ^5>!-> diliri, courage, boldness, audacity. 

A (JJo dalil, guide, conductor; proof; argu- 
ment, demonstration. 

p /♦J dam, respiration, breath ; moment ; gulp, 

draught, ^jj'^ji^ A C^ ^^"-^'^ ^^^' S-vardan, to 
draw a breath, ^^j; *>^dam%adan, to breathe; 
to proceed. Dum, tail. 

AjU»Li damur, ruin, destruction, 
r 6t«J dimiigh, brain; conceit, fancy, notion, 
pride, consequential airs. 

p j^l'^ J daman, swift ; powerful ; terrible, 
furious, unruly. 

p * Jw« J dam ba dam, moment to moment, each 

p ^A-JUi jJ A J dam dar kashidan, to cease to 
breathe, to be silent, hold one's breath. 

Aj^J dammir, hurl thou ruin and destruction 

(imp. of 2nd form of the root -^ J). 

p^_j:A,*Ji)««»W(;, Damascus, the capitalof Syria. 

p [j^-J dami, inflated, puffy, tumid, windy, gouty. 

Dame, an instant, one moment. J^^»^ is^*^ 
dame chand, a few moments. 

A l?l^O dimyut, Damietta in Egypt. 

A '.?L-^J dimydti, a species of fine cotton 

cloth or stuff made at Damietta, dimity, 
p ^jJu.^ (J damidan, to blow, bloom, expand ; 

to sprout (as an incipient beard) ; to appear, 

to burst forth as the dawn. 

p aJk-^J damida, blown, blooming, budded, 
shot forth. 

p JLlO damlul, tail, stern; rudder. 

p io^^^ dandan, tooth. 

p (jl JjJ dandune, one tooth, a single tooth. 

A \^Jdicn)ja\ world, earthly posssession. Li j\\ 
^J.\>^\ J ad diingd' tva 'd din, the world and 
religion, (church and state). ^^J t/W*^ '^"'*" 
yCiyi dun, base world. l-JJ lI^'L^ haydti 
dunya\ the present life. 

V j\i^ [jjdunyd'-ddr, (holding the world), man 
of the world, wealthy person ; worldling. 

A i-iVJ- duiiyawly, worldly, secular. 

PjJ du, two; both. 

A M^J dawdi, medicine, remedy, a p ^Jiji Uo 

dawd kardan, to medicate, to treat medically. 

A <— J^.J daivdbb (pi. of (L;\j ddbbat), cattle, 
beasts, brutes. {D'ncabb is often employed 
in the sense of the singular.) 

A *\»J dawdm, perpetuity, duration. /♦^^■J*'^ /X^ 
ipla ^d dawdm, perpetually, uninterruptedly. 

p (O^jO dav)dn, running ; runner. 

p ^vXJ^^J dawdnldan, to cause, suffer, or allow 
to run. 

A (_j^^-^ dawds.e, a remedy, a medicine. 

p lU .J du bar, twice. 



( 53 ) 


p Sj\j jt> du hura, a second time, twice. 
p jJVj »J da. hirudar (not ^^j^\ri j<^ du hiru- 
darun), two brothers. 

r Ij .J <?u td, double, twofold ; convex or con- 
cave, bent. 

A <Jj«».tJ dauhat, grove, orchard, thicket. 

p ^^:^%^ doMtan, to sew ; to close up ; to 

broider ; to transfix, pierce, 
p <)a>-»J dohhta, sewed, sewed up, closed, 
p J.J dud, smoke. J J J.J dudi dil, smoke 

from the heart, sigh, groan. 
p j^L«JjJ dudmun, great tribe, family. 
A (.J daur, revolution ; cycle, time ; the world ; 

fortune ; cup handed round by guests. i.J 

yi- \ dauri ulihir, last going round of the cup. 
PjjJ dur (pi. (j\,|«>.^ diirun), far, distant, 

remote ; avaunt ! p *j»ij duram, I am far. 

p i jlsj^ 1. J dur uftuda, strayed away, wandered 

afar off, gone to a distance. 
A ^j»'^ dauran, revolution, circle, cycle, 
p _i ;.J dozal-h, hell, 
p i^Tb-JjJ dozaMl (pi. ^^^f^j*^ doza'khiyun), 

infernal ; prisoner in hell ; damned, 
p ^::— «#;. J dost (pi. ^^J^c^^i^ dostuti), friend, lover. 

ijix-l^J l:i-^-j.J dost ddshtan, to love, like, 

fancy, hold or esteem as a friend. 
Pj\jc.-jjJ dost-dur, friendly, friend. 

p tj c:--^j J dost-ru, having the countenance 

of a friend, amiable. 
p ^^^i^ dostl, friendship, alliance, love. Doste, 

a friend, a certain friend. 

p (>^j^ dosh, shoulder ; last night. 

p il--l.J doshlza, virgin. 

p V.J do^, sour milk, buttermilk, whig, whey. 

p ij^»~ dukun, shop. 

p <5JOjJ dugdna, twofold; a prayer in which 
two inclinations of the body are made. 

<Jjli.J dugr'aiate, a single one of such prayers. 

A ij.J daulat, wealth, fortune, prosperity, hap- 
piness; power; reign, empire, dynasty. 

^ ^.J daulate, a fortune. 

p *jJ duwum (or ^jrr'*}'^ duwumln), second. 

p ..J dlin (pi. i^ljj^ dundn), mean, sorry, 
shabby, base, low, vile. 

A ^j. J duna, beside, short of, exclusive of. j^^ J 

^"j] < }\s!^\ duna 7 tazdbi 7 akhar, besides 

the greater (or sorer) punishment. 

p **5 . J <?M nlm, two halves ; in two, in twain. 

p ^cJJb .J du hafta, two se'nnights, a fortnight. 

p , ,Jo .J davtdan, to run. 

p iJ dah, ten. 

p i J dih, village, hamlet, town ; (imp. of ^jJi J 
dddan), give thou; (in comp.), giver. 

p ^J^^ dahdn, mouth; orifice; jaws. 

p ^JlJ^J dahdne, the mouth. 

p \a>- iJ dih-khudu (or t_^^ Jcj- iJ dih-kJruddi), 

head man of a village, 
p JJ&J dihad, he (she or it) gives or may give 

(rt. ^;<^^t> dddan). 
A .^J dahr, time, age, eternity ; world; fortune. 
A <i[/ljbj dahshat, fear, awe, dismay, 
p j^UaJ dihlcdn, villager, rustic, peasant, 
p ^uj ^J^^ dihlcdn-pisar, peasant's boy. 
p JJ^J duhul, drum, tabour. 
p jJjbJ dihilz, vestibule, portico, 
p l::^*«J&J dihamat, I should bestow on thee, 
p (^J dahan, mouth, 
p ^J dahane, a mouth. 

A lb J diydr (pi. of i^J ddr), houses; (pi. of 
isyj dairat), countries, regions, provinces, 

A Jo il) J Diydr-hahr, name of the country 
anciently called Mesopotamia. 

A (Lb J diydnat, religion, adherence to religion, 
conscience, conscientiousuess,honesty, probity. 

p LjJ dihd, brocade, cloth of gold. 

p ()Lr>- Lj J rfzifvy'tf, preface; frontispiece of a book 

(often decorated with gold and colours). 
A ,'i^J dlbah, brocade, 
p j^jjj dlddr, sight, look, view, interview. 

p jjl^joJ dldamash, I saw, beheld, viewed, 
or regarded him. 

p .(OkJJ dldan, to see, perceive, behold, look 
at, notice, observe, witness ; to meet with, 
suffer, expcrieuee. 


( 54 ) 


p sSiJ dida, seen ; having seen ; eye-sight, 
p ikX>k> dida^^e, thou hast seen, 
p J J dlr, late, long, slow ; old, antique. 
YjjJ jj dlr dlr, very seldom, at rare intervals, 
after a long time ; very late. 

p ^_Ai^ dlrlna, old; long lived; of long stand- 
ing ; a long while. 

p j^j ^_jf^'^ dlrina-roz, old, aged, ancient. 

p <,^Ji\^ deg, pot, cauldron. 

v^^dlgar (pi. ^ Xj J digardn), other, another; 

on the other hand; besides, moreover, further, 
again ; any more, any longer. 

p (^|^;J digardn, others, other persons. 

p lb Xo dlgar-hur, another time, again. 

p aJ ijJ dlgar dam, another moment. 

V \^j J^j^ dlgar ro%, next day. 

vx^^i^yji^ dlgar walct, another time. 

p tjyv.'^ dlgare, one other ; the other. 

A ijjj dm, religion, faith, creed. sj:-JjJ j jjjJ 
din u daulat, church and state. 

apjUj J dinar, a silver coin weighing seven or 
ten drachms. 

p , ^^j W'^ i-)^.'^ ^^^ ^^ dunya^-farosh, a seller, 
or one who barters religion for the world. 

p »jj dlv, devil, daemon, spirit. 

p .1 V<^ dlwar, wall. 

p i^^ V.i^ dlwun, finance department ; tribunal 
of justice or revenue ; a complete series of 
odes running through the whole alphabet, 
the verses of the first class terminating in 
\ , of the second in ^-', and so on. In Per- 
sian the diwans of Hafiz and Jam! are the 
most celebrated. i^W.^ k_^»- w suhihi dlwun, 
comptroller of the finances, chancellor of the 

p '^jW^ dlwdna, mad, crazy, deranged. 

p ij^».0 dlwdnl, belonging to a court of law or 

exchequer ; a financier ; financial. 
p c:-^.8^ yi>^ dlv-sifat, devil-like, like devils, 
p <0J dlh, village. 

A \j zd, he ; this. 

A ^^\\ \j zd 'llazl, he who. 

A lu\j zdt, person, body ; nature, essence, soul, 

self; genus, species, race, breed. 
A ji- J zukhr, treasure ; provision, store, hoard. 
A i^*>-J zafdilraf, store, hoarded supply. 
A ijJ zarrat, atom, particle, little. 

A^J zil:r, memory, mention, memorial, re- 
membrance, recital ; repeating of the names, 

attributes,orpraisesofGod. ^Jip jj hazikrash, 
in His praise, in the mention of Him. 

A (J J zull, baseness, abjectness, meanness, dis- 
grace, humiliation. 

A XJ J zillat, error, blunder ; disgrace ; base- 
ness, vileness. 

A ^J^'-i zillate, a base passion, a vile propensity, 

anything shameful, scandalous, disgraceful, 
and dishonourable. 

A ;.liJj zulika, that. 

A JJj zalil, abject, mean, sorry, despicable. 

A *J zamm, blame, detraction. 

A *jl^J zamuHtn (pi. of tU-».^J zamimat), 

crimes, misdeeds, base and reprehensible 
qualities, culpabilities. 

A v__-.3j zanab, tail. 

A J J zu, endued with, possessed of (always 

found in composition), ^^j^^ j^^ 2"'^ hurha\ 
possessed of relationship, kinsman. 
A jliiiJl .J zulfaJcdr, name of the celebrated 
sword which formerly belonged to ^jJ ^js\^\ 

<Ui.^ Al ids bin munahhih, an unbeliever 
■who was slain at the battle of Badr. It 
became the property of Muhammad, and 
afterwards fell into the possession of his 
son-in-law and successor, the caliph Ally. 

A Miyi^ ji^ 2u7 nun, a name of Abu Fazl Suban 
bin Ibrahim, a celebrated ^luhammadan 
saint, chief of the Sufis, who died in Egypt, 
A.n. 245. 

A jj^J zauh, taste, relish, gust, delight. 

A 4_f^j zawl (obi. of ^jJ zawii, pi. of .J zu), 

possessed of, endued with. ,<jyij^ sO^ ^^^'^^ '^ 
kurhC, possessed of afiiuity, relatives, rela- 
tions, kinsmen. 

A u-^JJ ziih, wolf. 

A Jj j zail, lappet, or train to a robe, lower 
extremity, skirt of a garment. 



( 55 ) 



r \j rd, sign of the oblique case in Persian. 

A CU\j ra->at, she saw (rt. ^\j ra^a', he saw). 

A is>~\ . rCihat, quiet, repose, rest, ease. 

'P \\j ru%, secret, mystery. 

A \jM\f ra^^s, head ; <)~j|^ ratstdm, his head. 

r ci^-j^ rust, straight, direct, exact, correct, 
right, true ; the right hand ; immediately, 
directly. c-fe'^)^ e:^-j|^ rust k/itcdJn, thou 
wantest the truth ; askest thou the truth ? 

p Jw-.^-J|^ rdsttar, truer, more correct. 

p (.t^s-* u:.-w:l^ rdst-stiMan, true in speech, 

p ^J^-^^j rdsti, truth, veracity ; rectitude ; 
straightforwardness ; rank of dexter. 

A '^\j rdsikh, firm, solid, steady ; profoundly 
learned, standard, classical (author), 

A ^\j rdztn (for ^^^j rdziyun), pleased, satis- 
fied, contented. 

A ^^\j rdzi, content, satisfied, pleased, ac- 
quiescing. Kv t^\j rdzi'yam, I am content. 

A (<c\; ^«^^ shepherd, pastor. 

A k_^tj rdkih, riding; rider, ^^-i^^l k_^^j 
rdkiha 7 mawdshl, (as) riding"(or a rider of) 
the beasts. 

A (-i^L^lj ruMhdt (pi. of 'i^\j rukihat, fern, of 

i,^^\j rdkib), female riders. 
V ^'^^j randan, to drive, goad, spur, impel, 

propel, push forward, urge onward, chase 

away, expel ; to attack, fall foul upon ; to 

carry on. 

p \^\j ruiu, they (masc.) saw (rt ^^\j rata'). 

p i\j rah, way, road, path ; voyage, journey. 

p sJj^ i^j ruh-na-hurda, untravelled. 

A ^\j ra!-y, view, opinion, judgment, sentiment. 
A p JcJj ^\j rdyi buland, exalted understand- 
ing. (^,J ; ,^\j rat zadan, to give an opinion. 

A ij\j ra<-yat, standard, flag, banner, ensign. 

A c:-^jl I ras-aita, thou saw est, or seest (rt. 
^\j rata'). 

A ^j rate, an opinion ; a new opinion. 

A L-Jj rahb, lord ; Creator, God ; lord ! i u 

^jli\ rahbu 7 arzi, Lord of the earth. 

A L-Jj rubba, many. J^; Jus ^_^ rubba sadikin, 
many a sincere friend. 

A \:\ij rildt, any public building, as an inn, 
caravanscry or monasterj'. 

A (c^V ) rubd^iy, a verse of four hemistichs, 

tetrastic, quatrain, 
p ^jj'^^j rubdtldan, to seize, rob. 
A v^j rabband, our Lord ! (accusative used 

for the vocative), 
p (j^^^S riibudan, to snatch, steal, ravish ; to 

withdraw onc's-self. 
A %-^j rabl-,, the spring, vernal season. 
A ^jf^j rabli I, vernal. 
A j^j rajm, pelting with stones. 

A d\s%. I rt'hlat, march ; departure ; death. 

A ^»,^- ) rahm, compassion, mercy, Rahim, womb. 

A ^^'♦•^-j {or ^^jyt>s>~j) rah man, merciful. (j/*«=0^ 

>-.£»-Jl ar rahmdnu V rahlm, the merciful, 

the pitiful ; the most merciful. 
A <U>=^ rahnat (or rahamat), pity, mercy, 

clemency ; blessing ; a mercy, a gift of the 

Divine mercy. <uLc i^\ il^s>- ■ rahmatu 'Huh 

c-alaihi, the mercy of God (be) upon him. 

A p i^i^j} \ <L^A,:»~j rahmat dvardan, to shew 

pity, to exercise mercy. 

A ^}-^j rah'il, journe)', departure. 

A (tf^j rahlm, merciful, full of pity. 

A (t^j rulchdm, marble, alabaster. 

p c:-oi-j rakht, furniture, stuff, apparatus, 
apparel, baggage, luggage. 

V j\ms-.j ruJchsdr, cheek. 
vssJ!i.:>^j rakhshanda, shining, bright, dazzling, 


rakhshidan, to shine, flash, glitter. 
A dj radd, return ; restitution, restoration ; refu- 
tation. i^\^ Jj raddi jawdb, rejoinder, 
p \j raz, vine, grape. 
X jj ruzz, rice. 

A ^\j rizh, support, sustenance, subsistence, 
rations, daily bread, provision, allowance 



( 56 ) 


appointed by Providence, /•yj*-* Jm rizhin 

ma<~luinu)i, an assured subsistence. 

A iuLj^t risulat, letter, epistle, missive; treatise, 
pamphlet, tract. 

p ^^Ljj rasunidan, to cause to arrive, send, 
bring, transport, carry ; to inflict. 

p ft^^-^j Rustain, son of Zal, the most renowned 
of the heroes of ancient Persia, their Hercules. 

r i^/i-^ rastan, to be liberated, escape, get free. 

p jj^-j; riistan, to grow, sprout. 

p ikx^j rasta, escaped ; saved. 

A j^j rasm, law, canon, rule, custom, habit, 

A ^^*^j rasmi, a custom ; customary. 
p \y^j niswu, disgrace. 

A J^j rasul (p pi. ^y^j rasulan), messenger, 
apostle ; propliet. 

PC^-^Ju-j;r«si<frts^ (equivalent to ^.::^J\ sXy^j 

rasida ast), has arrived, 
p ^S^j rasldan, to arrive, reach, touch, attain, 
p it'^'^j rasida, arrived. 
A i^j rasksh, sprinkling, aspersion. 
A * — c-ij rashf, drop, sip, suck. 
p lLSJ^j rashk, emulation, zeal, envy. 

A i^-^j rishwat, hrihe. a p ^t^j^ 
Mwurdan, to take bribes. 



3j ri%di, content, satisfaction, acquiescence, 

resignation, good will, consent, good plea- 
sure, favour ; content, satisfied. 

A u--«sj razlnd, we are satisfied. 

A i^-^j rutah, ripe dates. 

A bUj ra^uya^ (pi. of dl^j ra-ayat), subjects. 

A ^yS'j rii.uyat, care, attention; respect, regard. 

p^Jp^lsls- Li^jlr;^ ri-Jiyati Ijhdtir kardan, 
to respect, to attend to the wishes. 

A Sz-j ra-Jl, thunder. 

p Lzj ra-^nu, delicate, tender, beautiful. 

AtUcj ra^yat, subject, peasant, cultivator, ryot. 

A <U^j raghhat, strong desire, wish, inclina- 
tion, avidity, greediness. 

Pjlsij raftur, going, travelling ; travel. 

P ^J^J raftan, to go, depart ; to escape ; to at- 
tain ; to descend. 

p ^'^j rnftan, to sweep. 

p icjj rafta (pi. ^l>^ i rafiagmi), gone, set off, 

passed, departed, travelled ; dead, deceased. 
A «_jj r«/t, lifting, raising, elevation ; promo- 
tion ; removal (from an office) ; (in grammar) 
Zamraa, i.e. the short vowel u at the end of 
a word in nouns, denoting the nominative. 

A ^ij rifk, benignity, courtesy. 

A iJ^ I rafkat, rifkat, or rufkat, a company of 
fellow-travellers ; society, friendship. 

A *-^j fdp'i^f raised, high, exalted. 

A (J^j rnflk (p pi. ^^^j raflkun), com- 
panion, associate, friend. 

A »~Uj rikdh (pi. of iLjj rakahat), necks. 

A \^j^j raks, dancing ; capering ; ambling, 

A ix'i, ruk^at, patch ; letter, short note, scrap 
of paper ; petition, ap tUij y <uij rukui bar 
ruk'.a, patch upon patch. 

a Jfj rahn, writing, inscription. 

A > ^ij raklb, rival, competitor; watcher. 

A (LJsj rukyat, incantation, magic, spell. 

A t— ^lij rikdh, stirrup. 

A d^j rukbaf, the knee, ^^^jrukbatl, my knee. 

A ^y^j rakibu, they embark (pret. of i_-^j). 

A ijtj 1 raktat, a devout inclination of tlie body 
during prayer, so that the hands touch or 
rest upon the knees. 

A CS^j raklk, thin, slender, mean, paltry, 
petty, weak, small. 

p i^j rag, vein. t^J^ *.Lf> ragi jdn, heart- 

p ^\ cjj rag-zan, phlebotomist, bleeder. 

A ^y^j rimdynt, shooting; archery. 

A ^Ul^ ramazdn, the ninth month of the Mu- 
haroniadan year. A strict fast was enjoined 
by Muhammad upon all his followers from 
sunrise to sunset daily throughout this month. 


ramak, last breath, departing spirit. 

A ^'»j rama', he shot (a defective verb). ij)^j 

rama'ni, he shot me, he hit me. 
p ^A«.-« I ramJdan, to flee in terror, to be ^^rnred. 
r ^j ranj, trouble, labour; toil, moil; anguish, 

grief, pain, annoyance ; moodiness. 


( 57 ) 


r ^JujlrsT. ranj'dmdan, to displease, annoy, 
vex, put to grief, affect with disgust. 

p (ji^=fj '''c^'^ji^h, pettishness, indignation. 

p L»,<l fjLs^Tj ranjish-umez, mixed with dis- 
pleasure ; angry, testy. 

p j^sT^ ranjur, sick, afflicted, ill, ailing, vale- 

p^.4^, ranjuri, sickness, disorder, distemper. 

p i^j ranja, pain, grief. 

p je^j ranje, a grief, a vexation, annoyance. 

p i^j>->.sr, ranjldan, to be displeased, oifended, 
vexed, put out of humour, annoyed, made sad. 

p iS^^csTj ranjlda, vexed, displeased, annoyed. 

p jJj rind (pi. ^^-J^j rmdiiti), debauchee, rake. 

p (.SJoj ranff, colour, hue ; dye, tint. 

p <^J^j^j rang-d-rang, many-coloured, of 
various hues, colours or kinds. 

p (j^yJ I rang in, coloured ; eloquent, flowery 
(language), florid (style). 

p^ rav, go thou (imp. of (j.-ij raftan). 

^ 3J ^^' ^^^^> surface ; consideration, sake, cause, 
reason. cJl>- <^»jr> bar rugi Miuk, on the 
face of the earth, on the bare ground. 

p \»j rated, lawful, allowable, passable, right, 
fit, proper. ^j^Jj^J \»j rawd ddshtan, to 
allow, permit, sanction. 

p ^^j ravdn, life, soul, spirit ; also (partic. of 
^J^j raftan), going, moving, shifting, run- 
ning. ^Jci ^jj ravdn shudan, to depart, 

set out. \^'^S iv)'j) J I'OiVdn hardan, to send 
away, to despatch, dismiss. 

p LjI ^^tj ravdn-dsu, soul-refreshing, spirit- 

p '^jj rob (imp. of (jJ^jj robldan), wipe. 

p i^_}j rubdh, fox. 

Pj^Juj.^. roJz^rtw, to wipe, sweep, dust; to clean. 

A ^jj ruh, spirit, soul. —»j LUys kuti ruli, 
food of the soul. 

p Jjj rud, river. Ravad, he goes, he may or 
might go (rt. (^i raftan). 

p aJ^j ruda, intestines, entrails, guts, viscera. 
{.^S^ !>t^jj ruda-i tang, narrow guts. 

p Jjij ro% (pi. of l^iji rozhd), day. j\j \^j rozi 

ddd, day of retribution. ^U-i Jj^rozi shumdr, 

day of reckoning. ^\ Ju.-« j*j rozi maiddn, 
daj^ of battle. 

S\>t rozake 



p k-^j^j rozah, a short day. 
chand, a few short days. 

p loj^j rozgdr (pi. i^j^j^j rozgdrdn), fortune; 
state, condition ; living, livelihood, means of 
subsistence ; time, life. ^'^y. j^jij t'ozgar 
hiirdan, to live, to associate. JlcI-u.^ l) .li \j> 

rozguri nd musdzfd, unpropitious fortune, 
hard times. 

p lSj^j^j rozgure, a time, some time, a length 

of time, a while, a long period. 
V ^j^j rauzan, window ; chimney, aperture for 

the escape of smoke. 
p ajjj roza, fasting, fast. 
p i^j^j rozi, fortune, luck, daily bread or food, 
p i^jjj raze, one day, a single day ; some day. 

Jc^ji- i^jjj raze chand, several days, many 

days. jJ t-ijv ^"^'^ ^^> ^ couple of days. 

<Lj j J i^j}j ^^^^ <^" **^> t^o 0^ three days. 

Pj^kS- ^j*jrozi-]Jiwdr{-^\.^j\^s>~ lSJ^j^ozi- 

Idiivurdn), eater of daily bread; a living 

p iJ i_5'»«; rozi-dih, giver of daily bread, be- 
stowing (or bestower of) subsistence. 

A *l-jjn ruiasds. (pi. of ^^/»*^J rans ), chiefs. 

p er^jj ruspl, harlot, whore, courtezan. 

p ^•t rustd, village, market-town. 

p ijUln-jjij rustd-zdda (pi. ^^S\jC.^»j rustd- 
zddagun), village-born ; rustic, villager. 

p ^^u-^jM rustui (pi. j^l)u«:i) rustdydn), pea- 
sant, villager, rustic. 

p ^L-jji, rustdye (or^^^^^^^j rustdie),a villager. 

p iT'^j ravish, gait, walk, carriage ; procedure, 
custom ; conduct, behaviour. 

p ij-ii^j roshan, bright, shining, clear, light, en- 
lightened ; limpid. 

p j^L-ijj roshndn, light, brightness. 

p i_$\j ij-^jj roshan-rdi, of enlightened judg- 

p -^^ ^J^^J roshan-guhar, bright-souled, lumi- 
nous, sparkling as a gem. 


( 5S ) 


A i^y rauzat, garden. 

p ^J^JJ ratighan, grease, oil, butter. 

A *^j Huni, the Turkish empire. 

APj^jlj rumi, Turkish, produced in Turkey. 

p iAJj^ rawinda (pi. i^^-^J^j rawindagun), one 
that goes ; traveller, passenger. 

p (Jjjj raunah, ornament, beauty, bloom, lustre, 
shine, glory. 

p i^ji. ruy (pronounced ru), face, countenance, 
aspect. j^tX-JL^ f^J'^ ^ij ^" darham Icashl- 
dan, to frown, i^ji^j cJj^ rwyi zamln, the 
face of the earth. i^'^S i^»j ^"^ kardan, to 
turn the face. Ravi, thou goest, mayest go 
(rt. ^^j raftan). 

p i.::-^^»j ruyat, thy face, thy countenance. 

p jj^Vij rundan, to grow, yegetate ; to make 

grow, cause to vegetate. 
p ^^*J ruiln, brazen, consisting of brass. 
p t^,^oo«- ^^jjj ruim-chang, brazen -clawed, 
p Hj rah, road ; time, turn. 

p \ii!j rdhii, leave, ^■^r' ^J rahd kardan, to 
leave, quit, abandon, put off, lay aside ; to 
give leave. 

V ^^\J\lbjrahdmdan,io cause or allow to escape; 

to save, free, deliver, rescue, release. 
p j3^; rahus-i, escape, deliverance, release, 

A iUJUA. rahhunlyat, monasticism ; monkery. 

/»L.;^i i^ <UJu&^ t la rahhdnlyata fi 'I islam, 

there are no monkish practices in Islam. 
^r^j rah-har, guide, road-guide, 
p j^^V !ij rah hurdan, to obtain the road, to get 

access to. 
p ^j^j rah-hari, guidance, direction. 
^ ii>j t) '^^^-'^^^1 robber, highwayman. 
Vji^i&j rah-guzar, passage, way. 
p t^wV.J&> rahldan, to rid one's self, escape, get 

free or clear of. 
A ^\jj riydi, hypocrisy. 
A <L)U; rhdsat, dominion, authority, headship; 

A ^\=s^.j raihdn, an odoriferous herb (as sweet 


p ^J^■^J rekhtan, to pour out, spill, scatter, 
shed, crumble. 

p acuiC^ relMa, crumbled ; shed, spilt, poured, 

p i>\ij reza, crumb, scrap, shred. 

p j^U^uJj rlsmdn, rope, string; cable, hawser. 

p ^J^lJ resh, wound, sore, blain, ulcer; bleed- 
ing, wounded, sore. Rish, beard; dress, 
suit of clothes for festive occasions. 

p (_^l^j reshdn, wounded, bleeding. 

A ^l^'J rattan, best of anything, flower or 

vigour of youth, 
p t^..;j reg, sand, ^^j . i^S^j regi ravdn, 

shifting sand, quicksands, 
p ^j rlv, fraud, deceit. 


pj zi (forj^ az), than ; of; from, out of. 

p jU zdd, provisions for a journey ; he was 

born (rt. i^^^j zudan). i\j J\j zddi rah, 

provisions for a journey. 
A jU zdda, (he or it) increased, was over and 

above, exceeded (concave ^5 ye). 
V /♦y S\\ zdd-hum, father-land, place of one's 

birth, native country, 
p (_^o u>^ ', zudagdn (pi. of * jlj zdda), bom ; 

children, young ones, 
p (<5t>U zddagl, birth, parentage, 
p ^ J^ ; zddan, to be born, arise, spring ; to give 

birth to, to bring forth. 

p }iii\\ zdda, born ; son. iS\ \ zdda%e, a son. 

pjU zdr, groan, lamentation; groaning, afflicted ; 
weak, contemptible; wretch. 

p 4_^^J zan, lamentation, cry. 

p i|j zdgh, a crow. 

p JU Zdl, the father of Eustam and son of 
Sam Nariman. He was called jj zar, or 
golden, because when born he was covered 
with yellow down. He was put to death by 
Bahman; an old man or woman ; a gray beard. 

F ^U zdle, a certain old woman, 
p ^\ z\~in (for 1^1 5^ «« ««)> from that; than 


( 59 ) 


p i^\\ s'dn^j (for iSj 1 \\ az d7i Aj;), because that. 

p isj]j %'dn gah (for iS3\ j\ az an gah), from 

that time. 
V mJ\j z'dnam, than that I am. 
pylj zdnu, knee. 
A S£i\j zdhid (p pi. ^^IjuiU zdhiddn), devout, 

abstinent; recluse, hermit, anchoret. 
APyJJiU zdhittar, more of a recluse, more 

A ^Sib^ ; zdhidi, piety, religion, devotion. Zd- 

hide, a recluse. 
A Jo^ J zdiid, increasing, exceeding. (»jL?^l Jo^J 

zdiidu'l wasf, indescribable, beyond descrip- 

kji\jzdnr (ppl. ^Ji^j zds-irdn), visitor, pilgrim. 

A Jj^J zd>il, waning, declining, decaying; im- 

p i^}j zdyinda or zdyanda, bringing forth ; 
productive ; a mother ; springing, flowing, 
running (fountain or well) j unfailing, peren- 

P(^»X-jU zdtldan, to bring forth; to procreate. 

p ^j zahdn (pi. ^jVJ zabd7ihd), tongue; lan- 
guage, speech, dialect. 

Fjjl ^jU'i zahdn-dvar (pi. j^^jjl j^bj zabdn- 
dvardn), eloquent, fluent. 

p ^jijT ^_^l.' ; zaldn-dratl, eloquence, flow of 
language, fluency of tongue, readiness. 

p sSiji jjbj zahun-lurida, tongue-tied, silent. 

pjijJ ^b". zaldn-dardz, long-tongued; scold. 

p t^j^j^ ^v)Vj sabdn-dardzl, length of tongue. 

p ij\j\ zahdna, flame. 

p ^\jj zahdne, a tongue, a language. <)to tiVj 
c^::.**^^ J zahdne ki ddsht, the language that he 
possessed, i.e. his own language, or dialect. 

p c:.-^-i^J zalar-dast (pi. ^l::--; J^j zahar-dast- 
dn), having the upper hand ; oppressive, vio- 
lent; oppressor. 

p fj^,j>j zaharln, upper, superior. 

p i3*)\ zabunl, meanness, baseness, vice, vile- 

ness, faultiness, wickedness, depravity. 
p _Yr3 2t bahri, for the sake of. 
A ^-.^-Ji zahib, currants, sun-raisins. 

p ^■■ij}\ j^ lJ^J j zi pdi dar dvardan, to trip 
up, to throw down, to prostrate. 

p \j^\ zi pas, after, behind. 

Ay>-; zajr, chiding, scolding, reproof, rebuke; 
impediment, opposition, violence. 

A aU>-J zahmat, trouble, inconvenience, annoy- 
ance, afiiiction, disquietude. 

p *:>-; zakhm, wound. 

p i>^jy^ *^j zaM m-khwurda, received a wound, 

p <U>>.J zakhma, bow or plectrum of a violin 
or other musical instrument, fiddlestick. 

r tS=>-j zi khivud, of himself (herself, itself). 

p ijJj zadan, to strike, beat, hit, smite, shoot, 
whip, flog, flagellate ; to dash, fling, cast ; to 
rap ; to attack ; to sting ; to strike up. 

V jj zar, gold ; money in general. 

p jj zarr, gold, i^^kx^- jj zarri ja-^an, the 

purest kind of gold (such as was fonnerly 

the Venetian ducat in Europe), 
p Jj Jul jj zar-andud, overlaid with gold, gilded, 

p Cl-^j zarat, thy gold, 
p Jm zard, yellow. 
A cjj zar<^, sowing; sown field 

zar^ u tijurat, farm and merchandise. 
p Sm zark, hypocrisy, fraud, imposture. 
p (Jm zurnl, visit me (fromj", zur, imp. of^lj 

^J^3 UJ 

zdra, concave J icdw, with the affix ij ni, me). 

p (.tJ )j zarin or zarrln, golden. 

p c:.^ J zisht, ugly, plain, ill-favoured, de- 
formed ; odious, oftensive, disgusting. 

p y>- c:..^J zisht-khu, of an odious temper. 

p 4_t»^ l::.-wJ zisht-khu^e, a certain iU-tem- 

pered fellow, 
p »j \.::^J^j zisht-ru, ugly-faced, 
p ^tj c:^-lj zisht-run, ugliness of face. 





zisht-ndmi, infamy. 

; zishtl, ugliness, foulnoss ; opprobrium, 
p a^j zakdt, alms, almsgiving. 
AP J^J zuldl, pure, limpid, wholesome water. 
A <U ; zallat, slip, fall, error, mistake. 



( 60 ) 


p (-_iSj zulf, curling lock of hair, ringlet. 
A /»; %umma, (the camel) was bridled, or hal- 
tered (pass.). 
p U; zi ma (for \^ j\ az ma), from us, our. 
A /•l^J zimdm, rein, bridle, halter. 

A i_^^*; zamun, time, season, age. ^J-tf^ ' c^ J 
zamuna 7 j^-'rts?, time of visiting (accus.). 

p d^K^j zamuna, time; world. 

^ jjU; zamdne, a while, a little while. 

pyl.s'^j zamaMshar, name of a town in Khwa- 
razm, the birthplace of Abu '1 Kasim Mah- 
mud, son of Omar, author of several works, 
particularly of a commentary on the Kur'an. 

A 'ij^j zumrat, circle, assembly, crowd. 

p ^^l^j^j zumurrudin, of emerald hue. 

A Ltj^j zamzamat, speaking low, whispering, 
murmuring ; a musical manner of reading, 
chant, concert. 

p j.l:;uu,^j zamistdn, winter. 

A ^^j zaman, time, season. 

p ^j zi man (for ^ j^ «2 man), from me. 

) zamin, earth, ground ; landed property, 
estate, land. 

(pi. ^\j\ zandn), woman ; wife. ^J 

\^ zan Mwdstan, to seek a woman in 

marriage, to court, (j^^ ^jj saw kardan, to 

take a wife, marry, wed. >Xijji j ^J zan u 

farzand, wife and child; wife and children. 

j\L>j\i ^jj zani bdr-ddr, pregnant woman. 

A Pjv^JJ zambur, wasp, hornet, drone. (V^J 
zamhuram, (I) am a wasp. 

V j^j zanjlr or zinjir, chain, fetter, jir^j 
^l) zinjlri pdi, fetters. 

p ^^ J^isTj zanaMiddn, chin, lower jaw ; beard. 

p <i:i-j^»r>. ^\ zan-Miwdsta, married a wife. 

r j^^AJj zindun, prison, jail, lock-up. 

p ci^-jJj ; zindast, is living, survives (equiva- 
lent to e^-w;l xSJj zinda ast). 

p ti^J*^! zindagdnl (or ^^J^J zindagl), life, 

p iSJj zinda, living, alive 

kardan, to animate, to make alive. 

f cT^V 

p ^\ zan 

jji^^ !iS}\ zinda 

p ^JJ J^ J zindik (pi. 
fire- worshipper, 
p i^J^j zang, rust, 
p (lx3j zangdr, verdigris; rust. 

^U.;jJ ; smizXdw), impious ; 

p ifJii 

^J zang-khwurda, eaten up with 

rust, corroded, rusty. 

p |^$3 ; Zangl, Ethiopian, Ethiop. The sur- 
name of the family of Sangar or Salgar, who 
established a dynasty under the title of Ata- 
bak, (g'.r.) There were two branches of this 
family, the first of which ruled at Shiraz in 
Persia, the second in Syria and Mesopotamia. 

p Aij; zanand, they strike (rt. jjJJ zadan). 

PjlJj zinhdr, beware ! have a care ! 

p (J,j zam, womanhood. Zane, a wife ; a woman. 

A ^\\^j zawdl, decline, wane, setting, departure, 

p L^jj zud, swift, quick; swiftly, soon, readily, 
quickly, speedily. 

VjjJjj zuttar, quicker, sooner, more speedy. 

p t/<.^M zudl, speed, swiftness, quickness, sud- 

Pit) zor, strength, power, force, violence, j^j 
j^Jijl zor dvardan, to bring violence, to press 

p t«j 1 jjj zor-dzmd, strong, powerful, athletic ; 

p (^t*;! .«; zor-dzmdte, an athlete ; a certain 

p 1^1 ijij zor-dvar (pi. ^^^j^ I .^Jsor-avrtra») pos- 
sessing or bringing strength; vigorous, power- 
ful ; athlete. 

p Jj^T !•; zor-dvartar, stronger. 

p 4_fijl j)j zor-dvarl, vigour; combat, fight. 

p jjijjj zaurak, pinnace, yawl, skiff". 

p y^'^j}) zormand, robust, powerful, strong. 

p ^Si^j^ ; zormandl, strength, force, violence. 
Zormande, a strong powerful fellow. 

p ^\j\ Zauzan, name of a city lying between 
Herat and Nishapur; also of an extensive 
district, dependant of Nishapur, and com- 
prising 124 townships. 

p «; %ih, bowstring. ^^^ aj zih kardan, to 
fix a bowstring, string (a bow). 



( 61 ) 



A J\£ij zuhhud (pi. of JkA>lJ zuhid), religious men, 
recluses, ascetics, devotees. 

p .b>J zahdr, the lower part of the belly, the 
pubic region. 

A JkJfej zuhd, abstinence, devotion ; religious mor- 
tification, rigorous and severe. 

py^j zahr, poison, venom, bane. Jj'ljf Jfej zahri 
kutil, deadly poison. 

p Sjlbj zahra, gall-bladder ; boldness, spirit. 

A i jlt ; ziyddat (in p written both Cl^jU J 2/- 

yddat and iOu J ziydda)^ augmentation, in- 
crease ; (used adjectively), additional, ex- 
cessive,much,more. ap^^J^^ iUjljj ziyddat 
kardan (or ^>^J> sS^;j ziydda kardan), to in- 
crease,augment,raise,enhance. ^^j^jJ^ *'^V.J 

ziydda gardidan (j^Jw shudan ov ^^^:JL^ gash- 
tan), to become greater, to increase, grow, 
wax stronger. 

■A ^J-M^ s* - sS^j ziyada-hasam, extreme comeli- 
ness, exceeding beauty, 

A sjoj ziydrat, visit; visitation; pilgrimage. 

p alx-^l) J ziydrat-gdh, place to which pilgrimage 
is made; shrine. 

p (^l>j ziydn, loss; detriment, injury, harm, 
hurt, mischief; decline, decay. 

p I— -V,3 2!i or zeh, ornament, beauty. 

p LjJ zlld, beautiful, fair, elegant, graceful. 

p (JU>J zlbak, quicksilver, mercury. 

p ^^JumJ ; zihldan, to adorn ; to become, beseem, 
suit; to please, to be agreeable. 

A Jjj Zaid, a proper name. v^_^Si\ zaidl, thou 
art (of) Zaid. t_f^J j ^ ^^ b' ^a ^«mr « 
Ja^T M za?</z, as long as thou art (a follower) 
of Amr, Bakr, and Zaid (names expressive of 
worldliness and secularity). 

P^J sir, under, beneath, below, down, jj 
^XL j\i ziri bar shudan, to be under a load, 
to be burdened. 

p <D \j\ zlrd ki, because that. 

P e:-^— -J^J zir-dast (pi. ^,l::-jjyj zir-dastdn), 

powerless ; under authority ; inferior ; op- 

PjUl c:-^-jJ^ ; zirdast-dzdr, oppressor of the 

p *-^J zirak, quick, sagacious, shrewd, intel- 
ligent, witty. 

P <Sji,\ zlrakl, quickness, intelligence, spright- 
liness, wit, spirit, genius. 

p (jri/J ziriw, lower, inferior, nether. 

p (^"liAwJj zlstan, to live ; to survive ; living. 

p CS^j zi yak (for CX) jl az yak), of one. 

p ^jij z'ln, than this. 

A i—^^j Zainah, name of one of the numerous 
wives of Muhammad. 

A <Cjj zlnat, ornament, decoration, gear ; at- 

p il\j.ij J zinhdr, defence, protection ; care, cau- 
tion ; beware ! have a care ! {^'^^ j ^-*:!J 
zinhdr kardan, to be upon one's guai'd, to 
protect one's self. 

Pj Vj ziwar, ornament. 


p A\j zhdla, hail. 

p *jJj' zhinda, old and patched (garment). 
p ^j zhiydn, formidable, terrible, fierce, ram- 

A ^,Lj sabik, past, preceding, prior, former, 

antecedent, bygone. /•Uj^l (J^^ sdhiku 'I 

in^m, of former favours. 
A ibLj sdhikat, (fem.) former, past. 
aJ Lj sdtir, veiling, concealing,hiding ; concealer. 

UjLj sdtiran (ace.) UjLj ^^ kun sdtiran, 

be (or become tliou) a concealer. 

p j^:irs-L; sdkhtan, to do, form, make, build, 
construct, contrive, perform, arrange ; to pre- 
pare, make ready; to do with, manage, make 
shift; to be content; to agree, harmonize ; to 

p <ib.>-l-.- sdkhta, made ; built; arranged, pre- 
pared, got ready. 

p ;Lj sdz, musical instrument. 

A <uLj, hour, moment. 

A i^irLs sduite, an hour, a while. 

A iXcLj sdctd, the arm from the wrist to the 

elbow, fore-arm. jJlzL; sudduhu, his arm. 


( 62 ) 


A jjLo sdk, Ihe leg. 

A^jjL) sdkin (with tanwin for (JLj sdhiyun), 
a cup-bearer. 

A (JjLj saX7, cup-bearer. 

p JLj «a^ (pi. \^\^ salhd), year. 

PjilLj sdldr, general, chief, leader, commander. 

A u^Ls sdlik (p pLj^uoLo sdlikdn), travellers. 

p |JJLj sdlagi, (in comp.) age. 

p iiJLj 5d?« (pi. I^JLj sdlahd), age; years, as 

<dLs ^j ^a?y sa/«, five years old. 

p JLjsc(?e,oneyear; a wholeyear; a ceitain year. 

J*:.^ i_J^ *"^'^ chand, several years. ^J^Lj 

saZ(3 rfw, a couple of years. 
p (^yi-j sdliydn, years. 

A.J\.^sditr, every; remainder, rest, all, except, 

the other ; the whole. 
A JjLj sd^tl, asking ; beggar, petitioner, suitor, 

p ibLs sdi/a, shade, shadow. 

p is^j}j} 'V.^ sdya-parvarda, nursed in the 
shade, delicately brought up. 

p j^jkJL; sundan, to grind, rub, triturate. 

A u— '--J sahab, cause, reason, motive. 

A <0ol lo^-J subhdn alldh, God ! holy God ! 
Most Holy God! God be praised! cOls^ j;>- 
iJlxj J hakk suhhdnuhu wa taz&la', God the 
most Holy and the most High. 

p Lwj sahz, green, verdant, fresh. 

p ij^ sabza, verdure, herbage; green herb, 
potherb ; sprouting or incipient beard. 

A «_*-j sab^, (fem.) seven. The seven long 
chapters of the Kur'an from Ijii bakrat to 
<Uy taubat. pa«_*«j L::-^iJ6 haft sabc^, seven 
of (or seventimes) these seven chapters. 

p (J.>-«j sabnk, light, not heavy. 

p «lJlw) sabuk-bdr, light in weight; lightly 
loaded ; ready to rise and travel. 

p LiLwj sabuk-pd, light-footed, light of foot. 

p ^jSzi.^ Sabuktagln, name of a brave general, 
and father of Sultan Mahmud, founder of the 
dynastj' of the Ghaznavlds, who flourished 
in the beginning of the eleventh century. 

PjLuX-^ sabuk-sdr, light-headed, addle-pated, 
of weak intellect. 

p ^ I LuXws sfl5M^--san, lightness. 

A J--~j sabil, road, path, way. pa J.--.^ J bar 

sabili, by way of. 
p (jb«l-~j sipds, thanks, thanksgiving, 
p iL-j sipdh, soldiery, army, 
p e^iU-j sipdhi, military, of the military order, 
p -wj sipar, shield. |j:iri-^jJl j^ sipar an- 

ddMitan, to throw away the shield, to give 
up the contest, to yield. 

V j\i j^ sipar-bdz, (player with the shield), 

skilful warrior, 
p ^^jt^ sipurdan, to entrust, consign, give up, 

surrender, resign, 
p i^JJj i^j^ siparl sJiudan, to be completed, 

finished, spent, terminated, ended, 
p a:.>-~j sipand, wild rue, the seed of which is 

used by fumigation to counteract the evil eye. 
p Lz.-^^ ast, is, (he, she, it) is. 
p ij\i^ sitdra, star. 
p ^Jjli«j sitdndan, to take, receive, accept; to 

seize, catch, snatch ; to exact, levy, 
p f^Juj \:^ sitdyish, praise, laud ; encomium ; 

compliment, fiattery. 
p 1^ JCw»j sitadan, to take, accept ; to take away, 
p (jtJA-o siturdan, to shave, 
p i J^-j siturda, shaved, shaven, 
p *:i«j sitam, tyranny, oppression, outrage, in- 
justice; deliberately, designedly, purposely. 

p iSiSAix^ sitam-dlda (pi. ^bjjj ,^u^ sitam- 
dldagdn), one who has seen or experienced 

V j\L*2,^ sitamgar (or iUi-: sHamgar), tyranni- 

cal ; tyrant, oppi'essor. 
p ^Ix/Cw-j sitamgdrl (or 4_c^C*i-j sitamgart), 

tyranny, oppression, cruelty, 
p ^-^o-j sitame, an act of oppression. 
p ^-^yi^ situdan, to praise, laud, 
p .^M^j sutur, animal, beast of burden (as a 

horse, mule, or the like). 
p ^jyi~j sutun, pillar, column, 
p ij-:^ sutuh, tired, jaded, knocked up; afflicted; 

fear, dread. 


( 63 ) 

pJ-ilj sitez, emulation, contention, strife; ob- 
stinate, contentious, quarrelsome ; contend 
thou, persist. 

p i^jj J^^ sitez-ru, of a quarrelsome counten- 
ance; brawling, contentious. 
p ij-i— ! siteza, strife, contention. 
p ^>X)\xx^ sitezidan, to contend, strive. 

A r--f^ saj<^ cooing of doves ; rhyme, metre, 

A p c/*^ J— 'F*^ scj\-9^''-> speaker in rhythmical 
sentences, or rounded periods. 

A tVs-* suj'ud, worship, adoration, prostration. 

A jjj^j ».• j^Ls-* Sahhun bin Wd^il, name of 
an individual reputed to have been the most 
eloquent man that ever lived in Arabia. 

A -s:**' sahar, twilight, dawn of day, morning. 

p Aj-sr* c ^ mttrghi sahar, bird of the morn. 

A ¥ i^jsr> sahar-gah {or ^J<S>\i>jSr'8aTiar-gaMn), 

dawn, morn-tide. 
A i^j^^ sahari, morning, matutinal. Sahare, 

one morning, on a certain morning. 

A 'Isr' saMdi (or i^isr' saMiuwat), liberality, 

p c:-.>.sr' salyht, hard, strong; painful, sore. 

p ,} ^j:^A'^ saMt-pai, of strong muscle, mus- 

p Je:-^.s*^ saMttar, harder; more painful or 


^ sakhtl, hardness, adversity, hardship, 

" ills, distress, agony ; vehemence, severity ; 

p n^tS ij^Lsr' saMti-kasMda, endured hard- 

A ^jsr' suTchrat, one who is compelled to labour. 
APj^pj^ bjs:!*^. ha suUira giriftan, to take by 
force, employ enforced labour, press, impress. 

p y;j^ suMxin or sukhan (pi. l^^.s*-' suJchnnhd 
or i^Jc^r^suJchanan), word, speech, discourse; 
business, affair, matter, circumstance, ^^j^ 
^J^-^y-J suUian paivastan, to connect or draw 
out a discourse. 

p ^j^ cT^ suMan-chln, tale-bearer. 

p jj\ jkXs-' suMan-ddn or ^^^^^^^s-' siiMangu, 
speaker, orator. 

*■' suMane or sukhnne, a word, ir"^^ 

suTihune chand, a few words. 

A S^ saddj obstruction ; mound, dike, bank, ram- 

part. (_y»j Ju^ saddi ramah, sufficient to pre- 
serve life. 

p -J sar, head, top, summit ; tip, point, end ; 
cover, lid; intention, design; desire, wish, 
inclination, propensity; thought, idea, fancy; 

source, spring ; chiefest, choicest . c^-wiJl; \ -»s 
sar angusht (pi. Xj^pJiSj] j^ sar angushthd), 
tip of the finger. ^Jmj^^j^ sari khwesh, 
one's own way or will. \j^f U^..^ j^ 
sar yhwesh giriftan, to depart, to be off. -j 
l::-a^J sari dast, tips of the fingers, -.j 
i^^S sar Icardan, to break out ; to burst (as a 
boil or wound); to come to ahead. ^<xJlS ^ 
sar kashidan, to draw back the head ; to dis- 
obey, to become refractory; to end. r^ j^ 
as sar, from the beginning, de novo. j^^^J j^ 

ha sar hurdan, to carry to an end, to complete, 

A -J sirr (pi. of jU-jI asrdr), secret, mystery. 
A *\j^ sarrd^, an easy, happy condition (opposed 

to ^\jJ> zarrd^). 
A .^1^ sirdj, lamp, 
p d:5>-i--j sardcha, inner apartment, or closet. 

Jl> <J->-1— j sardchan dil, purse of the heart, 

p aLstL.^ sar-anjdm, conclusion, termination, 

end; accomplishment; issue; materials, re- 
quisites, stores, provisions, furniture; what- 
ever is essential to any undertaking. 

F w— o J^U-j Sardndlh, Ceylon. 

p i^^r-j sardi, palace, house, inn, abode, man- 
sion; (in comp.) playing; player on a musical 
instrument. ^Sj C.5U-! sardyidigar, the next 

mansion, i.e. the other world. ^^L-j . J dar 
sardi, in the house, at home. 

F (^U-j sardie, a mansion, a house, a home, 
p ^L>-jL«j sardi-ldan, to sing, to warble ; to play 

on an instrument, 
p .fjsXi -J sar-panjagl, strength of fist, grip. 

F tL^o -rf sar-panja, nails, claws, open hand, 
expanded fingers ; the wrist. 

( 64 ) 

p J-j-^ sar-tez, hot-headed, headstrong. 
p ji --J surM., red, crimson; blooming, blushing. 
p (J^ sard, cold, cool ; extinct. 
F c:^A-: J^ sar-dast, tips of the fingers, 
p ^JxiJ w-j sar%anish, rebuke, chiding, reproach, 
taunt; chastisement. 

p <j:..-w^-j sirisht, nature, temperament, phy- 
sical part ; physics. 

p is.j^ sur^t, speed, swiftness. 
p (jii^ sar-Jcash, headstrong, heady, refrac- 
tory, rebellious. 
p Jf jLu<^--j sar-kushdda, having the table-cloth 

p JL^j^ sar Icashi, refractoriness. 
viz^^jM sar-hofta, bruised in the head, izj^j^ 

I* it* sdr-hofta mar am, I am a crushed-headed 

p d^j^ sirha, vinegar, 
p ^Js^j^ sar-gardun, bewildered, giddy, dizzy, 

p d:Jl^j^ sar-^«s/i^fl, whirling round ; astonished ; 

dizzy; afilicted. 
p i^y^j^ sargln, dung, 
p ^j^ saram, my head, 
p t*-.j sarmu, winter, cold, 
p <ttt*-<j sar-mdya, capital, stock-in-trade, 
p c:..-%*u.^ --: sar-mast, intoxicated to the last 

degree, dead-drunk. 

p c— ^/.AJ^ sarandlb (or ^_^_jJ-<j sarandip), 


sarvi Ichor d' 

p jj—j sarv, cypress. j_^^'r=*- yr^ sarvi m 
man, waving cypress. 

p b • -J sar u pd , head and foot, from head to foot. 

p i^yj^ surod, song. 

p ^jt^jt-J surodan, to sing, to warble. 

p .^^ sarvar, head, chief, principal. 

p <Jj^j^ sarvarl, chiefship, command, cap- 
taincy ; empire, sovereignty, rule, sway. 

p ilii^ sar u kdr, business, service. 

p Xj^ sara, current (as coin) ; good, worthy, 

p i^^J^Jbj^ sarliang, officer, captain, headman, 
master; boatswain. 

,»j sarhangi, official. 

A Jsj^ sara' , he travelled, visited, or came by 
night (a defective verb). 

p cJ^-j sari, desire, longing, wish. Sare, a 
head, one head ; an afi'ection. 

^j>,j^ sarlr, throne. 

p U-j sazd, punishment. 

p j^jU-j sazd war, worthy, deserving, meriting; 

p uii-AAu-j sust, weak, feeble, languid, dead beat. 

pjjjb 1.^:-^/*—) sMs^-J«2M,languid,weakinthearm. 

p A Ci.-N;»ii L:i->Aw-j sust-raghhat, of blunted pas- 
sions, palled. 

p ^Uu^ sustl, negligence, sloth, laxness, re- 
missness ; gentleness. 

p Jua-j sisad, three hundred. 

A i »k-; satwat, dominion, majesty ; force, domi- 
nation ; bluster. 

A i jlx-j sacddat, happiness, felicity. 

A djuo sa-^at or sit,at, liberality, facility, wiJe- 

ness, amplitude. 
A Jix-j sad:,, happiness ; name of the father of 

io »j1 abu bakr. if A«-j sa^uhu, his happiness 

A Lj jJI tXx-j sa-Jda '(? dunya\ the world pros- 
pers, and is happy. 

p ti'Ax-o Sa^di, Shaikh Muslihu 'd din Shirazi, 
the most celebrated of Persiiin writers, was 
born at Shiraz, a.h. 571, a.d. 1175. 

p b Ax-o sa^^diyd ( of j_^A*-j sat^dl, name 
of the poet), SadT. 

sa-^j, purpose, study, endeavour, effort, 
pains, labour, trouble, exertion . a ^^i-^S le*-*" 
sac^y kardan,tostnye, to attempt, to endeavour. 
A h&\Ju> safdhat, stupidity, folly. 

p c:->B.,.i suft, he bored ; boring, piercing, per- 

p ^^iA^ suftan, to bore, pierce, perforate. 

p icJLM sufta, bored, pierced, perforated. 

A^i-j sfl/ffr, journey, travel, voyage. Apb .J^i-j 
safari daryd, sea- voyage. 

A 'ijL^ sufrat, table ; furnished table ; table- 
cloth, especially one of leather which tra- 
vellers spread on the ground. A Pj_^oly ijk^ 
sufra nihudan, to spread a table. 



( 65 ) 


A7 aji^jL^ safar harda, having made a journey; 

p <)dx-j siila, mean, base, low, sorry. 

A ^cU-s sufa' (fem. of Ji~jl asfal), lower, in- 
ferior. jJ^ i^l yo^di sufla\ the lower {i.e. 
receiving) hand. 

p Jui-j safed, white, fair. 

A <Ui~j saflh, stupid, ignorant, insane, silly, 

A kLj saTcat, anything of a base nature ; coarse 
abuse, rude reproach. 

A >.«8'...t saklm, sick, infirm, ill ; invalid. 

A i^l-v-j sukkdn, helm or rudder of a ship. 

A ci--%x-j sakatta, thou art (or wert) silent (pret. 
of the verb cr^-s^ sakata). 

V ^L<j siikunj, one who has fetid breath ; ul- 
cerated ; fetid breath. 

Q jSu^ sikandar, Alexander. 

A ^^^ sukun, tranquillity, rest, repose. 

P(.^^ 8ag (pi. j^ww sagdn), dog. t_? )\iV <^.^ 
«<r^ii ictzdri, dog of the bazar, a street-cur. 
^lULi i^Ji^ sagi shikari, hunting-dog. 

p ^y^ sigdl, thought, conjecture, suspicion. 


p Jl-} sage, a dog, one dog. 

A jj-j sal, ask thou (irregular imp. for J \^\ 

iss-al, from rt. JLj sw-ala, he asked). 
A _^ «^7a7^, arms, accoutrements. 

A ^J^^ saldtln (pi. of j^UaLj sultan), sultans, 

A fX^ saldm, salutation, peace. 

A <t*Lj saldmat, safety, rest, peace, welfare, 

well-being; sincerity, integrity. ^ <L«LJ1 

'is»~y\ as saldmat fi 'I wahdat, safety (is) in 

A ^^^ saldme, a salutation, a salaam. 

p^^Ls'^ silahshor, a horseman that displays 
the throwing of the javelin, vaulting, and 
other dexterity on horseback; champion, 

A JLJg«! salsdl, limpid water wavering like a 

A «U.>*J^ silsilat, chain, series. 

A jo^^^Jw-j sultan, king, emperor, monarch. 

A ^JILLj sultdnl, royalty, office or authority of 
a king. Sultune, an emperor, a monarch. 

A iUlsLj saltanat, power, dominion, royalty. 

AP juIsLj sa/^«««<i, of the kingdom thou art. 

A ^.LSLm silk, thread, string, series, order, train, 

A *Lj salima, he was (or is) safe. 

A j»-»Lo sallm, sound, perfect, healthy ; mild, 
gentle, tame, pacific ; simple. 

A ^L«J>-j Sulaitndti, Solomon. 

A *l/»-<j samds-, heaven, sky. 

A i^Uw-j samdhat, beneficence, liberality. 

A l^l*.«j stimdt, table covered with food. 

A cUu^ samd^ (or ^1.4-j samdhat), hearing; 

song or dance, especially the circular dance 
of dervishes. 

A «_.*-o sam^, the ear. Ltf*-*— ' sam^, my ear. 

A i..:i-^js.4~j sami^t, she (or they irrational fern.) 
heard (3rd sing. fem. pret.). 

p JCw4mc samand, a horse of a noble breed, a bay 
horse with black legs and tail. 

A Ay*-^ samum, sultry sufibcating blast, de- 
structive to travellers, simoom of the desert. 
A (^;-./*~s samln, fat, sleek, plump. 
A ^^li-j sindn, point of a javelin, spear-head. 

p jj-i~j sumbul, hyacinth, spikenard ; any odo- 
riferous flower. 

A d,:^ sunnat, rule, law, canon ; the traditions 
of Muhammad, considered by the orthodox 
Muslims as a supplement to the Kur'an, and 
of equal authority. They are rejected, bow- 
ever, by the Shiya or sect of All. 

A jls^-j Sinjdr, narae of a city in Mesopotamia. 

p j^Jcj^sw sanjldan, to weigh ; to ponder. 

p i^S-:^ sang, stone, rock; weight. ^Jj t^i-j 
sang zadan, to pelt, to throw a stone. 

p ir j.ii- (.^.^i-j sang-khurda, a bit or small piece 

of stone. 

p JjkXi«o sang-dil, (heart of stone), hard- 
hearted, cruel, unfeeling. 

p ^LmLw-j sangsarl, stoning, lapidation. 

p ,<>^ sangl, heaviness, weight. Sange, a 

rock, an individual stone. 

p j^t-.>«i-j sangln, of stone, heavy. 


( 06 ) 

A i»x-j sinnav/r, cat. jji^wi ka sinnawrin, as a cat. 

F »-) SM, side,quarter, direction ; towards, ui'^**- 
(jL^wuil ifl suyi asmdn, in the direction of the 

heavens, towards heaven. ^J^-^ <-0**'' *"^' 
kashtl, towards the ship. 

A *j-! «Mt, evil, badness. 

A (_^^}~j sawulik (pi. of ijL'Lj suhikat), past 

events, things gone before, lil-/*^ iM^y^ 
sawiiliki ni^inat, former favours. 

A iy\y^ sawud, blackness. <5j»-jl^ S\yM sawddu 7 
irajhi, blackness of face. 

p j\y^ stiivdr (pi. rj^j^y^ siiwdrdn), horseman, 
rider; mounted. 

p f*j^^ suwdram, (I) am mounted. 

p {^J^y^ stiivdrt, (thou) art mounted. Suwdre, 
a mounted horseman, a sowar. 

A J^j-j sw-dl, question, inquiry; begging, men- 

p ;:s>~y^ sokhtan, to burn, consume. 

p dz:>~y^ sokhta, burned, consumed. 

p Jj-j sud, gain, profit, use. |^::-i' J J^ sud 
ddshtan, to aflbrd profit, to avail. 

p \t^y^ saudd, melancholy, insanity, vain or in- 
sane procedure ; trade, traffic. 
p Jo.^ J^ sudmand, profitable, salutary, useful, 
p i^i^j-s Sudan, to wear, rub, bray, deface, 
p i^y^ suda, rubbed, worn, effaced, obliterated, 
p t-fi-Jj-J sude, a profit, any profit, 
p f-\jy^ surdTdi, hole, crevice. 

A 'ijy^ sauraf, power (of kings or tyrants) des- 
potism, despotic power. Sural, chapter of 
Kur'an (of which there are one hundred and 

p ;»-j soz, burning, heat, flame. 

p ^^Jv-i sozdn, burning, flaming, blazing. 

p ^ v-j sozan, needle. 

p |^4X)J^ sozldan, to bum. 

p iXu^y^ saugand, oath, swearing. ^i^jy>. jo>i^ 
saugand khwurdan, to take oath, to swear. 

A \.,L^\y^ sawwalat, she (or it) suggested evil or 
fictions (3 per. sing. fem. pret. of jJj-j 2nd 
form of the root JL.-, concave . wdw). 

p *y^ siwtim, third. 

p ,^^Aj~j suhdn (or i^*~; suhan), file, rasp (for 

iron or for wood). 
A i-fy^ siwa\ save, besides, except, 
p t/^ su, side, quarter; towards, ^l^-l l^^-j 

suyi usmdn, towards heaven. 

p i^ sih, three. 

pjb iLj sih bar (notlfc^b hdrhd), three times, 

p (jii-i <Uj sih shash, three sixes (a throw at dice). 

p S,^3^ sisad or sasad, three hundred. 

A (J^pj sahl, easy, not difficult, simple, trifling. 

A 'i^^ sahlati, easily ; softly ; may God grant 
(you) every facUity or convenience. 

AP J Jl.^^ sahltar, more easy, easier. 

AP »5^ ti-v*^ ««A^7w, seeking to be smooth or 
easy, peacefully disposed, pacific, gentle. 

A p i_i"^ J-ir** sahl-gu, soft or fluent speaking. 

p ^-.>-4..^ sahmgln, formidable, awful. 

p ^.^.-j sahl, straight, erect, upright. 

p CX; <Lj sih yak, three aces (at dice). 

A J-^^' suhail, the star Canopus. 

p ^~! si, thirty. 

A ».U«j saiydh, traveller, pilgrim ; great pere- 

A io-L-j siydhat, journey, travel; pilgrimage. 
A s-lL-j saiydhe, a traveller. (^jU-i shai- 

ydde, an impostor, would have been a better 
reading, as being more emphatic). 

A iL-L-j siyusat, chastisement ; discretional pu- 
nishment such as the law has not provided, 
but as may be inflicted by the judge ; ad- 
ministration of justice, government. 

A <)JjL-j siydkat, mode, manner, style, fashion; 
subject, topic. 

p iU-j siydh, black, sable, dark, opaque; negro, 

p *li iL-j s?y«A-/aw, black-coloured, swarthy. 

p i^S il-~j siyah-gosh, (black-ear), lynx ; the 
animal called the lion's provider. 

p ^U-i siydhl, black-servant, negro ; black- 
ness, darkness, swarthiness. Siydhe, a black, 
a negro. 

p i^-^w— • sih (by some seb), apple, 
p ^cf:*-: sele, one apple, an apple. 


p iiyj siM, roasting-spit. 

A Jkl-; sail/id, lord. *^-^^^ J>^f~J saiyidu 7 amhiyu, 

lord of the prophets, Miahammad. JU J»-^ 
saiyidi ifilam, lord of the world. 

A -»-o sfliV, walking (for amusement), prome- 
nading ; journeying; perusal of a book. 

Siyar (pi. of i-«-j slrat), morals, virtues, 
habits, qualities. 

p -^ ser, full, satiate, satisfied, sated, glutted ; 
tired, wearied. Sir, garlic. 

A ij^ slrat, virtue, moral quality, disposition ; 
way of life, mode, habit; history, memoir. 

p ijv*-* serl, fulness, satiety, repletion. 
A t_i««-s salf, sword, sabre. 
A J-.-J sail, torrent, flood. 
p t_-'^L»«-s sailab, flood, torrent, inundation. 
A X"^ saile, a torrent, a flood, an inundation. 
p iX^ sill, blow with the open hand edge- 
ways, cuff", slap, 
p |»-«j Sim, silver. 

p U--J slmu, face, aspect, countenance, simili- 
tude, resemblance. *" 

p |^j--4--j slmln, of silver, silvery. 

p <L«i-j«zw«, breast, bosom, chest. 

p /*yy^ slwum, third. 

p <U-) styah, black, sable, jetty ; gloomy, sad. 

p Jj <U-j siyah-dil, black-hearted. 

p jJj' ash, to or of, him, her, it, them. 

A <SjLi shubaha, he resembled (3rd form of the 

rt. a-.-i). 

A iLl shut, sheep, ewe. 'i\Ji\\ ash shut, the 

p -iti shuMi, branch, bough. 

p j^UtjLi shudmun, joyful, glad, joyous. 

p iJL»oLi shiidmunl, joyfulness, joy, rejoicing, 

p i_^jl-i) shddi, joy, gladness, rejoicing, glee. 

^u^ iJ'^^ shddl hunun, rejoicing. 

p ^Jl--1L,1 shdshldan, to stale, squirt urine. 

A^Li shutir, bold, courageous, brisk, lively. 

( 67 ) 


A (J^ shaft, healing, salutary, sanatory. 

A^Li shdkir, thanking, praising ; grateful. 

p J.i'Li) shdgird (pi. ^^J^ri-i shdgirddn), stu- 
dent, scholar, pupil ; apprentice ; servant, 

A aXL Shdm, Syria, and its capital, Damascus. 

A p ^L.^Li) shdmiydn, the inhabitants of Sham, 
the Syrians or Damascenes. 

A ^ LI sham, thing, affair, business ; state, con- 

p ^^Li shdn, nature, state, condition ; regard, 

respect; pomp, splendour. (for^Ll^J eshdn) 
they, them, 
p i(Li» shah, king. 

A A&Ll shdhid, mistress ; lover ; a beautiful or 

beloved object; a witness. 
V jMi jJSiLi shdhid-pisar, lovely boy. 
A ^jjsLi shdhidl, airs ; insolence, indignation. 

p iUlx^Li Shdh-ndma, (book of the kings), the 
celebrated poem of Firdausl. 

p ilAiJfeLi) shdhanshdh, king of kings. 

p i^^-2j shuhl, royalty. 

p Jo Li shuyad, is fit, suited, or allowable; suits, 
is becoming, proper or worthy, behoveth ; 
it is possible, may be, perhaps, perchance. 

p |^:uujL1 shdyistan, to suit, to be proper. 

p iZM*i\Ji> shdyista, worthy, suitable, proper ; 

p j^jk-jLi shuyldan, to be worthy. 

p v_^.,i) shah (pi. l^^ shahhd), night. k_^Jj 

,jj shahi kadr, night of power, the 27th of 
Eamazan, when the Kur'an is said to have 
been sent down from heaven. 

A c_;L-i shabdb, youth, prime of life. 

p (o^— -> shubdn or shitbdn, shepherd. 

p jijL-i shabdnroz, night and day. 

p iUoL-l shahdnydh (or aDLJj shahdngah), 
night-time, evening, even-tide, nightfall. 

p Sj^^ shap-para, (night-flyer), bat, reremouse. 
pl»il.l«7ifli-M^s,rising at night, keeping vigils. 
A *-.. .1 shab^ov shiba^ satiety, pall. 
A «_--i> shabi^a, he was satiated, sated, glutted, 

he was (or is) satisfied, 
p ilCwi) shab-gdh, even-tide, evening, night-time. 

A ^ 


( 68 ) 


V j» ; >^ shah-nam, night-moisture, dew. 

A <U^ shahali, glass-bead. 

p ijr-ij sAaJe, one night, a single night, a whole 

p i,--i) shapara or ij^ shappara, bat, reremouse. 

p aJ^^^ Hr^ shippara-cliashn, bat-eyed, pur- 
A 'l:;^ shitds-, winter. 
p c—jIjJj shitab, haste, hurry, 
p |^ljl:;-ii shitdhun, one who makes haste. 

ilu.i shituftan, to make haste. 


vji^ shutur, camel, p a Jl«tf j:Jii shuturi salih, 
the camel which the prophet Salih is said to 
have brought out of a block of stone as a sign 
to the tribe of Thamiid. (Kur'an, ch. vii.) 

p jb^2-i sliuttir-har, a camel's load. 

p ^lj,i.i shuturidn, camel-man, camel-driver, 

one who attends to a camel, 
p li^^ji^ shutur-hacha, camel-colt. 
A iwcls*" shajd^at, valour, courage. 
A-rS:*^ sJiaj'ar, tree. 

APtUs-*" sJiahna, superintendent of police. 
A^jiLS'^shaMs, person, individual ; form, figure. 
A p ^.""g-*^ shaMsam, my person. 
A^ shaJchse, a person, a single person, 

one person, an individual, a certain person. 
A J^Jwi shiddd (pi. of JoJ»-w shadid), vehement, 

violent, hard, severe, inexorable. 
A :f Jk.1 shiddat, hardship, sufferings, 

p jjtX-i shudan, to be, become, happen, befal ; 

to go, depart, pass away ; to enter. 
p « JJb shuda, become ; hath or had become ; 

gone, departed. SX^ shuda^e, one that hath 
become ; turned into. 

p ^XL shude, he would have become. <ij>- 

i^xL cJii shude, what would have happened } 
what harm would there have been ? 

A .^ sharr, evil, malignity, depravity, wicked- 

A <— ^]y.i> shardh, wine. 

A ijjL shwrhat, one drink, one sip, a single 

draught ; beverage, syrup, sherbet. 
A i«::^J-i) sharahtu, I drank. 

A ,J^j.i> sharhate, a draught. 

A -T-j^ sharaha, (God) opened the heart or dis- 
posed the mind (towards religion; — ^used 

p ^ .-i> sharza, fierce, enraged. 

A bj^ shart, condition, requirement ; rule, re- 

p <U3^ s7«Mr^«, propitious, favourable. d]sj^ jb 
bddi shurta, favourable wind. 

A c^^ shar^, law, equity. 

A fc^j^ shar^l, legal, lawful. 

A ( ijj^ sJiaraf, excellence, nobUity, eminence, 

dignity, honour. 

p 1*^ sharm, shame. 

p aJJ^j^sharm-zada, struck with shame, shame- 
stricken, abashed. 

V j\jM^Ji) sharmsdr, ashamed, downcast. 

p i^j^M^^-L sharmsdrl, shame, confusion of 
face, being downcast or abashed. 

A i^ sharah, avidity, appetite, greediness, cu- 

A I— i> t-i» sharlf, noble, illustrious. 

A iLS^J^ sharlk, partner, sharer. 

p ijiMiJ:) shustan, to wash. 

p jj^-1 shash, six. (ji-i ^ sih shash, three 
sixes (sizes). 

p jM^li shashum, sixth. 

p c^-ii shast, sixty. 

A p ffy>^ shatranj, chess. 

A i_..->Jti sJii'^, path through mountains, defile. 

A Jt-i shi<^, poetry, poesy. 

A ^\j3J^ shiczMTds- (pi. of xLi shd^r), poets. 

A ^li-i) shifdi, convalescence, recovery, a p U-i 
i^rylj shifd ydftan, to obtain a cure. 

A <);£lA-i shifdi^aty intercession. 

A iLti shafat or shifat, lip. *jU1 isJL shifatu 

's suiim, the lip of one keeping a fast (apt to 
be flabby and withered). 

A aii-i shafakat, pity, clemency, compassion, 

A %-Jl^ s7;«/^j^, advocate, intercessor. AP«_-i.i 
j^Jtjl shafi^ dvardan, to bring (or invoke 
as) an intercessor. 


( 69 ) 


A SyJLi) shukuJc (pl.of JLi s/iflM), chinks, cracks. 

A cLXi shaklc, doubt, scepticism. 

p ifir,lLi shikdr-gdh, hunting-ground, game- 
preserve, chase or ground stored with such 
beasts as are hunted. 

p ^J^Jii shikari, suited to the chase ; game, 

prey. ^Cjll-i i^jt-o sagi shikari, hunting- 
dog, hound. 

p ^iil^ shikaftan, to split. 

AZ)ULisA«^ay«^,complaint,grieTance. Pc:— jIx-1 

(^J^ shikdyat kardan (or ^jiJy' dvardan), to 
complain, to lodge a complaint. 

A iw shukr, returning thanks, thanksgiving. 
AP|^Jj^J6 iLi shukr guzdrdan, to return 
thanks, ^i^i^jo iLi> sAwir guzdshtan, to 
return thanks, a t::-^.4JsJ iLi shukri ni^mat, 
thanks for favours and benefits received. 
|iLi shukran, (ace.) thanks, thanksgiving; 

A.S^ shakar, sugar. 

p sx.^Jjii shakar-Manda, sweetly-smiling. 

^ (_fX-i> shukre, one act of praise, a giving of 

p c:^^*yiLi shikast, he broke ; breaking, fracture, 

Xi shikast an, to break. 

kJLl shikasta (pi. ^Ixii-uJLi) shikastagdn), 

p dii. 

broken, shattered ; sprained, dislocated ; im- 
paired, enfeebled, weakened. 

A jXjj shakl, figure, form. 

p *iLi) shikam, stomach, belly, paunch, bowels ; 


p *Xj 

AJj shikam-handa, slave to appetite. 

p JijJ *Li shikam-dard, belly-ache, gripes. 

p <5.^uLi) shikanja, stocks, rack. 

A jjx.i> shakur, thankful, grateful. j^LilW ash 
shakur, the thankful. 

p ^--^Li) shiklhe, a particle or atom of patience. 

p |^Ju--iLl shiklhldan, to be patient ; to do 
witliout, to dispense with. 

p t.:^.^ix-l shiguft, astonishment, amazement, 

surprise. ^j^V*! (j>%fi>-i shiguft dmadan, to 

be astonished. c::>>m.';,bC^ shiguftast ( for 

t.::...,-jl i:xa.-^ shigufta ast), hath blossomed. 

p (^jXsxi shiguftan, to admire ; to bloom, blossom, 

p tijy^ shigufa, blossom, bud. 

p *iLii shalgham, turnip. 

p L«Jj shumd, (pron. 2 per. pi.), ye, you. 

A i; l^ shamdtat, delight at another's woe, joy 
at the misfortunes of an enemy. 

p jU-i shumdr, (iraper.) count, reckon, esteem. 

jUji Jjj^ rozi shumdr, day of reckoning, 
p jj jjjUJj shumdridan, to count, esteem,reckon. 
A JjUJj shamdiil (pi. of JU-i shimdV), vir- 
tues, talents, qualities. 
^ ^1jU.<J> shamas-ill, physical. 

A <UJi shammat, atom, particle, whifi". 

p ^ J^^ shumurdan, to count, reckon, enume- 

K^j,*..^ shams, (fem.) sun. ^^.JJ^ ^ju.AJ:i shamsu 
^d dm, (sun of religion), a proper name. 

p -»A*«Jj shamsMr, sword, cimeter. 

A j-4-i sham^, waxlight, candle, taper. 

p j^J»-*4-i) sJianndan, to scent, to smell. 

A isli.i) shundt, (pi. of «J^-i shdni), haters. 

p L::^ri-U.i shtndkht, knowledge. 

p j_^^j:i:>-lx«i shindkkfan, to know; to recognise, 

acknowledge, consider, regard. 
A cUi.i shun^at, turpitude, brutality. 

p (__i$Owi) shangarf, cinnabar, vermilion. 

p L^ shinav (imp. of ^i^yJ^ shinudaii), hear. 

p ^^y-J^ shinudan, to hear ; to understand ; to 

p (*yJ^ shinavam, I may hear, 
p Jui^ shanld, he heard ; hearing, 
p gX>:<.v^..l shanldasti, thou heardest. 

^ shamdan, to hear ; to hearken, listen ; 
to hear of, about, concerning ; to perceive, 
smell, scent. 

i shanida-e, thou hast heard. 
A »-,.; L shanty, base, odious, disgusting, 
p y^ shav, be, or become thou (rt. ^^'^ shudan). 

Shu, husband; wash thou (rt.^i*«-l shustan). 

It is also written ^^ • 


p i 


shokh, saucy, insolent, playful, arch. 



70 ) 

r (vu.^ -t^ shokh-chashm, saucy-eyed, impu- 
dent, wanton, 


s- -i^-i) sJwUi-chashmt, sauciness, petu- 
lance, insolence. 

p a Jo J j.yti sholxhdlda, wanton-eyed, saucy; 

p ^^y^ shoMl, petulance, presumption, pert- 
ness, sauciness. 

p iJj-i> shavad, would be or become (rt. ^Xti). 

rj4^ shor, noise; perturbation, disquiet, com- 
motion, disturbance, emotion ; salt, saline, 
brackish; bad luck. 

p c:^a<^i»-i shor-laJdd, ill-fated, unfortunate, 
p iA.(^ shorish, distraction, confusion of mind ; 

p Sjyt) shora, nitre, saltpetre ; salsuginous. 
p *^ Sj^ shora-hum, salt, brackish ground, 
p i^jy^ shore, a crazy passion, insane delusion, 
p ^^jyL shoridan, to be confounded, distracted. 

p iJkj j4-i shorida, distracted, disturbed, per- 
turbed, disquieted ; mad, crazy, enthusiast. 

A cLij-i) skaukat, pomp, splendour, grandeur, 

p Jb^^ shaulia)', husband. 

p t^«-i shavl, thou becomest. Shu, husband. 

p /•J j-^ shuyam, I would wash. >^ly^ shuyad, 
he washes (rt. j^j^u^wl shustan). 

p <L2> shah, king. 

A X^^^ shahd, honey. 

'Sj^ shahr, city, town. 

p ^%f\J^ Shah-ravu, name of a certain despotic 
monarch, who forced leathern money to be 
received as coin of the realm in his kingdom. 

p i^j^ shahre, a certain city. 

p jl) H^ shahr-ydr, (friend of the city) king. 

V J\yt^J^ shahwdr, (fit for a king), royal. 

A iyf^ shahwat, lust. 

A l-Jj shais-an (ace. of -i shaii), thing. 

A 0^-i shaiyud, impostor. 

A j^^LJj shaydtln (pi. of (^U2--i shaitun), 

devils, demons, 
A t— -^j**) sliaih, hoariness. 

A ^-i shaiM, venerable or learned man, doctor. 

ahu U faraj shamsu 'd din bin j'auzT, name of 
a celebrated preacher of tlic sect of Hanbal, 
and Sadi's master. He was born a.h. 510, 
and died a.h. 597. 

p jL»-ij sJiaid, deceit, fraud, trick, hypocrisy. 

^ Ju..i shaidl, (thou) art (a mass of) hypocrisy, 
p \j>^ shaidu, distractedly in love, insane, 
p -»-l shir, milk. Sher, lion. 
V \\j^ Shlruz, name of the capital of Fars, or 

Persia Proper. 
p^\\j^ shirdzi, native or inhabitant of Shiraz. 
p Jy4yJi) sher-mard (j)l.^\,^j^j^ sher-mard- 

dn), (lion-man), bold, brave. 

p i^i^ytj^ sher-mardl, (thou) art a brave lad. 

p tJ>-i> sherl, leonine, lion-like. 

p M^ r^*>' shlrln, sweet. 

p ^[}j ^.t-^r^ shirln-zahdn, sweet-tongued. 

p^JiIjJ ,j -»-i)s7j!nw-zaia?»I, sweetness of speech. 

p >.-^\ i^\r^ shlrln-lah, sweet-lipped. 

p e^,r-^ shirlni, sweetness ; a sweetmeat. 

p iJL^.^ shlsha, glass. 

p^ <)L5*--i) shlshagar, glass-blower. 

A (^Ua-Jj shaitun, Satan. |^lli--ii.n ash shaitdn, 
the devil. 

p iyJii shiva, elegance, grace, blandishment, 
coquetry ; habit, custom, manner of living. 

A Ul»^ shaitan, a thing (ace). 

A jL? sdhir, patient. 

A k.^*-l*5 sahib, master, owner, pro])rietor, 

possessor, possessed of. ^;^ •J^-^ < ^^ Us sdhibi 

dlwdn, superintendent of finance. 

^»~\^ sdhib-tamlz, man of discern- 
ment; discerning, discerner. 
A p lJJ^ u^^ns^Lj sdhib-tamlzl, (thou) art a 
man of discernment. 

A J t»>5^ i_^i>- Lp suhib-jamdl (p pi. ^^1' t^sa^- Ls 
sdhib-jamuldn), beautiful, comely. 

A p J J i_^»-Ls sahih-dil (pi. ^^,1' J u-^v»-L) sd- 
hib-dilun), spiritual, pious; man of piety. 

k 'jy^AJ 


( 71 ) 


A L) J (^,,>=^Ui sahib-dmiya', wealthy. 
A (.^uJjJk-jwLs suhib-daulat, wealthy. 

A e:.— j^ J i^-o-Ltf sCihib-firusat, shrewd, intel- 

KVJ.Jb u— 'iwLj suJii'b-hunar, skilful. 

A (.:i-%> suhat, she (or it) cried out, or would 
have cried aloud (pret. fern, concave ^ ye). 

A J jL? sddir, issuing, proceeding, going forth ; 

issued, passed, emanated, ap ^'^ jjL» sd- 
dir shudan, to originate ; to go out ; to escape. 

A o*^^ sddik, true, just, sincere. 

A ^Ltf sdfl, pure, sincere; candid. 

A ^rLtf sdlih (r pi- ^Is I*? «d?«7«dw), good, just, 

pious, virtuous ; name of a prophet who was 
sent on a mission to the people of the tribe of 

i^jAJ thamud, but they hamstrung the camel, 
which he, iu proof of liis mission, had mi- 
raculously brought out of the rock. Per- 
sisting in their unbelief they were slain by 
the angel Gabriel. 

A li-'La sdlihan, a good action; virtuously. 

A j^^'Ls sdlihe, a certain pious man. 

A *jl^ sdtim, fasting ; one who fasts, faster. 

AUrfi srt5«', zephyr, gentle breeze. Saba^ or siba' , 

A B-L-tf sabdh, morning. ^^^^ /J-c ^la '« 

sabdh, in the morning. 
A i!=^L«<9 sabdhat, beauty, elegance. 
A .j^-tf stibh, morning. 
A -«s sabr, patience, a p ^>^j>j^ sabr kardan, 

to have patience, to wait ; to abstain. 

A j^'i fa sabrun, patience then. 

A -«tf sabir or sabr, aloes. 

A -^y^ sabuh, dawn ; a morning-draught. 

Aji^*^ sabur, patient. 

A cSjyf^ saburl, patience. 

A <U:f=^ suhbat, society, company, companion- 
ship, fellowship, friendship. 

A <ts.** sihhat, good health, soundness. 

A 'l^pS** sahrdi, desert, wilderness. 

A fjj^^ sahn, courtyard, area. 

p ijS^ saMra, name of an evil genius which 

attempted to steal the ring of Solomon. (He 
was a prodigy of ugliness.) 

p Jutf sad, a hundred. 

A ^\ S<a saduk, marriage-settlement made by a 

husband on the wife, 
p <--'Ij >>■«? sad bub, a hundred chapters. 

p (^' J>^->- Jus sad chatiddn, a hundred times as 

AjJu? sadr, breast, chest; chief seat, 
p JLj Ju? sad sal, a hundred years, a century. 
A i__JJk.«? sadaf, shell; oyster-shell. 
A J5 Jus sidk, truth, veracity ; sincerity. 

A *^ii«i ^1 JjJ^ sadaka 'llahu 'I!/w, the 
great God spoke true. 

A^Jctf sadkat, alms; propitiatory offering, sa- 

A i^Xa sadmat, percussion, collision, shock. 

A (JjS^ sadik, sincere, true, just ; a true friend. 

A (_»J-5u» siddlk (r pi. ^^liij A.* sidd'ikdn), faithful 

witness to the truth (epithet of Joseph, Abu- 
bakr and Abraham). 

A 'ij>a surrat, a purse filled with gold or silver. 

A I— J;-tf sarf, changed ; expenditure, a p (__i.«tf 

ijji-i> sarf shudan, to be spent. l^>^J> t— ^j«* 

sarf kardan, to spend, expend. 
a t_^outf sai.b, hard, rough, difiicult, troublesome. 
saff, rank, file, row, line, series, p a iJ 

J^l dar avval saf, in the first form, 
class, rank, or row. 

A 'Litf safds., purity. \LA\ ^^y>-\ ilJiwdnu 'a 
safd, brethren of purity, name of a society 
of learned men, founded at Bassora towards 
the close of the fourth century of the Hijra. 

p ^^UlLs Sifdhun (for ^UjLL?^ Isfdhdn), the 

capital of Persian Irak (the ancient Parthia). 

A jJlLtf safds-i, purity; exhilaration, recreation. 

A ik^ sifat (p pi. ^:ii-9 sifathd), quality, pro- 
perty, attribute ; form, mode, manner ; (in 

comp.) like, a p c:-%A«tf J& Jiar sifat, any how. 

A if »i-tf safwat, purity. 

p "ha said, invitation ; a proclamation either for 
giving food to the poor, or for selling anything. 

A iSLa saluhat, hardness; firmness, severity, 
violence ; majesty, awe, dignity. 

A JLa saidh, rectitude, probity, honesty, virtue; 
well-being, welfare, prosperity; peace ; advice. 


( 72 ) 


A iUs-^ saluhiyai, integrity, honesty, probity; 
devotion, piety. 

A -tf*^ 8ulh, peace, reconciliation, pacification, 

harmony, compact, truce. 

A *ls^ sulahas. (pi, of J La salih), just, pious. 

A Jj.^ said or sild, hard, solid, strong, smooth 
and bare. (The text reads salad). 

A **Ltf> saham (a contraction of the phrase 

♦\.«j J tULc <UJ' jjuis srt^/a' llah ^laihi wa 
sallama, q.v. 

A \yi.^ sallu (2 per. pi. imp. of /X^ salla'), 
pray ye, invoke ye blessings. 

A CLJl^jLtf salawdt (pi. of iA-tf salut) benedictions. 

A iJ»Lc sa?d^ (pi. Cl^ljLtf salawdt), compassion, 

mercy from God, the divine benediction and 

A (J— s J <^»i.c ^\ ls^ sflZ^a' ^?aA calaihiwa sal- 
lama, may God be propitious unto him, and 
preserve (him). {Obs. ^i-^s salla' and Ji— j 
sallama are the 3rd persons sing. pret. of the 
2nd form of conjug. of the roots L^ and *Lj 
employed in an optative or benedictive sense). 

A ^«$ sM/ww (pi. of *-tf 1 «««?«»»), deaf persons. 

*x) *-<9 summun huhnun, deaf (and) dumb (a 
Kuranic phrase). 
A *--4-<s samlm, sincere, pure, genuine. 

A JjkJ-tf sandal, sandal- wood or ointment; san- 
dal-poNvder mixed with rose-water (used as 
a liniment for the head and feet in cases of 
violent head- ache and fever). 

A ^^Ja.rfi s«nc?uX", chest, coffer, ark. AP)»r |j.JCw.j> 

sanduM gor, sarcophagus. 
A « san<j^ or suyi<^ make, creation, work. 

A <U;*-tf san^t, profession, craft, trade, art. 
A *i*s sanam, image, idol ; mistress, beloved one. 
A <--'^*-tf saivdb, rectitude, reason, propriety, 
good sense, soundness ; meritorious action, 

whatever is right. lk>- b <--j\^ sawdh yd 
'khata\ right or wrong. 

A CLJj*? saut, clamour, sound, voice, noise. 

A ^jy^ sural, shape, form, figure, appearance, 
aspect, likeness, effigy, a p ^^j;i*uJ '-^jyo 
sural hastan, to assume a form ; to be supposed, 
imagined, conceived, conceivable or practi- 

cable. A J U- '---V>^ surati hdl, state of the 
case, statement of circumstances, j ''—^jy^ 
^^-^•^ sural u mazna\ body and spirit; matter 
and mind; semblance and reality. Jlc 
<-^jj^ cfilami sural, the visible or external 
world, p A dJjy^ ha sural, to outward ap- 
pearance, ostensibly. 
P (_^^ suft (pi. ^Li»^ sufiynn), wise, pious ; 

a religious order among the Persians, who led 
a more regular and contemplative life than 
the common dervishes. 

p i^y^ sujiye, a certain Soofy. 

A 'ilya saulat, fury, ferocity, fierceness, severity, 
rigour, violence. 

A j'u-tf saiydd (p pi. ^^JU-^ saiydddn), hunts- 
man, hunter; fowler; fisherman. 

A 1-::-^^ sU, fame, renown. 

A 4>,-«s said, game, prey, chase, a p ^^S ^^^ 
said kardan, to hunt. 

^ o" A--tf saide, some game, a piece of game, a 
head of game. 

A L-g.«..-^ saif, summer, May and June, the hotter 
months being called li-j kaiz. 

A iJiu-tf saikal, polishing, furbishing ; furbish- 
ing instrument. 

A (-_icLj zd-.afa (pret. of the 3rd form of the 

rt. (^_£*-tf , used optatively), may He double 
or multiply twofold. Zd^f, (imp.). 

A^Ls %dii<^, wasting, wasted; wandering, lost ; 
erred, strayed. 

A \x^ %aht, holding fast, securing, containing, 
retaining ; confiscation. 

A i»js** %ajur, peevish, pettish, fretful, repining. 

A cJls.-* Zahhdk, name of a prince of Arabian 
origin, and usurper of the throne of Persia 
from Jamshed the fourth king of the first or 
Peshdadian dynasty. He was noted for his 
cruelty ; but was overthrown by Faridun, a 
descendant of Tahmurath, predecessor of 

A Jus zidd, contrary, opposite ; enemy, rival. 

A *!-•« zarrdt, adversity, misfortune, affliction 

(opposed to ^\j^ sarrdi). 


( 73 ) 


A t_^ zarh, blow. 



z«r5e< 7 


/iflJiJ, a lover's blow, stroke from a friend. 
A i~Jj*o zaraba, he struck. 1 Jr >>r! J ^-r^ zarala 

zaidun ^amran, Zaid struck Amr. 
A &jjJ> zarbat, a blow, one blow. 
A ij^ .-tf zarurat, need, force, necessity. 

ha zarurat, perforce. 
A \J,jjj^ zarurate, an urgent need, a pressing 


-'^ji,j^ zarlr, blind. 

A >_;,t^ zMt/, feebleness, weakness. 

A c-g**..-^ zrtcl/ (p pi. ^U-jcn* zrtcz/aw), weak, 
feeble ; infinn, weakly ; thin, spare, slender. 

A p aIju^ l \-*'' za^f-anddm, slender-bodied. 

A JU. t__i-Jt-i z«c.!/ Ad^, in a weakly state; 
in slender circumstances. 

■A iJifJi^ z«j_J/<?, a weak man. 

A i\\j) zalalat, error, erroneousness, ruin. 

A.i.AJ) zammat ( ' ), the vowel-mark for u "; 

.\ -yW zamlr, mind, conscience, thought, sense, 

A (jtr*-^ zamln, surety, sponsor, security, bail. 

A tXyi za igh am, lion. 

A j^L4--.i zaimuran, a species of fragrant herb. 

A A ilL tdram, vault of heaven. 

A A^IL ^ac.a<, obedience, a Vf^Ju:uz^ tdcatash, 

his obedience ; obedience to Him. 
A ^J^^ td-.m (p pi. ijlirll? td-Jnun) reviling; 

reviler, gainsayer. 

A i<£^ ^d^I.leader of rebels, violent refractory 

man ; tyrant (applied by the Muhammadans 
to the Greek emperors of Byzantium or Con- 

A jU? tdk, portico, cupola, dome. 

A ^U? tdkat, strength, power, ability; strength 
to bear, power of endurance. 

A JIL tdla, he (or it) was (or is) long (3 per. 

pret. concave J wdio). 

A ^^!IL> tdlib, asking, seeking, desirous, urgent, 
pressing, anxious to obtain, craving ; candi- 
date; lover. 

A jJlL) ^dZij., arising; fortune; the star of 
one's nativity. 

A (jyjjll? tds-us, peacock. 

A p ^cr^j (jwjj^ tds-us-zlbe, peacock-decorator. 

AP e-j^U? tds-usl, belonging to a peacock; made 

of peacock's feathers (as a fan). 

A Jillr tdhir, pure. 

A JU? tditr, flying; flier, a i^jU? tdtire, any 
thing that flies. 

A tUjlls tditfat, company, party ; band, train, 
troop, battalion ; gang ; sect, denomination ; 
class, clique, coterie. 

A cLL tibd^, nature, temperament, disposition. 

p iLsrUL tabdncha (or ^stLJ? tabdnja), slap, 
blow, buffet, cuff. 

A j_J? tab^, nature, temperament. PA«_-.l?jl5>- 
ckdrtab^, four humours, elementaiy qualities, 
or complexions (which are found in man). 

A (jJ^ tabah, dish, tray ; storey of a house, flat; 

A ^JiAs tabake, an entire tray, a whole salver. 

A (J-i? tabl, drum. 

A iLLL tablat, large wooden dish in which fruits 
or perfumes are exposed, tray. 

A u_^--l5 tabib, physician, doctor, medical man. 

A '*^«-Ji' tabliat, natural habit, disposition, state 
of body or mind. 

A r 




h, knowing the 

temperament; skilful physician. 

A (juu^jy? tardbulus (or ^^^ugJjUW tarabulus), 

the city of Tripoli. /•Li (j^jLl^ tardbulusi 

shdm, Tripoli in Syria, to distinguish it from 

c__j^ fj^^\Ja tardbulusi gharb, Tripoli in 

A iljlj ^^rdr(ppl. (^\;U^ ^arrdrdw), cutpurse. 

A ^Jo tarab, mirth, hilarity ; excitement. 

AP jJo^ '-r^ iC'^0'^'C''>^9^> mirth-exciting; 
moving, affecting. 

A —Jo tarh, manner, mode ; position, establish- 
ment ; fixing or laying the foundation of an 
edifice, a p (J-> w <rj^, ba tarh dddan,to give 
(that is, to compel to purchase) at a fixed 

price. ^^'■^'^ -r-Jis tarh figandan, to lay a 
foundation ; to practise. 



( 74 ) 


A u-Jia twraf, direction, part, side, quarter. 
A j)Jts tarafe, a portion, a part 

tariTc, way, road ; rite, profession, sect. 

PA (JJ_,hj ha tariki (or (Jjja J bar tarihi), 

by way of. 
A IajJ? tarilcan, as to the road (adverbially). 
A ^ J? tarikat, mode of living, way of life ; 

religious order, p a ^.:L^hJa -o plri tarikat, 

superior of an order or sect, prior, abbot. 
A JLi Ja tarike, a way, one way, some way. 

A 4»,\ji^ (p pi. ^^1*1? ta-.umhd), meat, 

food, meal, viands, victuals. 
A ^n^ tucmat, meat, food ; dinner, meal ; bait. 
A i^xb ta<M (or icj^ ta^nat), blame, reproach, 

jeer, gibe, banter, taunt, sarcasm, censure. 

A p 1^ J) ^*ls ta^a zadan, to cast reflections. 
V i^lj; cLjels ta<^a-zanan, jeering, sneering. 
A JiL tifl, child, infant. 
A jJil? tifll, childhood. Tifle, a mere child. 

A ^-l^ftL' tufullyat, childhood, infancy. 

p 'Vb tild, gold, gilding ; pure gold ; gold fringe 
or wire. 

A r^ taluk, divorce. 

A w^^lL talah, inquiry, requisition ; claim, de- 
mand ; pursuit, search, quest ; invitation 

AP^t>^ I -U? talah kardan, to demand, re- 
quire ; to seek, summon, call for ; to expect, 
look for. 

A p ilxAL talahgur, one who requires ; suitor, 
p j^Ju-ll? talhidan, to seek (a Persian verb 

coined from the Arabic). 
A iUlL tal^at, aspect, countenance. 
A «_/♦!? tama-,, covetousness, desire, greediness, 

cupidity. AP^^i-llj «_/»l5 tarn a ^dashtan, to 

covet; to expect. 
A. \u\s tanz, sneer, sarcasm, mockery. 
A j»ls tur, mountain, especially mount Sinai. 
A (J?^' tutl, parrot. 
A c »!? tau^, obedience, voluntary submission. 

A lao ^ u:»b tauiun wa karlian, nolens volens, 

willingly and unwillingly. 
A lo^)^ tujun, flood, deluge. 

A jjy? till, length. 

A ^ »b tawela, tether, stable, stall. 

A 'i\j}s tahdrat, purification, ablution, purity, 
cleanness, sanctity. 

A . ^Jb tlh, good, excellence, deliciousness. 

jjwij k— --laJ hi tihi nafs, with a willing mind. 

&.\i>i\ k—^-is tthu'l (properly k-^ J* taiyihu 7) 
add, melodious, musical. 

APj-i.^1 w_--l? ^!J-d»«(?z, blended with sweetness. 

A iU-lb tihat, being good or sweet ; sweetness. 

■^*^ tlhat-dmez, imbued with good- 

A p 


ness, mingled with sweetness. 

A ^ti.sir' V— ^^ tlh lahjate, a sweetness of in- 
tonation, melodiousness of voice. 
A -i? tair, bird. 
A ^j^ tayardn, flying, flight. 
A ijAs tairat, levity of mind, frivolity, fit. 
A {j!!j->^ taish, inconstancy, levity, folly. 
A L-jLl? taif, form, spectre, apparition. 

A JUj zdlim (p pi. j_^l^lls zdlimdn), cruel, un- 
just, iniquitous, oppressive; oppressor, tyrant. 

A jff^^ zdlime, a tyrant, a certain tyrant. 

A J^ll5 zdhir, outward, exterior; clear, evident, 
plain, obvious, apparent, manifest. pAiJj^ ;\ 
-fell? az ruyi zdhtr, from outward appearance. 

A ijLlj zardfat, ingenuity, dexterity; address; 
wit, facctiousness, jocoseness, jocularity. 

A I— 2J Jo zarif{v pi. i^\JL\Jis zarlfdn), ingenious, 
clever, witty ; man of wit and genius, wit. 

A il? zafar, conquest, victory, triumph, 

A Jia zill, shadow. m\ Jij zillu' lldh, shadow 
of God. 

A Jii zulm, tyranny, oppression ; injustice, 
wrong, iniquity. 

A Cl-'t*)!? zulmdt, zulamdt, or zidumdt (pi. of 

ti.y«.lli) zulmat or zultimat), darknesses. 

A il^ilj zulmat, darkness, obscurity ; a dark 
region at the world's end, where the foun- 
tain of life is imagined to exist. 

A /•Ab zalum, most cruel, tyrannical, unjust, 
oppressive, iniquitous or nefarious. 


( 75 ) 


A *j^o tints., thirst. 

A ui? %amat (or *l^ sainds.), thirstiness. 

A J^ zann, opinion, thought, idea ; suspicion. 

ijls ,M-****- ^?ww« zrtWM, favorable opinion. 

^iii ^^j*«*s>- Awsni zanne, the good opinion. 
A^Jji zaAr, back, outside. 
A^^i? zaAir, backer, supporter; protector. 

A Si\s. iXihid{vTp\. ^yAc ^'ihidun), worshipper 

(of God or idols) ; religious recluse, devotee 
A p i^ji J^^ (.dbid-farlhe, a hermit-seducer. 
A _lc ^a/, ivory, elephant's tusk. 
A >-lc c-H/Vz, weak, impotent, feeble, unable, 

incapable, hard pressed, at bay. 
A J^ls (-ojil, transitory, fragile, fleeting 

(hence, the present life). 
A jj'x. cddat, custom, habit, wont, usage, use. 
A J j'wC (.udil, just, equitable. 
Ajlc ^dr, shame, reproach, disgrace. 
A ^j^ cdriz, cheek ; accident, misfortune. 
A i_j.L: ^drif (p pi. ^^j^ ^drifdn), wise, 

skilful, knowing, intelligent ; knower (of 

God), holy; holy man. 

A 'Jjjlc ^drii/at, anything borrowed or lent ; loan. 
A ^i-llc cdshik (p pi. ^liLili cdshikdn), lover. 
A JLlU ^dshikl, relation of lover. 
A itf-s"^ j.a*!(p pl.^L-tflc tdsj'yaw), disobedient, 

mutinous ; sinner, rebel, transgressor. 
A A-ilc t^ufiyat, health, safety. 

A ^j^\^ lufln (obi. pl.of Jlc ^afi), forgiving; 

A <lJIc ^dkihat, end ; in the end, at length, at 
last, after ull, in the long run. ^V\ <LJsU: 
^dkibatti 7 rt//jr,at the end of the affair, finally. 

A ^Ic idkil (p pi. ^^Ic ^dkildn), intelligent. 

A t^ciU ^dkif {v -pi. ^\Ji^[^ idkifdn), assiduous, 
atfentive. <U*^ ^^^^^ i^dkifdnika-Jba, those 
who constantly remain in religious attendance 
at the Kaabah, or cubical temple at Mecca. 

A Jlc ^dlam, the world, ^-^jy-" /^^ t.dlami 

sural, visible or external world. |-ix.«JU 

^dhmi' , invisible or spiritual world. 
A Jlc ^litn (ppl. i^t«JU zMlimdn), learaed, 

wise. ^.^Ji^\ JU (jilimu 7 ffh aib, knower 

of secret things ; omniscient. 
A p i^^j\ Jlc iM.lam-drui, world -adorning. 
V ,v»Jlc idlami (pl.^wJlc uilamii/dn), a man, 

an inhabitant of the world, a mortal; worldly- 
minded, worldling. 

A ^^ Ic ^dlame, a world,a whole world, crdlime, 

a learned man. 

A ^<5l^ lall, high, exalted. 

A *lc lh/m (more correctly /•Ic uimm), com- 
mon, vulgar, public, general, common people. 

A jj^lc ^dviil, maker, doer, performer; prac- 
tical, active; collector of revenue ; (in gram- 
mar) governing (particle). jSf\ J-^lc ^dmilu 

Ujarr, one who draws, drags, pulls or trails ; 
(a particle) governing, i.e. requiring the noun 
following to be marked with kasra, or sign 
of the oblique case. 

A p (tf'^lc cdmmi, untaught, unlettered ; com- 
mon, plebeian, laical. 

A i'jolc idndat, (is or will be) returning (pres. 
part. fem. of the rt. jlc cdda, concave •). 

A ^Lc zabdi, cloak open in front, withoutsleeves, 
and worn by dervishes. 

A jLc -.tbdd (T[il. of Ju:; ^rtirf), servants. t^jl-£ 

^ibddl, my servants, i jLx! U ^tbddihi, to his 

A ijLc ^ibudat (p pl.l^JjLc libddathd), wor- 
ship, devotion ; act of devotion, adoration. 
(J-xJ'<jLc ^budatiha, of thy worship. 

A i ,Lc cibdrat, phrase, expression, phraseology, 
mode of speech, or style in writing. 

A iX-c (^bd, servant, slave. t-f-V^ ^bdl, my 

p iJLiiOliill Jl»c ^bdu 'I kddir Glldnl, so 
called as being born in the Persian province 
of Gllan, was a doctor of eminent sanctity. 
He died at Bagdad a.h. 561, a.d. 1166. 

A U Ju£ ^badnd, we have worshipped (pret. of ! 
the rt. Jv-x ^abada). cJUjk-c ^abadndka, 
we have worshipped (or served) Thee. 

( 76 ) 


A i'-j: tihrat, warning; subject for serious re- 
flection, matter for grave consideration. 

A j»^£ 'jiihur, crossing (a river) ; transit, pas- 
sage. A p ^Ji^ jy^ ^hur Icardan, to cross, 
c ahir, ambergris, a perfume composed of 

musk, sandal-wood, and rose-water. 
A V ^j^ ^ablrt, art (thou) ambergris ? 

A i__;li;£ e.itub, reproach, chiding, reproof, repri- 

A V ->J^-sr^ ittjaiih (pi. of <U-uSr^ ^aj'ibat), won- 
ders, marvels, miracles. 

Ac— .js-^ ^ijb, conceit, self-complacency, c^ajab, 
wonder, astonishment, surprise; strange, mar- 
vellous. A T i^j^ c-^^js*! ^ bu 7 i.aj'ab hire, 

a strange piece of business. u_.^.s^ ^^.s*- chi 
%(tjab, what wonder ? 

A r jujs-^ ^MJabtar, stranger, more marvellous. 
A Is^ c«;z, weakness, impotence, incapacity. 

A J^-^ <jijl, calf. \sP- ^ijlan (ace.) ' Juur»- \sP- 

^ijlan jamdan, a calf yellow as gold, the calf 
of the children of Israel {jaxad, besides the 
usual meaning "body," signifying also " saf- 

A ifSF" ^ajam, Persian. 

A ^/KS"'^ <,ajamiy, foreign ; Persian. 

A \ysf- ^ajuz, five (or according to some) seven 

days at the winter-solstice. 
A M^-^ ^<y2'»> plaster, cement ; dough. 
A i^\S£. (.addwcit, hostility, enmity, dislike. 

A 'iS£- ciddat, the time of probation, which must 
expire before a divorced woman can be re- 

A Jjlc zadl, justice, equity. 

A /♦Jlc i^tidm, ittdam, or ^udum, deficiency, de- 
fect ; privation, want, loss; non-existence, 
absence of a quality ; annihilation. 

AjJ^ ^aduic, enemy, foe. CJ'Sz <,aduivika, 
of thine enemJ^ 

A (J^>^ ^dul (pi. of JjU j^d6?«7), just men. 

A (Jjk^c <^l, equal in weight or in quantity, 
equiponderant; a travelling companion seated 
in a litter on the opposite side of a camel. 

A c_.>i jki (.azah, punishment, torment, torture. 

^ul^ <-_j1 j>£ ^azuba 'm niir, (from) the tor- 
ments of the fire (accusative). 

A ^'s£■ t,izdr, face, cheek. 

X jSc tMsr, excuse, plea, apology, acknow- 
ledgement. A p ^^j:i^\y>-jSz ^tizr Jchwdstan, 
to beg pardon or excuse, to apologize. jJ>£- 
i^,jly tM2r nihudan, to excuse, pardon. 

A tJj'Xc cMzr!, my apology, my excuse. 

A oUc <iiruk, the ancient Chaldaea, Irak. 

A <^y^ tarab, Arabia ; Arab ; Arabs. 

A ii^rC carbadat, conflict, scuffle, dispute, broil, 
quarrel, drunken riot. 

A i^ rC ^rabiy, Arabian ; the Arabic language. 

A iS.^r uirsat, area, court ; board (for chess or 

^^j- ^rz, representation, petition, statement. 

yiVz, reputation, fame, character. 
A lii^ zM,rafna, we have known (pret. of the 

vb. «— JrC ^arafa). tjj\ui.c uirafndka, we 

have known thee. 
A "ijZ (rirk, root, stock. carak, perspiration, 

sweat; juice, spirit, rack, toddy. 
A i^*jS- carus, bride, spouse. 
A ^^*jS- uirusl, nuptials, wedding. 

A (^V.7^ iuryun, naked, nude; stripped, robbed, 

A js. cazza, he was great or glorious; hence, 

incomparable, glorious (epithet of the Deity). 

i-c2J ;£■ iMzza nasruhu, may his victory be 

glorious ! ijzz, glory, dignity, grandeur, 


A <^\^ ^azab, unmarried individual, bachelor. 

A p *jlc ^azabam (I) am a bachelor. 

A ilc t^z^fl^, honour, dignity, glory, pa CLJ ',x) 

ba uzzat, with honour. JJiJU\%j ba ijzzattar, 
more honourable. 

A iuj.£ cazlat, retirement, secession, solitude, se- 
clusion, sequestration, voluntai-y resignation. 

A *lc cffzw, undertaking, design, purpose, re- 
solve, resolution, determination, preparation. 

A J.5»- . \£. cffzzfl wajalla, may He be honoured 
and glorified ! and may be rendered, Great 
and Glorious. 

A jjj£ crtzzz (r pi. ^U^J-c crtz!zf7w), precious, 
dear, valued; excellent, honourable, glorious, 


( 77 ) 


venerable ; a title given to Potiphar, prince 
of Egypt, in the chapter of the Kur'an en- 
titled "Joseph." 

A t^j>\s- cazlze, the precious, excellent one ; an 
excellent object. 

A 'UjLc zMzlmat, incantation; resolution, un- 
dertaking ; departure, 

Xj^ms:. twsr, difficulty. 

A J-w*£. ^sal, honey. 

A 'Lli: ^ashdi, supper, (.ishd'-, the first watch 
of the night, or from sunset till morning 
twilight; prayers repeated whengoingto bed. 

A Jjl-^i ^nshshuk (pi. of ^_j.-ilr ulshilc), lovers. 
A i-jJLx ^ishrat, agreeable conversation, enjoy- 
ment, delight, conviviality, jollity. 
A ^_»A£ ^ishk, love. 

A p (_^V (J^^ ^isM-bd%i, gallantry, amorous 

talk, ijshk-hdze, a lover. 
A Lax: i.asa', stick, staff, wand ; virga virilis. 
A i^LiC ^asara^, juice, expressed juice. 
Kjos. casr, age, time. 
A <t*.iic cismat, chastity, continence. 
A ^L*iic cist/dn, rebellion, opposition. 
A X^z i.azud, the arm from the shoulder to the 

elbow, upper arm. aLl^jJ^ Jua.^ ^azudu 'd 
daulat, arm of the state (proper name). 

A yAz <Aizu} (p pi. \>!y^ iUzvJid), limb, joint. 

A i^yJiZ aizwe, one member, a member. 

A'lkc catdi, present, gift, donation; payment. 

A jUic uittdr, dealer in perfumes or drugs, 

perfumer, druggist. 
A Uuiag catashan (ace. of jjitlac ^atash, thirst), 

with thirst (used adverbially). 
A *-lic tflzlffj, great, large ; high in dignity. 

A i«_jlic <^^fdf, abstaining, continence, chas- 
tity ; innocence. 
A »&£ ^ofi^}} pardon, forgiveness. 
A v^-JLc ittkab, heel; after, behind. 

A i^^iJ^ ^ikba\ end ; reward ; life to come. 
A jjLc ^akd, knot; cluster; bond, contract. 

_\^ jJic ^aMi nikdh, marriage-knot, p jJLs 

j^SumJ ^akd bastan, to tie a knot. 
A JjJLc (.nkdat. knot; marriage-knot; frown. 

A JJLc e,akl, intellect, reason, judgment, sense. 

A L'Jis. lukubat, punishment, torture, torment. 

A ^}yiz ^(kul (pi. of ^yi^■ uikl), intellects, un- 

derstandings,reasoning powers, /^'j^ ^ukuli 
him, of their understandings. 

A^/*Xc uiks, reverse, con trary , opposite,inversion. 

A Ic ada', he was high; hence Most High 
(epithet of the Deity). 

A ^\z 'Jldj, medical treatment, doctoring, re- 
medy, cure. 

A <L«^ ^lumat, sign, mark, characteristic. 

A ^Ic t.alldmat, the most learned man. 
&.'Lj\z tfl?(7«^</a^, external deportment. ^^\z 

^aluniijati, ray outward and visible cJiiduct, 

my public life. 

A ilz e illat, cause, reason ; pretence, excuse, 
pretext, plea ; accident, misfortune, casualty; 
disease ; grounds of a charge or accusation. 

A ^pls. dilate, a ground for any charge or ac- 

cusation, a plea of arraignment. 
A p y\\ c_cix ^lafzdr, pasture, meadow. 
A cz^iLc (.ulikat, was, or had been suspended 

(J{rd sing. fem. pass, of the rt. (_»i-c). 
A J-c (.Urn, learning, knowledge, science, 

icdam, flag, banner ; badge, distinctive mark 

worn on the dress ; epaulet. a p j^iXi At 
i^alam shidan, to be characterized. 

A 'Ltlc ^ulamdi (pi. of Jlc ^dlim), learned 
men, ulemas. 

A »Lc ^iluw, height, exaltation. 

A /•»lx ^dum (pi. of As- <^ilm), sciences. 

A i_i*i-c culwvj, high, sublime, ^lately, a 
descendant of All, the son-in-law of Mu- 
hammad ; they are called sherifs. A 'P^\y^ 
^alawiyam, (I) am a descendant of All. 

A J-£ t«/a', upon, on, over, above ; against, after, 

according to. 

cr^.-^ L5^ e 

ala' dini 

midukihim, according to the religion of their 
princes, a /•^•jJ^ ^X^ ^ala 'd dawdni, per- 
petually, always, a jLjJI ^Xz cala 7 tjbdd, 
against servants, a *iL)^l i^ ^JgLc ta/a' 
Jitrati 'I isldtn, with a disposition to the re- 
ligion of Islam. jjJs jJlc tffZa' kadr, in pro- 


( 78 ) 


portion, to the extent, a t^j-v^^l ix ^ala 7 

musannif, on the author, it rests" with the 
author (to prove). iula\ height, sublimity, 
glory, dignity. 

A |^_«i-c '^lly, All, the cousin and son in-law of 

Muhammad. According to the Sunnites, he 
was the fourth caliph ; according to the 
Shiyahs, he was the immediate successor of 

A i~jLC ^laiya' , on me, upon me, against me. 
A Lie ^M?yffl' (fem.of |gLc^ ado'), upper, higher. 

Ll-c iAj yadi ^lya' , the upper {i.e., the be- 
stowing) hand. 
A t.lC.) r ^alailca, upon thee, i.e., thou oughtest 

to do ; against thee. (jX»l-c t* md colaiha, 
what is laid upon thee. 

A d-lc i^laihi, upon or against him. *L*.l^ dJ}^ 
<^alaihi '5 salCim, on him be peace. 

A ^,-J-c ^alaihd, on, upon, against her (or it). 

A *£ ^mni, father's brother, paternal uncle. 
*j: J..' hanl zamm, sons of a paternal uncle, 
first cousins. 

A ijVis. cimurat, edifice, building, structure ; 
reparation, refitting. 

A ^U>^ ^ammun (p pi. of j«x a ^mm), paternal 

A iSAS. cumdat, support, prop, buttress (gene- 
rally occurring in composition, as iSy^s. 
^Js\J^\ ^mdatu 'I Uiawdss, pillar of the 
nobles, prime minister). 

A yis. cumr, age, life ; long life. L; Lc y^s. 

lumri ^aziz, precious life, ^umar, Omar (a 
man's name). 

A \jAS. ^arnran, ace. of •r'*-^ ^mr, a proper 
name; Amr. 

A j^<*x ^amru (pronounced .^z ^amr the ^ wuw 
being added to distinguish this word from 

jAs. iM,mar), a proper name: a fictitious 
name, like John Nokes used in scholastic 
and juridical treatises. 

A c.i->J 3/*^ ^amr laith, name of the second 
Sultan of the dynasty of the Saffarides who 
reigned in Persia. 

A uiy-*^ i^mre, a life, a life-time. 
A Jl.«x zamila, he did, he wrought. 

A (J^4X i.amal (r pi. l^^i.4j: camalkd), work, 
labour, act, action, practice, business, service, 
employ ; good works. AP^i.iy*ji jJ^kc uimal 
fanuudan, to put in ofiice, to employ. 

A /♦*'♦«£ c^cmum, community, universality. ^X^ 
(*y*J^^ (.ala'l cumum, commonly, generally. 

A /»-».4^ e.amim, universal, general, expansive, 
diff'usive, comprehensive. 

A i^i ^an, oflf, from, from off; of. 

A ^Lc (.nnds-, adversity, distress, teen. 

A t_jllc ^nndb, jujube-tree and fruit. 

A p t^.Cj . fc-_;u£ tMwwai-rflw^, jujube-coloured. 

A jli£ ^indd, obstinacy, perverseness, stub- 

A iX»jl:^£ i.anaJcid (pi. of JyL^c cunkud), clus- 
ters, bunches. 

A ^\^^ ^indn, rein, bridle. 

A Jj\x£. ^nuyat, aid, assistance, favour, pro- 
tection, providential care, auspices. 

li. j^s- ^amhar, ambergris (a perfume to which 
jetty hair is frequently compared). 

A Joe cinda, with, at, near. m\ Jar <^inda 

'lldh, in the eye of God. ^;U^^^ «X^ ^inda 
'I ci^ydn, in the presence of the nobles. 

A t_^JkXxc (^andalib, nightingale. 
A ^.l^iu i.unfuwun, the vigour, beauty, fresh- 
ness, flower of youth. 
A CJ»-^li£ z-ankahut, spider. 



A <iwi£ (jMtihu, of him, with him. 

rdzin, satisfied with him. 
Ak_^>jf'k£ (^aivdkil (pi. of ^L: ^dkibat), ends, 

issues, consequences. <LJJ1ȣ s.awdkibahu, his 

future destinies, his last end. 
A /»^»r. uitvdmm (pi. of <i^lc ca/wwa^), common 

people, commonalty, laics. 
A i^^i\^z zawdiib (pi. of v— >-£ ^ih), defects, 

faults, blemishes. 
A JiS^fcC <iawa.s-id {-^l. of i"jolc i^%idat), returns; 

profits, gains, advantages. 
A iJ>4£ i^d, aloe- wood. 
A ^^ ^'ivaz, equivalent, substitute, anything 

given or received in exchange ; lieu, stead. 
A ^^ ^un, aid, help, assistance. 


( 79 ) 


A X^^ ^ahd, time, reign ; agreement, compact, 
covenant, engagement; vow, promise, rule. 

A isi^ cuMat, office, appointment, trust; obli- 
gation. AP ^^J^l jJo !iS^j\ a% iuhda ha dar 
amadan, to clear one's self of an obligation, 
to pay off, become quits. 

A ^ ,llc ^aiyun, deceit, cunning, trick. 

A Jl-x dydl, family, children, domestics. 

A ^_ --'' ^aih (p pi. L-«->^ <.aihha), fault, defect, 
failing, vice,blemish,disgrace. ap^J^ •— r^ 
<^aih kardan (or ^^j^S giriftan), to accuse, 
reproach, censure, criticise, blame, find fault 
with, slander, vilify, take notice of, or carp 
at faults, failings and blemishes. 

A V ^ ^—-^.^ zaih-Ju (p pi. i^\\y^ ^"-r^i^r <-^i^- 

yuya?j), fault-finder, censorious, carper, caviller. 

A ^m'* f,aihe, a blemish, a fault, a defect. 

A Jk--2. cf(f, festival, fete, holiday. 15^=^^ '^ 

ixdi azha\ the festival of sacrifices celebrated 

at Mecca, on the 10th of <5jsr^ .j zu 7 hijjat, 

the last month of the Arabian year, in honor 
of Abraham's offering up (as the Muham- 
madans say) Ishmael. 

A ^y«-£ C.ZS (pi. of (j»-^^ (^il/ds), (camels) of a 

whitish yellow colour. 
A leM^. ti«a', Jesus. 
A [j!^ (.aish, life; pleasure, enjoyment. 
A ^-.r cain, eye ; fountain, source ; the very 

essence, individual, thing itself; certainty, 

A (-r^y^ <^uyuh (pi. of I— ---£ i^ih), vices, faults, 

defects, blemishes. 

A lie ghur, cave, cavern, den. 

A a lit ghCirat, hostile incursion, foray, raid for 
predatory purposes ; robbery ; plunder, booty. 

A tJjl^ gh dtl, warrior, conqueror (especially 

of infidels). 
A 1/5U ghasa, he sank or plunged (3 per. sing. 

pret. concave J wdw). 
A Jili ghnjil, forgetful, neglectful, negligent, 

remiss, inattentive, off one's guard. 

A c_^li ghalih, overcoming, superior, prevail- 
ing, paramount, predominant, overpowering, 
strong, triumphant, victorious ; chief, most. 

Cl-^lijl L.^^!li ghalih aukdt, at most times. 
A t-^'Sli gh dijh, absent, invisible, out of sight, 

departed, disappeared. 

A iv^li ghdijat, end, point, extremity, extreme, 

excess, intensity, a p l::^Ix.' ha gh dyat, in 
the extreme. 

a Uj: ghihhan, every second day. 

A jLi gh ubdr, dust. 

Aj^Jki gh adddr, perfidious; traitor. 

A J iXi gh adr, perfidy, treachery, treason. 

A Li^^Jki ghmita, thou hast been fed (pass, of 

the rt. ^Jlc gha%a\ he nourished). 

A <--?^yi ghirdb, crow, i^jr^^ '—r'^j^ gh iirdhu 
'/ hain, (crow of separation) a crow that never 
approaches any spot until it has become de- 
serted by its inhabitants ; hence, it is re- 
garded as a bird of ill omen. 

A aL^Lc ghardmat, mulct, fine ; tribute ; a debt 
which must be paid. 

A i_.^U£ ghards-ih (pi. of 'i-J ri gharlhat), ex- 
traordinary and strange things, rarities. 

A^\jjz gh urahds- (pl.of (_^ _i gh arlb), strangers, 
friendless, poor. 

A Jljyi ghirhdl, large sieve. 

A <Opi ghurhat, foreign travel, exile, expatria- 
tion, emigration. 

A (^/sy^ ghara%, intention, design; selfish pur- 
pose, aim or interest ; spite, rancour, grudge ; 
(adv.) in short. 

A i<*j-c gharaze, a spite, a grudge, an ill turn. 

A ijij£. ghurfat, upper chamber. 

A. ^jjS- ghark, immersion, sinking, drowning. 
A p^Ji-i |j_£ ghark shudan, to be swamped, 
to founder ; to be plunged or drowned. 

A.j»j^ ghicrur, pride, haughtiness ; vain-glory, 
vanity; insolence; flattery, adulation. 

p Sji. gharra, deceived, deluded, imposed upon ; 
haughty, proud. 

A i_^ _c gha rlh (p pi. ^^Lj -c gh arlbdn), un- 
common, strange, foreign; wondrous; poor; 



( 60 ) 


A ^^\ji- ^arlM, perigriaation, foreign travel ; 
foreignness. Gharlhe, a stranger. 

A ^^ gh arlh. immersed, submerged, sunk, 
sinking, drowned. U-vc gharllcan (ace.) 

p^_^£ ghiriv, clamour, outcry, shout; roll (of 
a di'um). 

A |J|y^ ghazzuh, name of a celebrated philo- 
sopher and controversialist,whodied a.h. 506. 

A Jji ghazal, amatory poem, ode. 

A tUai: gh ussat, choking sensation, suffocation; 
anguish, straits; displeasure, wrath. 

A ^^-^ ghusun (pi. of ^J^ ghiisn), young 
branches, boughs. 

A i^L-^i gh azbdn, angry, chiding. 

A ^jM-c gh ufrdn, remission of sins, pardon, for- 
giveness, absolution. \j\jiz gh ufnlnan, (ace.) 

A LlLijSLz ghafartu, I have pardoned. 

A tdii. ghnflat, neglect, negligence, thoughtless- 
ness, carelessness, forgetfulness, remissness. 

Ajfcfti gh afur, forgiving, pardoning (God). 

A /»!£ ghuldm (p pi. j^Utili gl^ulumurC), slave, 
servant, lad, page. 

A 'Lii ghallul, thickly planted (orchard). 

A <uLc ghaldbat, victory, predominance, over- 
powering. AP ^>^$> <w-c gh alaha kardan, to 
prevail against, to overcome. 

A dSi. gh allat, corn, grain. 
A lalx. ghalat, fault, error, blunder, mistake. 
p j^JkJali gh aUidaUy to roll, wallow, welter. 
A li-i-i gh allz (p pi. ^l!i-J_c ^allzan), gross, 

filthy, coarse, rough, brutal, brutish. 
A *i gh amm, grief, sorrow, sadness ; care, con- 

cern, solicitude, anxiety; harm, loss, a p *i 
^^'^Jy^ gh amm khwurdan, to grieve, sorrow ; 
to devour sorrow, to sympathize with. *i 
^^:;.^^J gh amm dushtan, to care, have a care. 
]^ji *s. ghammi fardd, cares of the morrow. 

A jUki gh ammdz. informer, accuser, detractor. 

A p c:,.N/*^ ghammat, caro to thee, care of thee. 

p ^^.4ji ghamza, glance; amorous glance, ogling ; 
wink, nod. 

A p (tf^-i ghimme, a grief, a sorrow. 

A Ji\:J: ghandiim (pi. of <U-«Jji^a»!ffJrt^), spoils. 

A ^^ ghanly, rich, independent. 

kv J:^:Jl ghanitar, richer, wealthier. 

A tU-«J.i gh animat, fortunate hit; prize, gain, 
booty ; blessing,preciou3 privilege. APs^:.-~4>--:i 
^ji^jaJL ghammat shumurdan, to count as a 
precious opportunity, to esteem as a privilege. 

4 -^^^i gh awdshl (pi. of cUiili. ghushiyat), 
coverings for saddles, such as grooms in Persia 
to this day carry on their shoulders, with 
which they cover the saddle every time their 

master alights from hishorse. ^j-l\»il\ Jw*l:s- 

hdmila 'I ghaivdsM, (as) carrief'of the saddle- 

A ^^^i gh auwds, diver for pearls, pearl-fisher. 

p — *i ghiich, ram. 

A j^i ghaur, deep reflection, profound medita- 
tion, mature consideration. 

A i^^hghida, dive, dip, sousing, ducking, p <)drji 
^^jys>- ghuta Jdiwirrdan, to get a ducking. 

p (JJ^i ghuk (pi. 1^^^ ghuhdn), frog. 

A C;Lji ghiijdth, succour, redress, aid, help. 
*\Ji\ ^^J^ ghiyathu 7 islam, succourer of 
the faith (a style or title). 

A i_^--c gh aib, concealment, invisibility ; con- 
cealed, secret, hidden, invisible ; supernatural 

AP Jj 

.*ji gh ath-ddn, seer, one who knows 
future events or secrets ; omniscient. 

A <U--c ghaihat, absence ; secresy ; removal to 
a distance ; slander. 

A -»i ghair, other, other than, different, ci/^^ 
gh airi. beside me. 

A -»i ghaiyara, he altered, made a change 
(either for the better or the worse, 2nd form 

of the rt. j\z. gh dra, concave ^ ye). 

A i 


ghairat, zeal, jealousy. 

A la-ji gh aiz, rage, ire, fury, wrath, anger. 

A ( ifa (prefix), then, therefore, consequently, 

in that case. 

A ijS^\i fdjtrat, an unchaste woman. 

A jjiwr^li fdhish (fem. <iJLs-\i fdhishat), shame- 

( 81 ) 


ful, impudent, indecent, outrageous. P^i^j 

i>2.s-li zani fdhisha, whorish woman. 

i.j:>-\ifuM,ir, splendid, glorious, brave, showy; 
distinguished, honorable, precious. 

A \(j\i fa iza, then, in that case, therefore. 

p ir'J^ Fdrs, Persia proper, bounded on the 

East by Kerman, on the West by Khuzistan, 

on the South by the Persian Gulf, and on 

the North by a desert which divides it from 

. Khurasan and Iraki ajaml. 

A jjuj ili fan's, rider of any solid-hoofed animal 
except a horse (as a mule or ass), cavalier. 

p i^j^ fdrsl, Persian, Persic. 

A ^j\i fdri^, free, at leisure ; void, empty. 

A Jk-j\i fdsid, bad, vicious, vitiated, perverse, 
perverted, immoral. 

A (J^\i fdsik, worthless, impudent j sinner, 

A jj-jlj/as?7, eminent, excellent, highly gifted 
or otherwise distinguished ; learned, pious. 

A p yu-ili fdziltar, better, more excellent. 

A (Jirli fa azallu, then would I continue (aor. 

of the rt. ^ zalla, he ceased not, with ( j). 

A iJi\i fdkat, fast, starvation, extrerhe hunger ; 
want, poverty, destitution. 

p aIj fdm, colour, hue (in comp.) as *\i iL-j 
siydh-fdm, dark-coloured, black, swarthy. 

A i^li fa in, and if. 

A ci^jli /a anta, then thou. 4__>,Lsr* t,.::^)\i fa 
anta muhdrib, then thou (art) a bringer of war. 

A a JoU fds-idat, advantage, benefit, use. ^li 

a JoliJl fa inna 'Ifdndata, for of a truth the 

A ^Is fdiik, superior, surpassing, transcendent. 

p (^k^^ futddan, to fall. 

p i jl:J futdda, fallen, dropped ; gotten. 

A -ertj fath, victory. 

Ji.i.s:o fathat, the vowel mark (^ ff); the beard. 

A ^c^ fathe, a victory, a conquest. 

p Jci futad, he falls or should fall. 

A <C.ii fitnat, insurrection, stir, disturbance, 
strife, tumult, sedition, political revolution, 
riot, uproar, row ; scourge, evil, pest ; trial. 

A.v\Sj\ i^ ftna-angez, strife stirring. 

A id futuivat, generosity, liberality. 

A J$vJ/«^M^a', judicial decree given bythemufti. 

A-jysT fujur, wickedness, debauchery. 

A-r^ fal'hr, glory, ornament, ^^i J^l \ jsr fakhru 

^d din, (glory of religion), a proper name. 

lSj^' fakhrl, my glory, my boast. 

A*LvJ_/?(/ai, sacrifice, ransom, redemption, offer- 
ing, devotion for another. 

Vji farr, splendour, pomp. 

p Lj fard, towards. 

A tuLs Furdt, the river Euphrates. 

p ^>^j^\ f^S-'-^ ^jS fard chang dvardan, to get 

into one's grasp, to clutch ; to acquire. 
F ^\ji fardHi, large, broad, wide; plentiful. 

p ^_$^j j.\ji fardkh-ru, of an open, pleasant 

countenance. Fardkh-ravl, width of step, 
going fast ; extravagance, profusion. 

p 15=^ UJ fardkhl., amplitude, abundance. 

A.j\jifirdr, fleeing away, flight. 

\jifard rasldan,to arrive; to encounter, 

meet ; to surround, comprehend, overtake, 
p i^j^j \ri fdt'd raftan, to go out. 
'£ \\ji fardz, above,upon, on ; before, in presence ; 

entrance, ingress, interior; shut, closed, j^^ J^ 

i^Ju»l ;Lj az dar fardz dmadan, to come in 

by the door. 
A ^Lj^rasa^, intelligence, sagacity, ingenuity, 

shrewdness, physiognomy. 
A ^^.jLj firdsate, a shrewdness. 

A ^^^|yj farrdsh, one who spreads the carpets or 
cushions in the palaces of kings or great men, 
a chamberlain : these persons often officiate 
as executioners. 

A z\ji firdgh, cessation, rest from toil; leisure. 

A is.\ji fard gh at, leisure, freedom from business, 

care and trouble; retirement, disengagement, 
independence ; forgetfulness. 

A ^\ji /m^-jSeparationjabsence; loss,departure, 

p ^J^^ ^jifard giriftan, to envelop, 
p jjik^Lj fardmush, forgotten ; forgetfulness. 

c:-.>A^1^ fardmushat, forgetfulness of thee ; 
thee forgotten. 



( 82 ) 


p ^jLy»\j3 fardmush, forgotten. ^^^ t-A/'^ir' 
farumush Icardan, to forget. 

p ^\j)rJ fardwun, abundant, ample, copious, 
plenteous, full, complete, overflowing. 

p ♦iLs/araA«»t, together, ^^j*^ ^\ji fard- 
ham avardan, to collect, gather, scrape to- 
gether (as a faggot or bundle) ; to shut, close. 

p ^j3 farhih, fat. 

p |tf^J jj farhiln, fatness. Farhihe, a fat person, 

a fat man. 
A CLS^jS fartut, decrepit old dotard. 
A _ji farj, priyities (of male or female), 
p (>^ji far jam, end, conclusion, issue. 
A ^ji farah, joy, gladness, glee. 
p -iyi farruldh, happy, fortunate. 
p i?Jc>>- J/ar^MW(frt,prosperous,happy. iss:^ji 

^^ farJchmda-tuUc, of happy destiny. 
p \iJji fardd, to-morrow ; the next life, 
p ^jjs farzand (pi. ^^^'^Jy^ farzanddn), son, 

child. *J\ dJ jji fo'rzandi ddam, son of man. 

p (U-jI^- J ^jjifarzand har-lchusta, with chil- 
dren grown, having grown-up children. 

p ^tJj ri farzin, the queen at chess. 

p ^J^ci^^ Jiristddan, to send, despatch, commit. 

p i^S^-^^ farsang, parasang, league. 

p *-V-mJ farsuda, fatigued, wearied ; damped, 
discouraged, dispirited. 

A jifi farsJiy carpet, rug, or anything similar 
spread on the ground ; pavement. 

p i::J:>jS firisUa, angel. izJ:iji firishta->e, an 

p ^%:>~ i:J^ji firisMa-'khu, angel-tempered, of 
an angelic disposition. 

A LajS fursat, opportunity, occasion; conve- 
nience; advantage. 

A (^ J farz, divine or positive command, obli- 
gation, indispensable precept. 

A ti fart, excess. 

A joj^r^ Fir^aun, Pharaoh, (a title common to 
the ancient kings of Egypt, as that of Ptolemy 
to the later sovereigns.) 

V ui*^ fivijiunl, Pharaoh-like, proud, arro- 
gant, haughty. 

A ^ji farlc, separation, distinction, difference 

p ^J^j^ fartndn, command, order, mandate 

i^J^ U^;^ fcrmun burdan, to obey orders 

j^jIj ^\^ji farmdn dddan, to issue an order 

Pj'>^ ^\^ji farmun-larddr, submissive, obe 

dient to command, /♦j^'v^ c^W/^ farinun 
harddram, (I) am obedient, (I) obey orders 

p SJuL*^/»r/«a«-(??'^, ruling, issuing mandates; 
king, potentate, paramount sovereign. 

r ^i^y*ji farmudan, to order, command, pre- 
scribe (when used in reference to anyone in 
an exalted station, it simplj- means "to say"). 

p ^^y*ji farmuda, commanded ; having com- 
manded ; hath commanded, 
p i>^S^ji farang or firing, Frank or European. 

p jJ faru, firu, faro, firo or furo, down, down- 
ward, below, under, beneath. 

p (^J J ^jsfaru hurdan, to carry down, to lower; 
to swallow ; to dip, plunge. 

p ^^p^ iiji faro hastan, to bind, tie down ; to 
stop, shut, close; to obstruct, let; to fail. 

p i^xJli^ tji faru posludan, to put on, to clothe. 

vjj%^farutar, lower. 

p ^^yi>-j. J firolMan, to sell, to barter away ; to 

inflame, kindle, light. 
p izs>-jji'kkta, sold, 
p ijAJ^jrs- J .i faro khwdndan, to hold forth, 

to utter, 
r L,vi ^ro(? or /a'ro^, down. ,^J^1 i^tjS frod 

dmadan, to come down, descend. ,^>^j} \ ^^ i-» 

firod avardan to bring down, to lower, 
p ^^j jji fa^'o raftan, to go down (as breath 

into the lungs by inspiration) ; to sink, 
p ^^tji firosh, selling; seller, vendor. 

p ^^yj^ tjS faru kaftan, to knock down. 

p |^^:;wlt3o tjS faru guzdsh fan, to pass over, pass 
by, leave out, omit, spare. 

V ^^'\^ jji faru mdndan, to lag, remain be- 
hind, be exhausted, to break down, sink, flag. 

p iL^t* j. _s faru-mdga, low, mean, bascborn, 

ignoble, scoundrel. 
p ^Sj\jijj jji faro nishdndan, to allay, quell, 

quench, extinguish. 


( 83 ) 


p i^yruMJuuJ ij faro nishastan,to subside ; go out. 
p ^J:xlJi> jjS faru hishtan, to hang down. 
vdzJUb ^ji jiro ^wA^ff, hanging down,i)endulous. 
p t^jC:Jfe^ farhang, wisdom, understanding, 

science; dictionary, lexicon. 
vS^yfirydd, cry for help or redress, complaint, 
p jw< . <^l>ji firydd-ras, redresser of grievances, 

helper, succourer. 
p ^-^ "^^ r* firyud-rasl, assistance, redress. 

p \..^Ji firlh or fir eh y deception, fraud, dupli- 
city, trick; (in compos.) deceiving. 
p ^^S^jS farlhldan or firlMdan, to deceive. 

p ^t^jji Faridun, seventh king of Persia of the 
first or Peshdadian dynasty. He delivered 
Persia from the tyranny of the usurper Zahhak. 

p ^^:Ji.)jS firlftan, or fir ef tan, to steal, ravish. 
A ^JJ J fank, troop, squadron ; division, class ; 

p ^,^^\i fuzudan, to increase, multiply. 
p ^^ Is fu%un, increased, augmented. 
p tj'ji fuzuni, increase. 

A jL-j fasdd, depravity, vice, vicious conduct, 
corruption, pcrverseness, villainy, iniquity ; 
violence, war. 


A o.s."^ fushat, space, room. 
A (Jm^ fi^k, adultery, fornication, iniquity, sin. 
p [jtjyM.i fisos, vexation, sorrow, grief, regret. 
A ^y^i fusuk, impudence, villainy, immorality. 
V ^yy^ fusu7i (for f^y^iS a/sun), incantation, 

fascination, deceit. 
p ^J6[j!ij fishundan, to strew, scatter, shed. 
A is>-\^ fmahut, eloquence, rhetoric ; gabble. 
A ,j*ij fasl, time, season ; section, chapter. 
A jJ-^ fade, a chapter. 
A -iv*^ faslh, eloquent, glib, fluent, rhetorical. 

A ^\^ faz&iil (pi. of A l->>i J fazllat), virtues, 
attainments, excellent qualities, excellences. 

A 1^^ fazl, excellence, virtue, merit, worth, 
bounty; science, learning. 

A "^^ fuzalui (pi. of J-9li/as«7), learned men, 

A dj^ fazlat, remainder, redundancy, leavings, 
remains, dregs, excrescence, superfluity. 

A Jj«3i fazul, redundant, excessive. Fuzul, 
impertinence, intrusion; meddling spiric; 

A is^^ fazlhat, disgrace, ignominy. 

A iLL<^ fazilat, excellence, superiority, emi- 
nence, virtue, accomplishments. 

A is-ki fitrat, complexion, nature, creation, form 
(which an embryo takes in the womb) ; alms 
given at the festival held on breaking the 
fast of Kamazan. 

A ^iks fitnat, understanding, intelligence, pru- 
dence, shrewdness. 

A Jjti fi-J, act, action, operation ; a verb. 

A 1.^^-1*3 fa (.alaiha, then upon her (or it). 

p jM^ fighdn, complaint, lamentation, moan. 
^J^JtM ha fighdn, in despair. 

A jJii fa kad, therefore, verily. 

A LUiSsij fakattu, I missed (rt. ssj fakada). 

Ajjijfakr, poverty. ^_SjS.' yJ^\ al fakr fakhn , 
poverty (is) my glory, ^j, <^"jJi Ji^^^l 
j^j> iljjl alfakru sawddu 7 wajkifi 'd ddraini, 
poverty (is) blackness of the face (an igno- 
minious condition) in both worlds, a v^^y.s 
fakrash, his poverty. 

A 'LsLJ fukard^ (pi. of^Jii fakir), poor. 

A c:.^lJii fa kultu, and I said, then said I. 

A -Jii fakir, poor, pauper ; religious order of 

A '^r*^ fakirat, poor woman. 
A dJij fakih, a Muhammadan lawyer, jurist, or 

kj^fikr, thought, care, reflection, imagination. 

A iSj fikrat, thought ; that which is the sub- 
ject of reflection. 

A I— a-ili fa kaif, why then ? how then ? how 
much more ? 

A U>.i,jel2j \i fa la ttitichumd, in that case obey 
them not (gezmate of %-r^ ttitl^i, 4th form 
of the rt. ^■lls tdi^, concave J ivdw). 

A — Ij faldh, prosperity, safety, happiness. 

A -li falldh, husbandman, 

A ^Ij fuldti, such and such, so and so, such an 
one. A p ^'li fnlunam, (T) am such an one. 


( 84 ) 


A CS^J fullc, ship. Falah, heaven, sky, firma- 

A ^^^i.=^J>\.i fa li'r rahmdn, for unto the Merci. 

ful One. 

A Uli fa lammd, and when. 

A d^^JcAi fa linafsihi, then (it will he) for his 
own self (or for his personal advantage). 

A c:^^Jj fa laita, Oh ! would that ! 

A i^LS-As. \^ fa md i,alailca, then there is nought 

against thee, no fault rests with thee. 
A i^AJ fa man, who then? Fa min, then from. 

A ^^^'^s funun (pi. of ,^ fann), sciences ; modes, 
ways, sorts. 

A {jjjj\yi fawdris (pi. oi {jMjK'i fdris), cavaliers, 

[jM.j\^'fu\ »j\ ahu 'I fdwdris, father of horse- 
men, or rather, of those mounted on asses (a 
nickname given either by Sadi or someone 
else to a certain nois)' and stentorian orator). 

A i^\^i fawdhih (pi. of ^S\i fdJcihat), fruits. 

A J^\ji fawditd (pi. of I si\3 fds-idat), benefits, 

advantages, privileges. 
A iSJ^ faut, passing away, departure ; loss, 

death, a p ^<^ CLi^'ifaut shudan, to be lost. 

A Siji fuldd, steel. 

A jf^fahm, understanding, comprehension. 

p (^ Jk--^j fahmidan, to understand (a Persian 
verb coined from the Arabic). 

K y^ fahwa, and he. 

A ti /^, in, among ; concerning, for. ai^jsM ^X 

fi, Hjumla, upon the whole, in short. JWm l1 
fi 7 hdl, immediately, forthwith. 

p ^j^rfj flro%a, fortunate ; a turquoise which is 
thought to bring good luck to the wearer. 

A ^^ fU, elephant. (J^^sJ^ alfll, the elejjhant. 

Q (__jyjJ-»i failasuf (p pi. ^\jyA^ f atlas uf an), 

A li-.i find, in us, among us. 

A iLJ flhi, in him ; in that, in it, therein. 

A j^^ flhim, in them, among them. 

A JjIj kdhil, capable, able ; susceptible, sus- 
ceptive, receptive, recipient; skilful. 

A Ajjljj kdhilat, midwife, nurse. 

A Jjljj Icdtil, deadly, mortal, fatal. 

a^jU kddir, predestinating; powerful, able. 

A ^^y^ Kdrun, Korah, the cousin of Moses, 

and son of Izhar, the son of Kohath, the son 
of Levi, is said by the Muhammadans to 
have been very rich and avaricious. "The 
keys of Korah's treasure-chambers were a 
burden for 300 white mules." — Note to Sura 
xxviii. by the Rev. J. M. RodweU, author 
of a new translation of the Kur'an. 

A S>a\i kdsid, messenger, courier, postman, ex- 
press, cossid. 

kj^Xs kdsir, short, defective, deficient, insuffi- 

A ^j-ili kdzi, judge (civil, criminal, and eccle- 

A cli X-at, plain, level ground, flat country. 

I2--UJ clij kda hastt, widely extended plain 
or desert. 

A ^Aili kdddat, rule, canon; style, mode, man- 
ner; footing. 

A ilili kdfilat, body of travellers, caravan, coffle. 

A Jli kdla, he said (concave j wdw). ^\ Jli 
iJUj" kdla 'lldh ta^la', God the Most High 
said (meaning, that it is said in the Kur'an). 

A * \\3 kdlih, form, model, mould; body, bust, 

shape, figure. 

A ^Jljj kdlu, they said or have said (3 pi. pret.). 

A iUli kdmat, stature, figure, height of the 
human figure ; six feet, fathom. 

A «JIj kdni^ content, contented. 

kjiXi kdhir (fern. iJtXi kdhirat), victorious. 

^liiSl al kdhirat, Al Cairo (victrix). 
A /»liL« *5li kdnm-makdm, locum tenens,deputy, 

viceroy, vicegerent; successor. 

p Li kalu, akind of light cloak with longsleeves, 

somewhat like a college-gown, but generally 
made of wool; tunic quite open in front. 

iiyfP^i^. "-^V^ kahdyi postln, a fur cloak. 
A aLlLi kabdlat, bond, deed, written agreement; 

title-deeds, conveyance. 
A -i\jj kubh, deformity, ugliness ; shamefulness. 

A LaJ kahzat, grasp, gripe, grip, clutch. 

A J-J kcibl, fore part, face, front; before. Kibal, 



part, side, p a ^jf^ t-M J^ ^^ kihali mashrih, 
from the quarter of the East. 

A <lLj kiblat, the place to which men turn in 
prayer, Kiblah. This among Jews and 
Christians is the temple of Jerusalem, our 
churches being so built that the priest at the 
altar faces towards it. Muhammad directed 
bis disciples to pray towards the temple at 
Mecca; an injunction which caused so much 
discontent at first, that he was fain to add a 
sentence to the effect that God hears prayer 
to whatever quarter the suppliant turns. 

A J vJ kabul, acceptance, favourable reception ; 
good opinion, esteem ; accepted ; acceptable. 
A |J^ kabuli, acceptable. 

A 'Ow-J kahilat, tribe, family ; wife. 

A JliJJ kaiul, soul; remains of life; strength; 
body. Kitdl, carnage, slaughter, battle. 

A JiJ katl, slaying, slaughter. 

ki.^kahhat, whore, prostitute; female pander. 

A Si kad, a particle used before verbs, signify- 
ing already ; certainly, assuredly, in truth. 

A si kadd, stature. 

A —AJj kadah, cup, bowl, goblet. 

A jjJ kadr, power ; rank, dignity, consequence, 
reputation; value, worth; quantity, measure, 

capacity; fate, destiny. .jJi!! <iiJ lailatu 7 

kadr (paiJj t-^-i shahikadr),i\iexn.^toi 

power, one of the last ten nights of Ramazan, 
and, as is commonly believed, the seventh of 
those nights reckoning backwards. On this 
night Gabriel is said to have begun to reveal the 

Kur' an to Muhammad. vkiSJjSiihakadrat, 

by thy power, a Kidr, cauldron, pot, boiler, 
kettle. JEa<frtr, quantity; price, worth, value. 

A \jSi kadran, as to value, rank, dignity or 
importance (the ace. being used adverbially). 

A *ijjj kudrat, power, ability. 

Af^jSikadre, alittle,a small quantity.modicum. 

A ^^'Xs kuds, Jerusalem (the holy city). 

A *Jk5 kadam, foot ; step, pace, walk, ap j *j>5 
^j:J^\i^ kadam bar ddshtan, to lift the foot, 
to stir a step. ^jJwj ^■^j (>Si kadam ranja 
shudan, to take the trouble of just stepping, 
c^-^jjj kadamat, thy foot. 

A * JkJj kaddim, send before (imp. of the 2nd form 

( 85 ) Ui 

of the rt. ^si). -jl^l J-J ■rJLr^^ ("^^ 
kaddimi 7 khuruj kabla 'I wuluj, prepare the 

exit before entering ; look before you leap. 
A ^y*Si kadame, a single step, p S>^^ ig^'^ 

~kadame chand, a few steps or paces. 
A (*^S! kudum, approach, arrival, advent. 
A *jJkJj kadlm, ancient, antique, old, former. 
kj\ji kardr, stability, firmness, quiet, rest, calm, 

stillness, v kj\ji y bar kardr, firm, fixed, on 

a steady footing or foundation. 

A Za\ji kurdzat, fragment of gold, a small par- 
ticle of any metal. 

A ^1 Jj kur' an, the sacred book of the Muham- 

madans, written by their prophet, and feigned 
to have been revealed from heaven. 

A joVy* kurbdn, sacrifice, corban. 

A lil) J kurbdni, destined for sacrifice. 

A. ii 3 kirbat, leathern bottle. , ,:i)J! kirbati, 
my bottle. Kurbat, vicinity, nearness, prox- 
imity ; affinity, kindred. 

A ^ Js kurba, relationship, kin, consanguinity. 

A .jSji kurs, disk, ap xJ^ij^ ^ji kursi kJmur- 

shed, the orb (or disk) of the sun. 
A i^-Oji karz, debt, loan. 
A ^ji karln, connected, linked ; contiguous ; 

friend, yokefellow, mate. 
A jjj ka%%, raw silk. 

A *--uJ kaslm, beautiful, handsome, well-made. 
Ac_;l.^ kassdh (f pl.^^buu kassdbdn), hntcher. 
A ^jfll*^ kisds, retaliation. 
A i_ -^'•^ kasab, reed, pen, quill ; muslin. i_,-^ 

v_ ---'^^ kasabu 7 habib, the friendly pen. 

t^j^^oy* L --^^ kasabi misri, fine linen made 

in Egypt. 
A tUai h'ssat, history, story, case. 
A Ju2j kasd, intention, preparation, design, aim. 
A j»ai kasr, citadel, castle, palace. 
A 'sS;k^ kasidat, poem, kasida or elegy, being 

a kind of longer J^ ghazal or ode. 

A 'LijX-«zai, fate, destiny, predestination ; death; 
sentence, judgmcnt,decrce; payment, settling, 

concluding, finishing, a p ^>^S ^-^ kazd kar- 
dan, to make up for a former omission (as to 


( 8G ) 


fast after Eamazan on account of having 
broken the fast then. &. p Juij1-J ,_5'Lij hizayi 
nabishta, destiny- written, written by destiny. 
A p 1 .l*iJ5 hazard, providentially, by chance. 

A j_^U«^ Icuzhun (pi. of u.^--iJ kazlb), long and 
slender branches, twigs. 

A t-^iai kutb, Polar Star, North Pole. 

A.y3j katr, drop. iaj Xx. Jai kairun <^la^ 
katrin, drop upon drop. Kitr (used in the 
sense of ^Ji^ katrun), liquid pitch, tar. 

A iyajj ^-ff^rrt^jdrop. ap Ju.2^ iJaJf katra^e chand, 
a few drops. 

A jJai kat^ amputation, cutting, maiming ; 
abandonment. *5*. . -tJai katd rahim, re- 
nunciation of kin, cutting of one's connexions. 

A Pj_^t^ «--^i ^«^j^ kardan, to cross, traverse ; 

to cut off; to conclude. 
A <uLi kit^at, strophe, section, part, portion. 
A p if Jp «_Li X'flifc karda, cut off. 
A j«J! X«ir, abyss, gulf. 
A '\Ki kafdi, back or nape of the neck ; behind 

one's back, secretly. pajI ^\Kij^darkafuyi 

u, at his heels ; in track of him. 
A ^JMSJ kafas, bird-cage. 
A j^ijj kafas, bird cage. 
A c^ kild<^ (pi. of iUli kal^t), forts. 
A k_^ijj ^a?5, heart. 
A <Uj kullat, mountain-top. 

A iUli kal^at (in India pronounced M(?), fort, 

castle, fortalice. 
A *ij kalam, reed, pen, calamus. 

A i^y*^ kalamun, chameleon. ^y*^i %J ^^ 

kalamun, a changing-colourcd silk or stuff. 
A UIj kulnd, we said (rt. JIj kula, concave^). 

PjXSj kalandar (pi. ^^Ujcij kahndardn), a 
wandering Muhammadan monk, with shaven 
head and beard, who abandons family and 
goods, so called from the name of the founder 
of this sect, which appears to be somewhat lax. 

A tJ-iJ kalil, small, little; few. J^ kalilun, 

a few, a small number. 
A lij kind, preserve us (imp. of the rt. ^» 

waka\ he preserved, doubly imperfect, and U 

nd, us). jUl t__j^ JkS Li ki7id zazula '» ndr, 
save us (from) the torment of the fire. 

A iz\:^ kandzat, contentment. 

A i^ kuwat, strength, power, force, ability, 

A CU J kut, food, aliment, sustenance. 

A ^j»j kuwate, a power. 

A J J kaul, word, saying ; agreement. ^ Jy 
Jje kaul ufid, saying and doing, word and 
deed, i}^ ^^ kauluhu ta^ala', the saying 
of Him" Most High. 

A IJ J kulu, say ye (imp. of the rt. JlJs kdla, 
he said, concave j wdw). ^Jl*^ ^^^ kulu 
li 'I muidfd', say to him who is free from pain. 

A /•yj kaum, race, folk, tribe, people. 

A L::.-^^ •Js kauwamta, thou haststraightened(pret. 
of /♦•Jj kauwama, 2nd form of the rt./»li kdma 

concave^ wdw). \.^p.y^^ kauwamtahd, thou 
straighteuedst (her, it or) them. 

A ^^ J kaume, a class, a people, a tribe, a com- 
"munity, a sect or denomination ; a crowd. 

A t_5'»jj kawiy, strong, hale, robust, powerful. 

A p Jb 4_j'»"J kawl hdl, strong in the arm. 

A -^ kahr, anger, wrath ; force, violence ; se- 
verity, sharpness. ^Js t__>lkii- khitdbi kahr, 
wrathful address, violent harangue. 

A ii-il-i h'yds, conjecture, guess, imagination^ 
supposition, judgment. 

A ^.♦Lj kiyumat, the resurrection. 

A JlJ kaid, bondage,imprisonment, bond, fetters, 
chain, shackles. 

A tU-J kimat, price, value. 

A \^ ka (prefix governing the oblique case), as, 
like. j^Luu^ ka sinnaurin, as a cat. jjJl^ 

ka H 5rtr7;v',like the full moon ; (also an affixed 
pron. of the 2nd pers. sing, masc.) thee; of 

thee, thy, thine. CS^\ innaka, verily thou. 

p ^-jl^ kubln, the portion a husband must pay 

to a wife if he divorces her on insufiicicnt 
grounds ; dowry, settlement. 

A i„.^li kdtib, writer, scribe, amanuensis. 


( 87 ) 


p -il^ kaJdi, apartment at the top of a house 
open to the front ; gallery, balcony ; palace. 

A jl^ kuda, it wants but little, he was little 
short of; as Cl-'y*^ '^^ kud yamutti, he all 
but died. \y^ ^^\ ^\ yull jl^ iiida 'I 
fakru an yakuna kufran, poverty is little 
short of becoming blasphemy. Sometimes 

this verb is pleonastic ; as tU-*** jlxj ^ la 
yakCidii yiisi gi.n1m, doth not allay it. 

p i\^ kdr (pi. Ifril^ kdrhd), thing, business, 
matter, affair; act, action, service, toil, work; 
use, good purpose; office, post, ^jxj^i JS 
kdr hastan, to adopt, use, employ, put in 
practice, ^^^y* J JS kdr farmudan, to put in 
practice, y^ j^ kdr kim (imp. of j^J^jli 
kdr kardan), act thou, do. (^>X^I ^l^' ha kdr 
dmadan, to serve, be of service, be useful. 

p Jjli kdrd, knife. 

p (J,\i^j^ X'ar-<?d«i, experience, practical know- 

p if Jo Jjli kdr-dlda, experienced ; veteran. 

'Pj\)j^ kdrzdr, battle, battle-field, action. 

p ilTjli kdr-gdh, workshop, manufactory. 

p ^^;j^ kdrwdn, caravan, body of travellers or 

p ti^jj" kdricdni (pi. ^Ljitili kdrwdniydti), 
connected with a caravan, member of, or 
traveller with, a caravan. JEar?M7je, a caravan. 

p \jbj^ kdrhd (pi. of jl^ kdr), affairs ; difficulties, 
disagreeable things. 

p lSj^ kdri, champion, warrior. Kdre, a busi- 
ness, an affair, work, employ ; an act, a deed. 

p (^r—-^ kdstan, to lessen, damage ; to diminish, 
grow less. 

A. sJ^ kdsid, worthless, deficient in quantity 
or quality ; dead, dull, flat (market or fair), 
in which goods or animals are unsaleable. 

p <Ljli kdsa, porcelain ; cup, vase, plate, saucer. 

,ji-»s«- <LjI^ kdsati chlni, china vase. 

p /^l^ kdsh, would to heaven ! 

p i^yi-ll^ kdshtan, to sow, cultivate. 

p <ibjjl^ kdshta, sown, set, planted. 

p .i-il^ Kdshghar, name of a city of Chinese 


A jj->/»^l^ kdzimina (obi. of ,»^li kdzimuna 

pi. of jjrl^ kuzim), restrainers ; they who 

check, curb, or repress, 
p jkili kd gh az or kdghiz, paper. jj jiili kd- 

ghazi zar, paper powdered with gold dust, or 

gold leaf. 

A i-ib kuffat, all. Aj\ iSjli kdffan andm, all 

A il^ kdfir, denying God; ungrateful, unthank- 
ful ; infidel, caffre. 

A P j^li kdfur, camphor. 

V A. ^_Sjji^ kdfuri, camphorated, made of cam- 
phor. t_f,<y^ j-*«-ij sham^ kdfuri, a wax 
candle, camphorated wax. 

A ^l^ kdfl, sufficient, competent, enough. 

X j\l^ ka 'I hadr, like the full moon. 

p /kli kdm, palate, jaw, mouth; desire, wish ; 
satisfaction, delight. 

p ^j\y*^ kdm-rdn, fortunate, successful, pros- 

p (3l.^li kum-rdrn, voluptuousness. 

A J-^l^ kdmil, perfect, complete, excellent. 

p (tf^li kdme, a particular desire or wish. 

p 1^1^ kdn, mine, quarry, j^li jj za/ri kdn, gold 

from the mine. Fdn (for ^\ <b ki an), for 
that ; that it ; he who. 

A j_^l^ kdna, he was, is, became (concave ^ tcdw, 
and governs the accusative case). 

p ^^^stI^ k'dnchi (for <)^j!^ ^\ ^ ki dn chi), for 
that which. 

p jJuli k'dndar, for within, lest within. 

p <Ai |i^li k'dnrd ki, that to him who. 

p ^Sj\^ k'dn ki (for ^ ^\ i^ ki dn ki), who 

A ^La>l^ kdhill, indolence, laziness, sloth, lan- 

p (jiX-Jil^ kdhldan, to diminish, to waste. 

p ^\^ k'ai (for ^\ i^ ki ai), saying oh ! 

A c:_jlijl^ kuiindt (pi. of ^jli kus-inat), beings, 
existences, creatures. 

A <— .jL^ kahdh, meat cut into small pieces, and 
roasted on skewers with onions and eggs. 

kjS kihr, pride. 

p ul-N-i kahk (pi. i^^i-fj kahkdn), partridge. 


( 88 ) 


p i^Ji^ kahg, partridge. 

vjiy^hahutar, pigeon, dove. 

A j-»-.i kalir, great, large, 

p ci^ hat or kit (for \jj i^ hi turu), that thee. 

A i^\z^ kitdh,ho6k. ^Ws'* t^^ kitahi majid, 
the glorious book, i.e. the Kur'an. 

A c_->b^ hittdh, writing-school. 

A <6l:ii kitahat, inscription, title-page of a book. 

^ ic-*^ huttdhe, a certain writing-school. 

A p su:>~ ^\::^ kitale c7ia«(?,sundry books,several 

A k_-^ ^m^m5 (pi. of L^\:^ kitdh), books. 

p \ As^j kat-khudd, master of a family, house- 

p i^S^^ kat-khuddie, a single householder. 

A i — ibi kitf, katif, or kataf, shoulder, shoulder- 
blade, omoplate. p a iz.uj.i i^Jz^y o.-^-^ J dast 
bar katif basta, pinioned. 

A i^^t^ kuthub (pi. of c-''«>^ kathlb), sand- 

p -tf^ kaj, crooked, wry ; a kind of common silk. 
r Is^ kujd, where ? whence ? whither ? how ? 
p iXS 1 -(~ kaj-dgand, a garment of coarse silk 
worn under a cuirass. 

p i^ls^ kajava, a cradle slung on each side of a 
camel, in which travellers and pilgrims 
(male or female) are carried. 

p ^^j^M*J ^^W^ kajdva-nishln, seated in a camel- 

p (^^.s^ kujdii, whence art thou ? where art thou ? 

(^Ijs^ j\ a% kujdil, from whence art thou? 



^ kaj-tab,^ perverse, dogged. 

p /»! A^ kudum, which ? of what kind ? 

p ^Jkj^ Jo kad-khudd (pi. jjl'.^'A^ '^ lad-khud- 
di/un), householder, housekeeper, master of 
the house. 

A ijt^ kiidurat, turbidness, gloom. 

A i^\^ kaz%db, arrant liar, great liar. 

A CS^i^ kazdlika, thus, so, in like manner. 

p \S> kird, whom ? whom ; to whom ? to whom. 

A *,\Ji kirdm (pi. of t^S karlm), generous, 

liberal, beneficent, benign. C«l^ kirdman, 
kindly, considerately, generously (accusative 
being used adverbially). 

A 'i^\^ kardmat (pi. C^U^ kardmdt), gene- 
rosity, excellence, magnificence, splendour; 
mii'acle ; power of working miracles. 

p ^\Ji kardn, shore, coast, margin, bank. 

V £j\^ kardna, margin, edge, side, quarter, 

A ^\^ kardhat, aversion, detestation, disgust, 

Ad-_&Li kardhiyat, abhorrence, aversion, disgust. 
A ijj, kurbat, affliction, mental anguish, grief, 


PjiiJp kirddr, action, deed, employment, prac- 
tice, conduct. 

p i-f;^'^ kirddr e, a conduct, a practice. 

p s.:l^^^J, kardast (for ^:l~'J\ i J^ karda ast), 
(he) hath done or committed. 

r J^^fi kirdigdr, God the Omnipotent, 
p ^<^S kardan, to do, make, form, act, com- 
mit, perform, practise, discharge, execute, 
p Si^tji karda, made, done, accomplished, 
p ^^J> karde, was wont to make, would make. 

p iU-i^ kirishma, wink, nod, languishing look, 

p ^Ji kirm, worm. <d-j ^J> kirmi plla, jeUow 
worm, silk- worm. 

A *^ karam, generosity, bounty, liberality, 

kindness, goodness, excellence. 
A ^^Ji karame, an act of liberality. 

A ^,yf karrubiy, cherub. 

A ^jS karlm (p pi. ^\^S karlmdn), liberal, 
munificent, bountiful, generous; benign, mer- 
ciful; a name of God. ^jmJc\\ j^\^ karlmtt 

'w tiafs, of benevolent disposition, of a gene- 
rous soul. 

A t*J r^ karlman, kindly, generously (accusative 

used adverbially). 
A ^^*^S karlme, most exceeding generous. 
A ijS karih, detestable, filthy, odious, hideous, 

hateful, disgusting. LLJyA\ <0^ karlfiu '« 
said, hai'sh-voiced, having an execrable voice. 

V J^ k'az (for J^ <*^ ki az), that from, that of. 

p A jj!LJLffJ^ k'azi ^kabash, because after him. 
p • ji ki sw, that of him. 
A iVj^ ka zaidin, like Zaid. 


( 89 ) 

• / 

P A 

Jt> kazh-dum, (crook-tail), scorpion, 
p ^jjS has, any one, somebody, a person. 
p ^^Lu^ kasan (pi. of ^^ kas), persons, people. 
A j'^ kasr, fracture ; affliction. 

S Easra' , Chosroes, a name of several 

p A (_> ->^ Jiasra 
kings of Persia. 

A i»Lu*i ka sinnaur, like a cat. 

A iyjS kiswat (p pi. Kj^y^^ kiswathd), robe, 

raiment, dress, garb, clothing; mode of dress; 
the covering in which the Kaaba is draped, 
made of black cloth embroidered with silver. 

p jtf-^ kase, any one, any ])erson ; a certain 

person ; a person of consequence. Ai ^s^ 
kase ki, a person that. 

p (jAii kash (imp. of ^A--i.i kashidan), draw 

thou, (for ^\ d^ ki ash), that to him. 

p j^jLli kiishadan, to open, loose, let loose, 

unloose, unbar, unbolt, untie ; to take, cap- 
ture, subdue, conquer. 

p « jLlL^ kushuda, opened ; open. 

p ^j^j iS^Jlj^kushdda-ru,oi an open countenance. 

p^lcui ^•as^aw(part.of^ Jv-Ai kashidan) drawing. 

p k_?l^ kiishdi (imp. of ^^ J>^Ai kushudan), open. 

p ^UojuL^ kushtagan (pi. of ctxA^ kushta), slain. 

i kishtan, to sow, till. Kushtan, to slay. 

^-ilj izJ^ kushta 

kill, murder, put to death ; to put out, ex 

p icJUS kushta, slain, killed ; extinguished ; 

hath slain, having slain. 

hdshl, thou shalt have slain. 

p ^c^-^ kashti (but often erroneously pronounced 

kishtl), vessel, ship, bark, boat. Kushti, 

wrestling, rj^^ v<^ kushti giriftan, to 

grapple, seize in wrestling. 

p . X . ^ . L 'ikashtlldn, pilot, steersman, helmsman. 

p <!:u*X-i) ^j:^ kashfl-shikasta, shipwrecked. 

A ^g<*.'> kasha/a, he uncovered, he unvailed. 
Kashaf, opening, manifesting, revealing, dis- 
covery ; investigation. 

p ^J».li kushudan, to open. 

^ jy^ kishtcar, climate, clime, quarter, region 
of the world. 

p \JlS jy^ kishwar kushd, conqueror of king- 

p jjLli^j.^i^ ktshwar-kushd'^e, a conqueror of 

p ,-u*i kushl, thou slayest, thou shouldest kill, 
p ^Ju>jio kashidan, to draw, draw out, stretch, 

drag, pull, trail, twitch, strip ; to draw upon 

one's self, bear, submit to, undergo, endure ; 

to extend, prolong ; to spread. 

p iXJL^ kashida, drawn ; spread ; experienced; 

suffered, endured. 
A i_..->jc ka^ (p pi ^---'ti ka-J)hd), the heel. 

A Ljf^ ka-.hat, the Kaaba, or cube-shaped temple 
at Mecca, built, as the Muhamraadans pre- 
tend, by Abraham and his son Ishmael on 
the site of a still more ancient temple, built 
by Seth, and destroyed by the deluge. It is 
described by a modern traveller as an oblong 
massive structure 55 feet in length, 45 feet 
in breadth, and the heigh th somewhat greater 
than the length. It stands in an open pa- 
rallelogram of about 500 feet by 530, and 
is surrounded by colonnades, the pillars of 
which are made of various marbles. It is 

termed dJo^ ^•^^-^. iaitu 'Ildh, the house of 

God, and *.s-\ al haram, the sacred. It is 

covered with black cloth embroidered with 
silver, which is renewed every year. 

p i^i kaf, palm of the hand ; sole of the foot ; 

hand ; foam. 1.::,-^-^ J i-_a^ kafi dast, palm of 

the hand, ^^'^ji ' *— c^ ia kaf dvardan, to 
procure ; to secure in the hand. 

A 'ij[a kaffdrat, atonement, expiation. 

A t_jU^ ^(rfdf, sufficiency,competency, pittance. 

A p (JijJ \ uJ'Ji^ kafdfi andak, slender means, 
small competency. 

^ o^ kafdfe, a pittance ; a sufficiency, com- 

A ij\sS kifdyat, sufficiency; ability; shrewd- 
ness, prudence, good sense. AP^J^i i.u--.jlii 
kifdyat kardan, to suffice. 

A j6, kufr, infidelity, impiety, blasphemy. 

p fjLs^ kafsh, shoe, sandal, slipper. 

p ;• J j^/L£^y5;fl/jsA-(?o3,shoemaker,cobbler,crispin. 

A ti^ kafan, shroud, winding-sheet. 

A jJ^ kafur, impious, infidel, ungrateful. 

A wi^-i^ kafaita (pret. of rt. J^ kafa'), thou 

hast done enough. ^j\ c:--*i^ kafaita azan, 
thou hast done harm enough. 



( 90 ) 



A Ji hill, all, every, universal, whole. i\j\ ^ 

kullu inds-in, every vessel. 

p <U..-K lalusa, wells where travellers (especially 
pilgrims to Mecca) drink. 

A *K Icaldm, word, discourse, speech, saying. 

r ihi kuluh, cap, hat, Tartar cap, bonnet. 

V ^S iK kuldh-gosha, peak of a high cap. 

A ( ^K Icalh, dog. k^-K]^ |Jx c^«/a 7 /a/^?, 

against the dog. 

p <iul^ Z;m75«, shop, warehouse. 

A fjJ^ his, quick lime for making mortar. 

A J^ kallim, speak to, address (imp.of 2nd form 
of the verb *1^). 

A «uK kalimat, word, saying. a p X^ <uK 
kalima<-i chand, a few words, a brief dis- 
course. A /jkTs- (Juii kalimaii hakk, the word 
of truth. 

A \^ kulu, eat ye (2 per. pi. irregular imp. of 
the verb ^\). 

F ^j\^ kulnkh, clod, brickbat. 

p ;1ju\ -i4l> kulukh-anddz, slinger. 

p t-JU^ ^*ii kulukh-kob, mallet for breaking 
clods, clod-crusher. 

A li kulll, wholly, entirely, whole, entire, ab- 
" solute. 

p Ju«K hlld, key. 

p jS kam, few, little ; less, small ; abated, di- 
minished, decreased. 

A *S ku7nm, sleeve. 

A Ui kamd, as, according as. 

p j\;T fS kam-dzdr, a rare whipper, seldom 

using the cane for punishing idle boys. 
A JU^ kamdl, perfection, excellence. <i]U^ 

Ai kamdlihi, by his perfection. 
A l::^jsV JU^ kamdl'hahjat, perfect in beauty. 
A ^i.^ J^ kamdl-bahjate, a perfection of 


p .U^ kamdn, bow. (JL^ ^J^kamdnikaydnl, 

the Kayanian bow ; a strong bow is so called 
because archery was brought to perfection 
among the Persians under the Kayanian, or 
second dynasty of kings. 

V j\Sj\>%^ kamdn-dur, archer, bowman. 

V j:^ kamtar, less, very little. f^i,j^ kam- 

tarem, (we) are less. 

p ^jUA^ kamtann, least, smallest, lowest. 

p^^ kamar, waist ; girdle, belt. 

p '^'■^j^ kamar-land, waistband, girdle, in which 

the Orientals carry their money. 
Vj\^fSkam-^'ijdr, below standard, base (coin), 
p A-/*^ kamand, noose, lasso. 
A -«*i kamly, armed, mailed ; bold, brave, strong, 
p ^j^^ kamln, defective, mean. 
A f^^j^ kamm, ambush, ambuscade. 

A p JO jj.-^ kamm-gdh, place of ambush, am- 

p /^u.^ kaminam, (I) am mean. 

p ^--^ kamina, base, low, humble, mean; least, 

A j^ kim, be or become thou (imp. of rt. ^^ 
kdna, concave j wdw governing the ace). 

p jLi kandr, shore, margin, bank, brink, edge, 
side. Kindr, embrace ; lap, bosom, j j jL^ 
j^i>p kindr dar kardan, to fill the lap. .Li 
(juuV J kinar u bos, embracing and kissing. 

p ij[:S kandra, side, edge, ^^j^^ iX:^ kandra 
ginftan, to retire, withdraw, to go aside. 

p (^lii kundn, making, doing (part. pres. of the 
verb ^'^J> kardan). 

V ^ kunj, corner, nook. 

p (.livA-srLi kunjishk, sparrow. 

p ,c=sa^ kunje, a corner, a nook. 

p xA hind, dull, blunt. Kiinad, he makes. 

PjJkii Vandar (for .Jijl d^ ki andar), that in. 

p (^J^ kandan, to dig, excavate, raze, extir- 
pate, overthrow. 

p ^^i^'JLi^ /;2<«zW/^,fire- temple; Christian church; 
Jews' synagogue; pi-ofession, occupation. 

A i^-jc.^ kanidn, Canaan, grandson of Noah. 

^Ui^jJ Aj ^^ ^ aA&LI shdhidam man 

wale na dar kan^dn, I am a beauty but not 
in Canaan, — where Joseph (from his beauty, 

called ,.Xx:S iL< mdhi kan^un, the moon of 

c I. ' _ 

Canaan) was born, i.e. I make no pretension 
to excellence. 

kunamat, I should make thee. 



( 91 ) 


p jji^o ^hnun (for ^y^^ ahnUn) now. ui^Jj^o 

'knunat, now to thee, 
p ^i^ X-w«e, thou makest, canst or wilt make 

(rt. ^'^S Icardan). 

p J->ii kamz, maid, virgin, girl ; female servant. 

p (Jij-ii hanlzak (pi. ^^lij*ii kanlzakdn), hand- 
maid, damsel, female servant or slave. 

p »i ku, street, lane ; where, (for .1 dLi ^e u), 

for he, that he. (for u::-a-:Is^ X-iya 's<), 
where is ; where is he ? where is he gone ? 

P ^-r^y kob, strike, thump, knock (rt ^i»i). 
p i\jy kutuh, short, small, little, dwarfish, con- 
PA Si ilj^iA-u^aA-7irt(?<7,shortofstature, dwarfish. 
p Ajji kutak, short; contracted ; withdrawn, 
p c:-*-;^ <0'»i kutah-dast, short-handed. 

P A iiJ ijy kutah-nazar (pi. ^J^'i ^S kutah- 

nazarun), short-sighted. 
P lLXs--^ kuchak, little, small. 

P w5Jji kiidak {pi. ^^^ i^ ^ kudakdn), hoy, youth, 

child, lad, brat, urchin. 
p pJji^uf/«Z,7, childishness, boyishness, ^ud- 

ake, a child, a boy. 
F ^^'^y kaudan, dull, lazy, slow, stupid ; obese. 
p jji kur (pi. ^^j^ kurdn), blind, sightless. 

p Lii^^sTj^ kur-hakht, (blind-fortune), unfor- 

p (J^ j^ kur-dil, blind -hearted ; stupid. 

p ;^ km, curved, bent down. 
pushti kuz, curved back, humpback. 

p »j^ kuza, gugglet, jug, jar, decanter. 

p (jwu^i kos, drum. jjt>; ^^^^ kos zadan, to 

beat a drum. 
p ^jLtiS koshtsJi, effort, endeavour. 
p ^yS^^ kosMdan, to strive, struggle, labour, 

endeavour, take pains, make effort, strenuously 

A p <ij^ Kufat, a city on the Euphrates, four 

days' journey from Baghdad, and so near 
Basrah, that the two towns are called the 
two Basrahs or the two Kufahs. In Basrah 
and Kufah were rival schools of learning. The 
oldest Arabic characters extant are called 
Kufic, and so named from this city. 

p 1^^ koftan. to pound, beat, knock, thump, 

strike, crush, smash, 
p <fc;i»^^o/?«, beaten, pounded; wearied, knocked 

up, tired, dead beat; hashed or pouuded meat. 

p j^^ kun, fundament. .:>- ^y kuni Tchar, 
(fundament of an ass), a great fool, an arrant 
blockhead ; mischievous, depraved. 

p iy koh, mountain, 
p jLAJj>4i kohsdr, mountainous. 
p i^\:xmjJ&^ kohistdn, mountainous tract, hill- 
p ic^*^ kohe, a mountain, a certain mountain, 

p ^_5»i ku, street, lane, alley. 

p ^^ ku^e, a certain street or lane. 

p <o ki, that ; for, because ; than ; but ; lest ; 
as; when; while; where; saying; who. 
what, which (interrogative and relative). 

<b i^yj J <::^-^Jj\ az dast u zabdni ki, from 

the hand and tongue of whom ? from whose 
hand and tongue ? 

p <b kih, little, small, mean, inferior. 

p J^ji^ kihtar, smaller, lesser, meaner, inferior. 

A k_j^^ kalif, cave, cavern; asylum, refuge. 
<'—s^ ^\s^\ ashdbi kahf, cave-companions, 
t.e. the seven sleepers in the cave of Ephesus. 

p i^S kuhan, old. 

p o-j ^^S kuhan-plre, an old or aged man. 

p tU.^^ kuhna, old. 

p ^ kat, when ? how ? (pi. ^^Ij^ kaydn), a 
"great king. 

A d^\^ kii/dsat, sagacity, acuteness, shrewdness. 

A j;.»jLi kiydsate, a sagacity. 

p ^\S kaydn (pi. of ^ kai), kings ; the sur- 
name of the second dynasty of Persian kings. 

p (J^ kaydnl, Kayanian, used in the time of 
the Kayans (as the Plantagcnets or Tudors). 

r ^jjmss:^ Kai Khusrau, Cyrus, the third king 
of the Kayanian or second dynasty of Persia, 
llustara was one of his generals, and his war 
with Afrasyab, king of Turkistan, is cele- 
brated in the Shah-Nama. 

p -o klr, penis. 

p c^****^ klst, who is he ? who is ? who he is. 


( 92 ) 


" thou 

M^ kisll (for i5^**^ <« ^'J hash), who art 
? who thou art. 

p i^>j^ kisa, purse, scrip, money-bag. 
p jji-*i klsh, name of an island at the entrance 
to the Persian Gulf. Kayash, how of him ? 

A <ui-i kaiflyat, character, account, state, cir- 

p .n-..«-»i ICimiydgar, alchymist. 

p ^jS kin, (for ^j^\ ^ ki in), that this, for 

this; whether this; thinking-or fancying this; 

saying this, (for i,:^ klna), hatred, rancour. 

¥ jj\^ gdzur, washerman; bleacher, fuller. 

p a}6 gam, palate. 

p ^ gdv (pi. ^\t\S gdvdn), bull, ox. ^•^\j *'^ 

gdv rdndan, to drive oxen, to plough. ^IT 

j^£. gdvi cambar, the sea-cow from which 

the Persians suppose the ambergris to come. 

p tJ"jo gave, an ox, one ox. 

p i^ gdh, time, place; at times, at one time. 

sir*; . i\S guh u llgdh, in season and out of 

p ^Jb\i gdhe, at times ; one while. 

p jS gahr, fire-worshipper, infidel, guebre. 

p \i^ gadd {ot^\^ gaddi, Tp\.^\j\ J^^ gaddydn), 

beggar, mendicant. 
p f-^ \>i6 gadu-tabi., of a beggarly nature. 

p ^ijc gaddn, beggary, mendicity, begging; 
condition of a beggar. Gadds.e, a beggar. 

V j\^ guzdr, leave, let alone, give up, relin- 
quish, resign {vt. ^^Jii\^ guzdshtan). 

p ijJjiJii guzdrdan, to perform, discharge, pay, 
satisfy ; to pass one's time ; to allow. 

p ^^jxJ^iS^ guzdshian, to quit, leave, let go, pass 

by, omit ; to allow, sufier ; to discharge, pay, 

p J j6 guzar, passage, pass, place of transit. Js^i 
j^Jp guzar hardan, to cross over, to pass, 
pass on, pass by, away or off; to die. 

p i^JujijJo guzrdnidan, to cause to pass; to 
send, to carry, to waft. 

p ci^-ucJj ^xT guzashtast, hath passed (a con- 
traction of ei-v-j^ izJ^^ guzashta ast). 

p ^^yJ:>^ guzashtan, to pass, elapse; to pass 
away; to die; to cross over. 

p <fc^ Ai ^Mzas/i^rt, passed, by gone, slipped away. 

V ^ gar, if; although, what though; whether. 

P ^^^^ ga/rdim or girdmi, precious, excellent ; 

revered, great. ^^Xi ^^^^ girdmi shudan, 
to be dear. 

p ^\^ girdn, dear, precious ; heavy, ponderous, 

weighty, grave ; dull ; sore. 
p ijXAJyji girdn-mdyd, of great worth, precious, 

p ^\^ girdne, a heavy, dull, lumpish fellow ; 

a foolish and disagreeable person; a bore. 

p 1^ J>-j^^ girdndan, to have an affection towards, 

to be inclined to; to explore, examine, note, 
pry into, mind, look to. 

p ijSgurba, cat. ^jSm>^ ijf gurba^-e miskvi, 
poor puss. 

V y ^ gurpuz {or \i^ gurbuz), artful, flattering, 

p LLJji garat, if to thee, 

p ^^S garchi (for L^^f\ agarchi), although, 
what though. 

p i^f yard, dust ; fine dust that flies in the air. 
Gird, round, around ; the circular motion of 
the dancing dervishes. j^J^I lifgirddma- 
dan, to convene, to meet together, to flock, 
to gather round, to assemble; to accumulate, 
mount up. \zJ^j^'^ ^ 9^^^ dvardan, to col- 
lect, lay up, gather, accumulate. ^^J^ J.i' 
gird kardan, to collect, amass, accumulate. 
^^•^j\i ba girdash, around him, about him. 

p ^^ gurd (pi. ^^Cs^ gurddn), strong, valiant; 

p i^\df gird-db, whirlpool. 

p i(JL^T iij^ gird dtnada, gathered around, col- 
lected about. 
V ^^l}^ garddn, revolving. 

p ^S^\i^^ garddnidan, to cause to become, to 

render, to constitute ; to make to roll or re- 
volve, to turn round; to allow; to avert; to 
alter; to turn away. 



( 93 ) 

p ^Jif gardish, revolution, vicissitude, change, 

turn, motion. 
p ^^Ji^ girdgun, walnut. 

p ^1^^ garden, the neck. ^^■^ ^^^ gardan 
kashldan, to withdraw the neck ; to mutiny, 
rebel, disobey; to stretch the neck. 

p ^g^ ^Jj^ gardan-kasJn, outstretching of the 
" neck ; pride, arrogance ; refractoriness. 

p ^^>^f garduyi, windlass, wheel; heaven, the 
celestial sphere. 

p bj^girda, round cake, but not thin. 

p i^^^ garde, a dust; a down. 

V ^Sij^^ gardldan, to hccome; to change; to 

revolve, roll ; to walk around, wander about ; 
to hover or hang about. 

p yjJJ^i gardlda, become; changed. 

Po A.' J-^ gardide, he (or it) would have become. 

p ,j=— ' -J giristan, to weep, shed tears ; to cry. 

p ^^.^^ gursinagi, hunger. 

p <Lw.<^ gursina (pi. ^^uu-^ gursinagun), hun- 
gry, starving, famishing. 

V Jcj^ giriftur, taken, seized, captivated ; pri- 

8oner,captive. ^Xt\ Jcj S giriftdr dmadan, 

to be taken prisoner. 

p c:.-^-u«ij^ giriftast, has taken (for c:,-^^) icjji ) 

p ^j:j^ giriftan, to take, get; to capture, catch, 

seize, hold, apprehend ; to subjugate ; to re- 
ceive, adopt ; to derive ; to carp at ; to begin ; 
to stop, close up. 

p izij^ girifta, taken, caught, captured. 

p (C^^-i girifte, he would have taken. 

p s^/ gurg (pi. ^^ gurgan), wolf. 

p iS\j t^^ gurg-%ada, bom a wolf; wolf's cub. 

p *^ garm, hot, warm ; thronged, busy, brisk, 

active (market). 
p ^^^ garnii, heat, warmth, fever. 

¥ j\x>^^ garml-dar, feverish, fevered, febrile, 
p t^S girav, wager, pledge, deposit, pawn ; con- 
tract, engagement. 
p i^ji guroh, troop, band, gang, bevy, crowd. 
p iJ^yf gurohe, a certain sect or class. 

p ^Si*J> gtrawldan, to follow, admire, believe, 
imitate ; to be attached, to stick close. 


p ^^ girydn, weeping, shedding tears, crying. 

p ^J;V:' ri girihdn, collar-opening, or breast of a 

p ^jus:rf gurelch tan, to fly, flee, run away; to 

abscond, escape. 
p i^i'^S guieMta, fled; absconded, run away. 

V \i^ gurez, fliglit. 

p ^yj^ gure%dn, taking flight. 

p ^^x*t^S giristan, to weep, shed tears, bemoan, 

p i^S garltaa or girnva, high ground, steep 

bank, acclivity, ravine. 

V ^.\S gtrya, crying, weeping ; tears. 

p i^\'S guzdf,\a\n or rash act or word. 
ha giizdf, with impunity. 

p jJji gazand, damage, hurt, harm, detriment. 

p c/J^Ji gazande, an injury, a harm. 

p ^)i^S gazldan, to bite. Guzidan, to choose. 

p jji gimr, aid, help, remedy. 

¥ ^^S^\j:^ gustardnldan (or ^^j^ gudar- 
daii), to spread. 

p JijiM^ gustarad, he should spread. 

p ^^^MUM^ gusistan, to break ; to break down. 

p ^.XJ^X^ gusildnidan, to break, snap asunder. 

p i^JuL*^ gusilidan, to break, snap asunder. 

p ^jLJui giishddan, to open. 

p (JluA-J itAJl^ gushdda-peshdni,)^.;^^!^ an ex- 
panded front and a joyful countenance. 

p <::...^^^^::J:i^ gashtast, hath passed. 

p i^^Swili gashtan, to become ; to be changed ; 
to pass, depart. 

p it-iki gashta, become ; turned into. 

p c:,^ guft, he spoke ; speech, speaking ; 
preaching, preachment. 

p [Jo giiftd (for ^j:^£^ gu/t), he said. 

F jl:iAi giiftdr, discourse, speech, saying, argu- 
ment, conversation ; profession (as opposed 

to j^JiS h'rdur, practice). 

p v_' -■■■••- gs guftast, hath spoken. 

p (juL4>iAi guftamash, I said to him. 

p ,^'»^ guftame, I would say. 

p ^^yJt^ gu/tan, to speak, say, tell, talk ; to call ; 

( 94 ) 


to recite, repeat, rehearse ; to compose (poetry). 

l::-^-;! ijljjl (.►i^iiS' (j-s*^ ftl:.::-*^ vnttnua 

suMnn gitftanum uftdda asf, abstaining from 
speaking has fallen to me, i.e. has been 
chosen by me. 

p A-.:«-iii J t::^Ai ffuft u shanid, conversation, 
discourse, dialogue ; debate, altercation, con- 

V «!:iAi gufta, said, spoken; hath said or spoken ; 
having spoken. 

p Vf^Ji^ffuftahu (pi. of «ij^^M/i(a), things spoken, 

p J^ ffil, clay, mire, earth ; a kind of argil 
with which women in the East cleanse their 
hair. Gul, rose ; flower. 

p L^^ ffid-db, rose-water. 

p ikj:,^ pilat, thy rose. 

p j^l:uuli gulistan, rose-garden, flower-garden. 

V jkAls fful-shalcar, conserve of roses, 
p Ji gilam, (I) am clay. 

p <di gala, flock, herd, drove ; troop. Gila, 
complaint, lamentation; blame; accusation, 

p ^^^ gile, a lump of clay. Gule, a rose; a 

p J^ gilim, blanket, mantle, garment of goat's 

p i^-^-rA^ gilime, a blanket, a single blanket, 
"one blanket. 

p S gum, lost, dwindled, reduced, i^'^y (^ 
gum kardan, to lose. 

p j^xit*^ gumdshian, to appoint, depute, com- 
mission, entrust, set over. 

p (O^^ gumdn, doubt, suspicion, fancy, sup- 
position. ^j'-V L:;^ gumdn burdan, to think, 
suppose, suspect. 

p Ju ; J i J^ S gum-harda-farzand, that had 
lost a son, bereaved parent, i.e. the patriarch 
Jacob, father of Joseph. 

p !i\:S gundh (pi. ^^[s>[S gunuhdn), sin, fault, 
error, crime. 

p ^Jb\:S gundJie, a crime. 

p S^ gumhad (also x^ gumlaz), dome, cupola, 
vaulted building. Jud^ S^ gumhazi t.azad, 
name of a celebrated mosque, probably built 

or repaired by iiijjJl kX^£ ^azadu 'd dau at. 
p ^i ganj, treasure, hoard, store. 
F j:^ ganje, a treasure, 
p ^« r(72<«y'!^flw, to be held,contained,stowed. 
p /♦(X^^fl«(/M?w, wheat, corn, ^jlj r^ axS gan- 

dumi hirydn, parched wheat, toasted corn, 
p \jx-^ gandand, leek. 
p^i^jUjco) ga7ida)idzdr, bed of leeks, 
p 2sSu^ ganda, fetid, foul, off'ensive, stinking, 
p ^X'S:^ gandidan, to have a foul smell, emit 

a stench, stink, putrefy. 
p i^xS gandlda, fetid, stinking, off'ensive. 
r <^^i ^Mw^j dumb, mute, 
p i^ gunah, crime, sin, harm, 
p .IT i:^ gunaligdr, criminal, sinful. 
^ <f gu (or ^f guy, imp. of ^j^ guftan), 

speak, say ; a ball. _lc ^Jji guyi ^o/', ball 

of ivory. i^'^J. J^ i^yff^!/^ w«A;i hurdan, 

to carry off" the bull of merit. 
p eJi>U'> gaivdhi, evidence, testimony, witness, 
p tS got; grave, tomb; wild ass. 
p ^j^ gore, an onager entire, 

p sJi^S gosfand (pi. ^^Joi-.^ gosfanddn), 
sheep, goat. 

p ^^ gosh, ear. 

p k.u-^.i, »r gosht, meat, flesh. Goshat, thine ear. 

p ^^KaJ:^^ gosh-mdl, (rubbing the ears), chas- 
tisement,punishment. ^'^j^ ^^^a-L^ gosh- 
mdl hhwurdan, to receive chastisement. 

r \\AJ:i^ gosJi-yndll, (box on the ear) chastise- 
ment; reproof, reprimand. 

T,^ iJ:iS gosh-wdr or ij\^^ gosh-wdra, ear-ring. 

p <Li,^ gosha, corner, nook ; privacy, retire- 
ment; peak. 

p ^^y>J^ ikJ^iji gosha-nisMn (pi. ^u^-jU <Li>»i 

gosha-nishlndn), squatting or lurking in a 
corner ; recluse, solitary, retired; hermit. 

p i^^S gaugird, brimstone, sulphur. 

p j^iji \j^ gun-u-gun, of various hues or kinds. 

p ij^ guna, manner, mode, way, sort, fashion. 

tU »r i^>- chi guna^e, how farest thou ? 

rJsX^rtw/iar, jewel, gem; essence, substance. 




( 95 ) 


p ^_j^ gu, ball, cricket-ball; speech, saying. 
p 1^1 V.^ S^yf'^n, speaking, saying, talking. 
p Si S giiyad, says, speaks (rt. ^^j:Ji^ guftan). 
p iX^i^ guyanda, talker, speaker; warbler. 
p ^^guil, thou speakest, thou wouldest say. 

p <b gah, time ; at one time, sometimes ; now ; 

V .^f guhar, gem; race, family. 

p ib Ai gah gah, time to time, occasionally. 
p ^^^ guhe, at one time, one while. 

V i\f giyah (pi. ^Jct\S glyahan), grass. 
p ij^ g'iVi, world ; fate, destiny. 

p \j\ ^z^ gitiara, world-adorning. 

p iiJ ^^^ gitl-furoz, world-illuminating. 

p -o glr, granted ; take, hold, keep (imp. of 

the verb ^J^J> gtrijtan). 
p J>j^ glrad, takes or will take ; seizes or will 

seize (rt. ^^^J^ giriftan). 
p *j^ glram, I admit, grant, allow, accept (rt. 

^^ giriftan). 
Pj\o J ^^^ir u ddr, seize and hold; dominion. 

V yj^ glsu (pi. ^\yj>^ gisuwun), ringlet. 

A J la, (a prefix) verily. Li, to, for (a particle 

nasbating the aorist), as iSjij^ ^i tazurarii, 
that thou mayest visit me. 

A S Id, no, not (a simple negation), as i«ii*-J ^ 

la yaskl, he giveth not to drink, -♦J "i la 

tamurru, thou passest not by ; (also a pro- 
hibitive particle gezmating the aorist), as 

^^jiAJ 5! Id tamrMH, do not upbraid. 

A ijjjj^^ ^ ^" tahzananna, grieve thou not (em- 
phatic aorist of the rt. ^o>-). 

A jJ^^auskT" i la tahsibunl, account ye me not. 

A JjtRj ^ Id ta/^al, do not (gezraate of JjtiJ 
tafialu, aor. of the rt. ,Jjtj fa<. ala, he did). 

A j^r-*J ^ Id tamnun, upbraid not with favours 
conferred (gezmate of .Xi <a»JM«WM,a8urdvb.) 

A *jS^ ^ Id jaram, certainly, of necessity. 

A JifcS^ i! lujaward, lapis lazuli. 

A J 45- li Id haula, or in full 'i\ 'i^ i! j J_p- ^ 

<jISU ?a /?«?<?« ?<?« Id Tcutoata tlld hi 'lldh, (there 
is) no power nor strength but in God (a phrase 
employed by the jMuhammadans in times of 
difficulty and calamity to recommend and 
enjoin submission, patience and acquiescence). 

A -rs- ^ Id Mair, (is) not good. 

A CSLis^ 3 la arjumannaJca, verily I will stone 

thee (emphat. aor. of the rt. *^j ). 
A *LJ^}\ ij, tU)Lj&j 3 Id rahbdmyata Ji 'I islam, 

(thereis)nomonachism (or monkery) in Islam. 
A t_^i^ Idzib, firm, solid. c_.>OJ <-::-^^j^ zarbati 

Idzib, a thundering blow, a stunning thwack. 

A *]'$ Idzim, necessary, obligatory, suitable. 

p ^i! Idsha, corpse, carcase. 

A Uic^ la aczam, surely the greatest. 

p »c^ Idghar, thin, lean, lank, slim, meagre. 

p i^L^ -c^ Id gh ar-miydn, slender- waisted. 

p tjyc^' Idghare, a lean man or person. 

p I 'il Idf, boast, vain-glory, brag, ^dj (_*^ 

luf zaddn, to boast, to brag, to bluster. 

p aj^ Idla, tulip. 

A ^gJ U hidlit- (pi. of ^jJ lii4ui), pearls. 

A z*^ Idma, he blamed (concave j wdic) ^A^^ 
Idmani, hath censured me. 

A <0j1 ^^ Id wa 'lldhi, no, by God ! 

p JjS Idyad, talks idly ; complains, is snappish 

(rt. j_jJuj1' luyidan). 
A ^;jt*uj 'i Id yasacum, holds me not, hath not 

room to contain me (aor. of the rt. ^--^j)- 
A (>ii«J ^ Id yaJcil, he understands not ; hence, 

stupid, stolid, dull (aor. of the rt. Ji^). 
A >Lxj 1 1d yadam, knows not; ignorant, stupid. 
A (J^iij ^ Id yu gh lahu. is not shut, shall not be 

shut (aor. pass, of the rt. (_»i-c ^alaJca). 

A ^^ Idtik, fit, suitable, becoming, befitting. 

A *jiWds2m, blamer, slanderer, accuser; critic, 

p k_J lab, lip; brink, margin, rim. 

A (^/wU libdSy garment, apparel, garb, attire, 
habit, dress, clothing. 

A ^-jU libdse, a dress. 



( 90 ) 

A lycJ la ha gh au. verily they would have re- 
belled (pi. pret. of the rt. ^J^.)- 

A .,LJ Ziihndn, mount Lebanon, so called from 
the milky whiteness of its perpetual snow. 

A iSj^j^ ^i tazuranl, that thou mayest visit 
me (aor. of the rt. jlj %ura, concave • wuw). 

A 6^h.<z' lahzat, look, glance ; moment. 

p Lr->js:' laUif, somewhat, some, a little, a piece 
or part. 

p ^As- lahhte, an instant, a little while. 
A aiijj lad ghat y stinging (as of a scorpion). 
A i jj la%%at, delight, flavour, delicious taste. 

PA C-JJlj ha lazzat, with flavour. Jci.?jiij 

ba lazzattar, more savoury, or delicious. 
A CS^ jo li zalika, on that account, therefore. 
A ji.> jj laziz, delicious, delightsome, luxurious, 
p i jJ larza, shiver, tremor, trepidation, quaking, 
p ^s-^j J larzidan, to tremble, shake, quake, 

A j^LJ lisdn, tongue ; language, ij LJ lisdnuhu, 

his tongue, his language. 
TjLjII lashkar, army, host. 

p lJj^-^ lashkarl (pi. ^^1.^-^*1 lasMariyan), 
military ; soldier, guard, attendant, military 
man, officer ; soldiery. Lashlcare, an army, 
a whole host of soldiers. 

A L^Val lisdlnhihi, for its owner. 

A <LJiy latdfat, grace, elegance ; gentleness, soft- 
ness, graciousness, gentle means. 

A t^jjy lutf, gentleness, graciousness, amiable- 
ness, kindness, lenity, grace, favour; elegance. 

A e_i-.y latif (p pi. (^U*y latifdn), elegant, 

graceful ; witty ; fine, light, delicate. 
A li-iaJ latifan, delicate (ace. of c_r..)jS latlf). 

AalL.y latlf at (ppl \X ^ latlf aha), pleasantry, 
bon-mot, witty or facetious saying. 

A p ^^ t_g^,l?! latlf-Mu, of a mild, gentle, 

affable disposition. 
A i_^ la-.b, play, sport. 
A i jLJ It ^ihadihi, for (or to) his servants. 
A ^JjJ lad, ruby. 

A JjJ la^lla, perhaps. (*y^ la-^llahum, haply 
they. ^ ' 

A p ij\j Jkxl la^l-pdra, piece of ruby. 

A tU^ la-^nat, curse, imprecation, malediction. 

p ^y^[}^ la gh zldan. to slip, slide, stumble. 

A »xl Idgkw, inconsiderate act or speech, blun- 
der, mistake, slip, fall. t-fV*^ la gh wi, my 

A ^^ laghwe, a lapsus lingnae. 

A liiS lafz, word, expression, vocable. 

A *lil lihdi, meeting, encounter ; aspect, face, 
visage, countenance. 

A jJil lakad, of a truth, verily ; already. 

A ^Ujil Luhndn, name of a certain wise man, 

by some said to have been a son of Job's 
sister or aunt ; by others to have been a dis- 
ciple of David ; by others, a judge in Israel; 
whilst others declare him to have been an 
emancipated Ethiopian slave. He is the 
author of some Arabian fables, and is sup- 
posed by many to be the same as ^sop. One 
chapter of the Kur'an is named after him. 

A (UJiS hkmat, morsel, mouthful; a pittance. 

A p Ai^ (UJil lukmai-i chand, several mouthsful. 

A lLX! laka, for thee, to thee. 

A tUl'l^ li kdtibihi, for the writer of it. 

A *i3 la kum, for you, to you. 

A .-i--k.s^ li 'I khallthin, for the filthy. 

A --io- 11 li V rahmdn, to the merciful (God). 

A k.^J .ill li 7 gharlbi, to the stranger. 

A J lam, not, (a gezraating particle prefixed to 
the aorist, and usually — not always — giving 
a past signification ) la^^ J lam yarahd, he 

hath not seen her. ^\ J ^ in lam akun, 

if I may not be. Lima, why? wherefore? 
A t*] lammu, when. 
A .laj" J lam tatir, had not flown, had not the 

power of flight (gezmate of -»kj tatlru, fem. 

aor. of the rt. jlL? tdra, concave ^ ye). 
A j.t2>-*l lumtunna, ye (females) blamed (rt. /*i 

Idma, concave,^ wdiv). ^xio**) himtunnanl, 
ye blamed me. 

A ^J^xA^i lama^dn, sparkle, shine, glitter. 

A ^J-iJ J lam yakhilu, they accepted not (gcz- 

raated aor. of the rt. J^-j). 


( 97 ) 



J lam yaltafitna, they will not regard 
(aor. pi. fem. 8th form of rt. '.::^ij ). 

A *^^; jol la nuzilcannahum, assuredly we will 
make them taste (emphatic aor. of jj^ J^ azalea, 
4th form of the rt. jl J zdka, concave j tvuw). 

A ' ^/^-g'-^ li yiafsika, for tliyself. 

p (.S^ lang, lame, limping, halting. 

r ijJ langar, anchor, j^jly XJ langar nihCi- 
dan, to cast anchor. 

A jl ^<?w, if, unless, had but. 

A ^\\^ lawdzim, necessary things, requisites. 

p ^»! Inch, squint-eyed. 

A —^ lauh, tablet, board used as a slate to write 
on ; copy-book. 

p jjV.J^ luriyuv (pi. of tJ\ J lurt), the people 
of a mountainous province of Persia lying to 
the N.E. of Khuzistan, and having Kurd- 
istan to the North. 

A LrJ Lut, Lot, nephew of Abraham. 

A /»^ laum, blame, reproach, censure. 

A <d lahu, to him, for him ; to it, for it. 

A <isT lahjat, voice, sound, tone ; accent ; ac- 
centuation ; speech, talk. 

A Cl^ya dl lahu saut, to him {i.e he had) a voice. 

A *^J lahum, to them, for them. 

A yj^ lahw, play. c_^ j ^J lahw u laiJ>, 

playing and toying, sport, game, fun. 
A jJ ll, for me, to me, i.e. I have. <031 «_^^ 

i^s^j ll maza' lldh waktun, I have with God 
an hour (or a season). 

A u::^ laita, (particle of exclamation), would 
to God ! would that ! that ! 

A t-i-J laith, lion. ct-^ ^jJ V*^ ^mr bin 
laith, name of the second sovereign of the 
dynasty of the SaflRiridcs (coppersmiths), 
who reigned in Persia from 878 to 901. 

A ^_^jy»J laisa, there is not ; is not ; not. jjuwJ 
Aa*u laisa yaslamu, he will not be safe, he 
will not escape. 

p ulXJ lek, or ^^xJ lekin, but. 

p JJ lail, night. J-ii^ al lail, the night. 

A jAJ ZaiVa', name of the mistress of Majnun. 

(The loves of this celebrated pair are the sub- 
ject of one of Nazami's poems. 

A ijjJ la in, verily if. CS^^as^j^ ^:iiJ' /J ^^ 

la in lam tantahi la narjmmmnalca, verily if 
thou desistest not, wc will surely stone thee 

(gezmated aor. of ^^^^\ intaha', 8th form of 
the rt.j^^,and emphatic aor. of the rt.*::>-j). 

A cuJ llnat, excellence, mildness, softness ; hu- 
manity ; a kind of palm-tree ; a tall palm. 

A *-JiJ lanm, mean, base, vile, sordid, grovelling. 
»_Jall *-JiJ lanmu 't tahi,oia sordid nature. 

r /» ^ am, me ; of me, my. 

p L* md, we ; us ; of us ; our. 

A t« md, not; what, whatever, whatsoever, 
that which : what ? 

A 't« »2«i, water. ^;y ^l^ rndtu nahrihd, the 
water of its river. 

A u—^Lftj t« md hikalbi, what (is) in the heart. 
A jjyij' t* md takulu, that which thou sayest; 

what sayest thou ? (aor. of the rt. Jli kdla, 

concave J wdio). 
p *jt* mdtam, grief, mourning. 

A (_frr ^ »*" y<?»**'j what occurred ; accident, 

incident, event, occurrence. 
A -i2>. L* md hazara, that which is ready. 
A ^c^=^ l^ md hazarl, the fruit, milk, and 

cheese which constitute a Persian breakfast. 
A /^^ J t* md ddma, whilst continues ; as long 

as remains ; during, as long as. 
p ijL* mddar, mother. jl>L« iJUi mddarimd- 

dar, grandmother, grannam. 

A ^jU# mdzd, what ? what is this? 

Pjt* mar, snake, serpent. (According to Ori- 
ental legends, every subterranean treasure is 
placed under the guardianship of a serpent). 

p \ (l-« mdrd, to us ; for us ; us. 

p 2f jjji^^t* mdr-guzida, bitten by a serpent. 

p t_fjt* mdrl, (thou) art a serpent. 

p Ll-— jt* mdst, sour milk, buttermilk, whey. 

A^«sL«7«az!(fem. tL.iL* mdziyat), past, bygone. 

A cJlxJ^ L* md ^arafndka, we have not known 

Thee (rt. 4— i^ ^ara/a). 



( 98 ) 


A J l^ mas-dl, end, goal, termination, issue. 

A Jt-* mdl, money, wealth, property, substance ; 

Pj\ jJL* mul-dur, wealthy,opulent,monied man. 

acLxIL* muliJc, master, owner, possessor; con- 

A LC^St^ mdlikl, relation of master ; ownership. 
A L—^ riil l^ md li 7 gharih, (there is) not for 
the stranger. 

A(_J^ U mas-luf, familiar, ordinary, accustomed, 

A Lk^ L* ma^dlahtimd, final portion of both. 

G lJj.snJl^ mdliTdiuliyd, melancholy, idle fancy. 

V ^iX^\^mdlidan,to rub, anoint; to press, crush. 

kyt L« md »jarr«!, what(or that which) passed. 

A 15*^'* ^^ »«« ma%a\ that which is passed, 

"what has passed. 
p uJ^L* mdmah, little mother, goody. 
A 1^ U madman, place of security. 
A Jy« U mammal, hoped for, expected. 

p I) Lo mdnd, alike, equal, similar ; certainly ; 
you would say or think ; forthwith, quickly, 

p iXJl^ ?waw(Z, hath remained. J/a«fl(f, remains, 

remaineth, will remain (rt. ;J^^jt* mdndan); 

resembles (rt. ^u«k**3v/< mdmstan). 

p io"^^ mdndan, to remain, continue, last, en- 
dure; to be fatigued, spent, tired, exhausted ; 
to break down. (^oJt«(jS'^,0 dar gil mdndan, 
to sink in a quagmire ; to hesitate, to boggle. 

p nd^K^mdnda, remained, left, remaining; tired, 
weary, broken down. ^J^ ii>jt« mdnda 
shudan, to be weaiy, tired, knocked up. 

p ^•;>*uJL« mdmstan, to resemble. 

A «J Ui mdni^ refuser, forbidder, hinderer, pre- 

p JcJ t« mdnand, like. 

p ^U« mdnl, name of a celebrated painter, the 
"founder of the sect of the Manichaeans. 

A ij U mas-wd, dwelling, abode ; hostehy. 

p »L* mdh, the moon ; month. 

P lS^j *^ mdh-ru (pi. (jljj^ *t« mdh-ruydn), 
moon-faced, fair and lovely as the moon. 

p ^jj L* mdh-rus-e, one fair as the moon. 

p ij^^ jnuhl, fish. 

p |cr^^ mdhiye, a fish, one fish, a certain fish. 

p toU* muya, amount, sura, quantity; wealth, 
capital, stock-in-trade, store. 

A --l-^ mttbdh, lawful, allowable ; allowed to 

be taken or sufiered to be shed with impunity. 

p jL^ ma bdd, may there not be ! 

p 1 jL^ mahudd, let it not be ! by no means ! 
away ! lest. 

A JjL^ mxibdru (p pi. i^jj^ muhdrizdn), 
warrior, champion. 

A (-!/)U^ muhdrah, blessed, blest ; happy, for- 
tunate; auspicious. 

p (>i.l-^ ma hash, be it not ! stay not ! lest, 

A aJiJL^ miibdlaghat, exaggeration, hyperbole, 
stress, emphasis. 

A ilo-^ ?»w5^ff?d, afflicted, plagued, tried, tempted; 

A J Ju^ mtibaddal, changed, converted, altered. 
A jju^ muhazzir, prodigal, lavish, spendthrift. 

A ^jiw* mubazziri, prodigality, extravagance, 

profusion, profuseness. 
Pj^ ma bar, do not lower (rt. ^^iSij burdan). 
A-jj^ mabraz, privy, water-closet. 
A ^'--.'« mablagh, sum, amount (of money). 
A ^J^^^ mablaghe, a sum, a certain amount, 
p Ju^ ma band, indulge not (rt. j^^-uJ bastan). 
A t::-^--^ mablt, passing the night. 
A ,j--^ mnbln, manifest, evident, clear, distinct. 
PjIjo-..^ ma pmddr, think not, do not suppose 

or imagine (rt. ^ji^\s:>j pinddsJdan). 

p L— >li:-^ matdb, turn not away (rt.|^_j:iilj" tdftan). 

x'ixAi^ mutdba^at, following ; obedience, com- 

Ai__cJ \z^ ^wM^atfl?/?/, cultivating an acquaintance, 

^.y^^z^ mutabahhir, very learned, deep, pro- 

A J Jcj:^ mutabaddal, changed, altered ; meta- 

A JLsx^ mutajalll, resplendent, brilliant. 


( 99 ) 

A \^j:£^ mutaharrih, moveable ; motire. 
A jJ.jSU» mutahalll, adorned with jewels. 

A J.4cs^^ mutahammily suffering patiently, en- 
during ; bearer. 

A -«js^^ mutahaiijir, astonished, astonied, be- 
wildered, amazed. 

A JJ^ mutaraddid, hesitating, wavering, ir- 
resolute, unsettled, uncertain, doubtful, per- 

A fj^j:^ mutarassil (ppl.^iLJ^ mufarisstldn), 

letter-writer, correspondent ; corresponding 
secretary of a prince. 

A S^jx^ tnutarassid, contemplating, watching, 

waiting for, vigilant, watchful, observant, 
constantly on the look out. 

A i,.^jx^ mutaraklcih, one who expects, waits, 
or hopes. 

A j^M.:;,* muttasii^ large, spacious, extensive. 

A^»«ii.« mutasauwar, pictured, imagined, sup- 
posed, considered. 
. *** 

A i—fijcci:;^* mutaza^^f, weak, weakened, en- 

A «_v« matti^cavise thou to enjoy, render happy 

(imp. of 2nd form of the verb «_:i^ ). 

A S^-x:^ mutauihhid (p pi. ^X-jc^ muta^ah- 
hidun), extremely devout, rigorous and strict 
in the exercises of devotion, religionist. 

A ^djc^ muta^addi, aggressor; transgressor; 

(in grammar) active, transitive, causal(verb). 

uAxx^ imita'^ddiyan, (ace.) 

kfj^x:^ mutajallikiv-^X.^^J^OJC^ muta^alh'Jcdn), 

related to, connected, dependent, hanger-on, 
adherent; domestic, kinsman. 

A *i*i^ miitauillim (v -pi. ^\AJjc^mutaialIimdn) 
learner, student. 

A Jcx;;^« muta-umtiid ( r pi. ^\x,jc^ 
nidun), seeker of another's ruin ; inimical. 

A^-*x^ /wM^a^atytV, changed, altered ; disturbed, 

A (jJc^ nmtlafilc, consenting, agreeing, agreed. 

A *jJix^ miitalcaddim (p pi. j^l^Jki;.^ mutakad- 

diiiiun), predecessor, one gone before, ancient. 

KjSc^ mutakahbir, proud, haughty, arrogant. 

A JSz^ mutakallim (rpl.^UJil::^^ nmtakallimun) 
speaker, orator. 

A ^:i,*2^ mutamatti^ enjoying, enjoyer; one 
who takes his fill. 

A j^L^j^ mutamakkin, placed, established, fii mly 
fixed or rooted ; inhabiting. 


mutaRacctm, soft, delicate; affluent, in 

the enjoyment of the conveniences, comforts 
and luxuries of life. 

A f-J^^i^ mutawakki^ (p pi. ^[ju^:^ mutawak- 
ki'tuii), waiting, expecting; expectant. 

A jj;jWi^ niutahdwm, negligent, careless, heed- 
less, inattentive. 

A ♦^A^ muttahim, suspected, accused. 

A dj\L^ mathahat, step, degree, point. 

A ^^lijli^ mathdlate, a degree. 

A Jli'^ 7nithdl, like,resembling ; history, fable; 

example, model; similitude,likeness. p Jli.» j 

lar mithdli, after the similitude. t< JIl« Ij 
ha mithdli ma, with the like of us, with such 
as we. 

A ijli^ mathdnl (pi. oi ^^.L^ mathnd'), second 
strings of lutes. 

A Ji^ mathal, fable, tale, parable, simile, apo- 
logue, proverb. tJl^l ^fi'^ mathal, for 
example. ap^J; iJL^ mathal zadan, to give an 
example, quote a proverb, propound a parable. 

A ,\l^ mathale, a simile. 

A t_$Vi>^ mathnawi, poetry composed of distichs 
in each of which arc two lines, which rhyme 
and agree in measure. 

A iLI jls^ mujddalat, disputation, strife. 

A J^^ majdl, room to move round or turn 
about; suitable place; power, strength, ability. 

A ^_^Ls^ majdlis (pi. of ^^.J-sr* majlis), assem- 
blies, places of sitting, sessions. 

A t^-uJLsr* mujdlasat, sitting with another, con- 
verse, society. 

A ^Is^ m2{;a«a5rt^, receding, retiring, going off. 

A i^i^W^ mujdivarat, keeping up a good cor- 
respondence with neighbours, intimacy ; vi- 
cinity, neighbourhood. ap^J j LUjt\sr* mu- 
juwarut kardan, to keep close, to remain near. 

A j Joils^ mujdhadatjfightmg (specially against 
infidels), conflict, struggle ; a sore infliction. 

A si^::-^ mujtaha\ chosen, selected, elect. 

'• -^ 


( 100 ) 


A J;-s^ mujarrad, stripped; solitary, single; uu- 

married; bare, mere. palJ^^s^ ha mujarrad, 
barely, merely. 

A 9-«rS^ majruh, wounded. 

A lJj^ mujra', allowed to flow; (hence), payed, 
granted, allowed. 

A ij^j^-sr* majlis, place of sitting, assembly, ses- 
sion ; congregation. 

A ^M^k^ majlise, a whole company. 

A (_5^^ mujalla', bedecked, ornamented. 
A %-^*-^ majma<i^, place of confluence or of as- 
sembling, meeting, congregation. 
A i^y^jsr^ majmuij collected ; tranquil, quiet. 

A iis-yi,^ majmu-^at, collection, assemblage, 

A i^y^ majnun, crazed, insane ; name of the 
Arab lover whose attachment to Laila is cele- 
brated by NazfimT and other poets. 

p i_iyp^ maju, seek not (rt. ^jUij:>-j\istan). 

A S^^sr* majld, glorious. 

A \Asr* mtihdba, connivance; respect, regard ; 

A c-^'^^r* muhdrih, waging war ; bent on 
making war, warlike. 

A tU-jlsr^ mtihdsalat, adjustment or audit of 
accounts, computation ; arithmetic. 

A |J«j1.s^ mahusin (pi. of ^^;-"*J^ hisn), good 
works, laudable actions, virtues, merits ; per- 
sonal charms. Jw;ls'* mahdsinl, my good 
works or excellences. 

A JkjLs'* mahafil (pi. of JjIs-* mahfil), assem- 

A J Is'* muhdl, impossible ; absurd. 

A Jk^ls^ mahdmid (pi. of ijk^*.^'* malimidat), 
laudable actions or qualities, virtues. 

A Sills'* muhdtvarat, conversation, dialogue, 

chat, talk, common parlance, gossip. 
A w_,.».s-* muhihb, friend, lover. 

A cU.s'* mahabhat, love, affection; kindness, 

A t—.jy-^'* mahbuh (i* pi. .b»*^'* mahbubdn), 

beloved, liked ; mistress. 
A v^jy^^s^ mahbubtar, more beloved. 
A ^y^:sr* tnahbube, an object greatly JjtrK^v^ 

A r.-liJwS'* mtihiuj (p pi. ^Is^liijsr^ muhtdjdn), 
necessitous, needy, in want, indigent, in need. 

AP J_l:x:s^ muldujtar, more in need, in greater 

need, more needy, more necessitous. 

A ^.^AA-xs'* muhtasih, the superintendent of 
police, who examines weights and measures, 
and prevents drinking and other disorders ; 

A J-^o^'* muhtamal, possible, probable ; sus- 
pected. il/'«/<^rt/«i7,bearinga burthen ; patient. 

A L-Jys."^^ mahjub, veiled, concealed ; bashful, 

A Xij^r* muhralcan (ace. of J^^sr^ muhrak), burn- 
ing, consumed. 

A |*j«/sr^ »<«^rM»i, excluded, shutout, debarred; 
balked, frustrated, disappointed. 

A ^^^Jmj-st'* muhsinina (obi. of ^yjMs:^ muh- 
sinuna, pi. of ^^-w^sr* nmlisin), beneficent. 

kJLs:^ mahshar, place of assembly ; last judg- 

A ^_^,AS^ ?rt«/;z, pure, unmixed, unallowed, sheer ; 
only, entirely, purely. 

Aj^.sr^ maJizar, disposition, temper. 

A Jijs'* mahjil, assembly. 

A Ijjisr* maJifuz, kept, guarded, preserved. 

A ^iisr* muhaJclcik (p pi. ^jUisr* mulutkkikun), 

verifying, confirming; teacher of truth, phi- 

APAJ'liu.s^ muhakktkdna, spiritual; truly, ac- 

A uixs'* mihakk, touchstone, test. 

A fSs^ nmhkam, strong, firm, strengthened, 
confirmed ; incontrovertible, indisputable,con- 
clusive; clear, conspicuous, perspicuous. 

A J-s^ mahall, place, situation ; quai'ter, dis- 
trict; occasion, opportunity. 

A (LLs^ mahallat, quarter of a town, district, 

A wV-Ksr* muJiammad, greatly praised ; name of 
a roan ; name of the Arabian pseudo-propliet. 

' li wV.«>jsr* J Ju.«^s'* Muhammad bin Mu- 
hammad Ghazzdll, a renowned doctor of Islam, 
burn at Thaus, in Khurasan, a.h. 450, and 
died A.n. 505. 
ji_l>^*X^L-j Jj.^^js'* Mahmild Sabuktagin, the 
"»r &fccOpfV&&l^n of the dynasty of Ghaznl, buc- 


;t. r.-iChAi.i.'S 




( 101 ) 


ceeded his father Sabuktagln, a.h. 387, a.d. 
997, and died a.h. 419, after conquering 
great part of Hindustan, and taking the royal 
cities of Delhi and Kanoj. 

A Axs^ mihnat, affliction, trouble, toil, distress, 
anguish, suffering, inconvenience, discomfort. 

A ysr* maho, obliteration, a p j^iA-i ^js'* mahv 
shudan, to be erased or obliterated. 

A L_^lsr* vmkhutal), addressed ; the second 
person. Mujchutih, addressing; speaker. 

A tiilsr* maMufat, dread, fear, alarm ; danger. 

A aLLl Isr* muMdlatat, conversation, intercourse, 

A i«_aJls^ mukhdlif, contrary, repugnant, ad- 
verse, antagonistic, unfavourable ; obstinate, 

A iailsr* mukhalafat, contradiction, contrariety, 
opposition, enmity. 

A Llsr* ?wM^rtWrt^, disordered, disturbed, upset. 

A..<2Z.^r* mulMasar, abridged, curtailed ; brief, 
compendious, laconic ; compendium ; mean, 
trifling, small, insignificant. 

A (* mulditalif, difl'erent. various, contrary. 

A /»j Jcsr* maMdum, served, waited upon ; lord, 

p^.sr* maTchar, do not buy (rt. ^S^A-Tcharldan). 

V ipysr^ ma Miarash, lacerate not, do not tear 

(rt. j^Jl»-1|.>- khardshldan). 

A i^^isr* malihfuz, lowered, depressed ; marked 

with kasr, or khafz (as when jSi kadr has 
been changed to kidr). 

A ^jAs^ mukhlis (p pi. ^LsLsr* mukhlisdn), 
sincere, real, genuine. 

A j^j--J.s^ mukhlisma (obi. of ^^^-^iLs-* mukh- 
lisuna, pi. of ^^^A-sr^ mukJiIis), sincere, un- 
feigned in professions of faith, in demonstra- 
tion of friendship, or in yielding obedience. 

A ij^-sr* viakhluk, created, formed; creature. 

A (..!-Ai.s:"* mukhannath, effeminate, infamous ; a 
rank old catamite ; hermaphrodite. 

Vj^s^ via khwur, do not eat (rt. t^'-^jy>')- 

A ( J^-sr' makhuf, dreadful, dangerous, tremen- 
dous, fearful. 

A _-'Jt^ madddh, laudatory; encomiast, pane- 

Pj^X* ma ddr, hold not (rt. ^^d^j duahtan). 

p \\\s.-* muddrd, politeness, courtesy, affability, 
conciliation, gentleness, humility ; dissimu- 

A L^*\x^ muddwamat, assiduity, perpetuity, 

A jA.« mudahlir, administrator, prefect, gover- 
nor, manager, director. 

A ix^ muddat, time, term, period, space, long 
time or interval, while. 

A \^X^ muddathd (p pi. of iX* muddat), many 
days, long intervals; for a long season. 

ui gj' J^ muddate, a certain space of time, a long 
" interval; for a long period. 

A —J*.^ madh, praise, eulogium, encomium, ap- 
plause, commendation. 

A iUj ikV* madrasat, seminary, academy, public 
school, college, university. 

A ^<£J^ mudda-J, (ppl. ^J^X^ mxidda^ydri), 
"plaintiff; adversary; false pretender. 

A j^^iX^ madfun, buried, interred. 

p iiV* ma dih, give not, yield not (rt. j^JiJ). 

A (Jj»J5J^^ madhush, astonished, astonied, con- 
fused, amazed, confounded. 

kj^S.-* mazkur, remembered, mentioned, re- 
corded, repeated, expressed ; discourse. 

A aJ jt^ mazallat, baseness, vileness; contempt, 


A <U Jt^ mazammat, blame, disparagement, scorn, 

A i*ytS.t mazmum, blamed, censured ; culpable, 

¥ y* mar, a pleonastic particle, sometimes placed 

before the dat. and ace. of Persian nouns. 
A .-* marra, he (or it) passed, passed by. 
A ^y* mars^, viirs-, or wiwrt, man; human species, 

the human race, 
p \y mard (dat.or ace. of ^^^ man, I), to me, me. 
A u- ^I-'U** mardtib (pi. of <Lj ^ martabat), steps, 

degrees, grades; dignities, honours. 
A S\j^ murdd, meant, intended ; desire, wish, 

will, intention, design, pleasure. 
A iLJ^yt murdsalat, epistolary correspondence. 
A ^^|r^ tnurd gh alat, expression of a wish, de- 
sire, propensity. 
A lUiL^ murd/a^at, reference, appealing. 


( 102 ) 


A isj\j^ murdfakat, travelling in company, as- 
sociation, companionship, society. 

A ^\j'* murulcahat, observation, regard, con- 

r k.:^-uyJb \yt mard hast, to me is, I have. 

A jeV* tnurahbi, tutor, instructor, guardian, 

"patron, protector. 
A i_^j-^ murattah, set in order, arranged. 

AP^Jp (^^y* murattah kardan, to arrange, 

to regulate. 
A ^UJ-< martabat, rank, degree, step, office. 
A ^^^j^ martabate, a rank. 

A r^r^y mtirtahan, pledged. 

A »_^s^ -^ marhab, amplitude,convenience,room. 
\^=>-y* marhaban, hail ! welcome ! may God 
grant you amplitude ! 

A tU>»-^ marhamat, pity, compassion. 

p i^y* mard (pi. jj^t^r* >w«r<fa»), man ; hero. 

p J^ J-^ murddd, the July of the Persian calendar. 

p i! J_^ murddr, impure, unclean ; carrion. 

p ^'^r^ marddn (pi. of J^ mard), men. 

p <Jjlty* mardd7ia,manlj. 

p CJi^y* mardak (dim. of <J^ mard), little man, 
manikin ; low, little, or insignificant fellow. 

p A^j^ mardum (pi. j_^L< J^ mardumdn), man, 
human being. 

p jhl (♦'.V* mardum-dzdr, man-tormentor, vex- 
ing, afflicting mankind. 

Pt_5,\jl (♦'■V* mardum-dzdrl, the tormenting 
of mankind. Mardum-uzdre, a tormentor of 

p il»rs- (*'"V* 'fnardxi.M-yhicdr, man-devouring, 
cannibal ; cruel, fell, remorseless. 

p ij ('^r^ ff?ar(?2</«-(Zflr, man-rending, ferocious, 

p \'ji c^j"* mardum-gazd, man-biting, injurious. 

p ^_^^j^ mardmni, manliness ; humanity, cour- 
'tesy. Ifardume, a man, a certain man. 

p i^'^y* murdan, to die, expire ; to go out, be ex- 
tinguished. ci-J J^ murdanat, thy dying, 
for thee to die. jjU J ^ murdanash, his dying. 

p HJiy murda, dead, deceased, defunct. iJy* 
ij murda bih, better dead. 

1' ^'^y* niardl, manliness, virility, vigour, va- 
lour, bravery; thou art a man. Marde, a 
man, a certain man. 

p (-::.-^Jj^ mardiyat, thy virility. 

p (^Ly* marasdn, cause not to arrive, inflict not. 

p ,J^j^ mursal, sent ; apostle, prophet. 

A /♦^-y^ marsum, marked, prescribed, accus- 
tomed ; pay, stipend, salary. 
A sJ^j^ murshid, guide, spiritual director. 

A ^^y* murassa^ covered with gold, set with 
jewels, inlaid. 

A ^y maraz, disease, sickness, malady, com- 
plaint. , 

^^^y» maraze, a disease. 

A. ^Jy marziy, agreeable,acceptable; assented 

" to ; will, assent. 
A (^^y» mar^b, terrified, aifrighted. 

p r r^ murgh (pi. ^J^^^ murghdn), bird, fowl, 
l;V.^ ? y* ^^"^^ y^ ^ aiwdn (bird of the porch), 
sparrow, i^iy. 9 f* mxirgki birydn, broiled 
fowl, roast chicken. 

p ^ I ^ ymur^-dbl, water-fowl. 

p cSs-y* murghak (dim. of i ^ mv/rgh), little 

bird, chick, 
p ^c^y mur gh e, a bird. 
A ^y murakka^ patched, mended, botched. 

A i^^iy markab, horse, steed, camel ; any 
beast or vessel whereon one is carried. 

A c_^^ murakkab, compounded ; mounted, 

placed, set, inserted. 
A €y markaz, centre ; halting place, 
r ^^y marg, death, decease, 
p ffy ina ranj, grieve not, be not displeased 

(rt. ^.^UrCj ranjidaii). 
P *y ma rav, go not (rt. ^J^j raftan). 
A \jy marru, they passed by (rt.^ marra). 
A Sij\*y marwdrld, pearl. 

A l^y mMru«<'rtJ^,manliness, humanity, kindness, 

politeness ; human nature. 
A ^^=^^y mirwahat, fan. 
A ^y marham, salve, plaster, liniment. 


( 103 ) 


A p <iG (**/* '"^C'TTxam-nih, one who lays on salve, 
or applies a plaster. 

A J^. K< mund, desirous ; partial ; scholar, dis- 
ciple, pupil. 

p (jJ r^ martn (for ^ji) y* mar In), this. 

A --U^ mizuj, temperament, constitution, dis- 
position, quality. 

A &j»^\y» muzuhat, joke, jesting. 

A 'i\:>-y» muzjut, small matter, trifle, bagatelle. 

p S^ muzd, reward, gratuity, fee, recompense. 
J«:JSy-j j^* muzdi sarhangi, bailiff's fee. 

A 9 ijy* mazru-^, sown (seed or field). 

^/Sy* muzalcJca', made clean, purified ; capital 
" from which 2\ per cent, yearly is given in 
alms (and thus rendered pure). 

p ^y» ma zan, strike not (rt. ^<^j zadan). 

A djy» mazlyat, excellencp. 

A iX)J^ mazld, increase, addition. 

p i Ot* muzhda, good news, glad tidings. 

p iy* mizha or muzha (pi. (j^y* mizhagun or 
viuzhagun), eye-lid ; hair of eye-lid, eye-lash. 

A *L>»^ masui, evening. 

A .XsLi*.^ »«MSa^«(Z,happy, favourable, auspicious. 

A^Lu.^ musafir (p pi. ^jiKiM^ musdfirdn) tra- 
veller, wayfarer, stranger. 

A i^j-i Lu.^ masdkln (pi. of ^-X*«^ mishin), poor. 

A is.'^X^^^ musdmahat, negligence ; connivance, 

waiving, conniving, giving up. 
p c:.-«-ux^ mast, drunk, intoxicated, inebriated; 

drunkard. e:-.^*^.^ J-j ptii mast, elephant 

in rut, furious elephant. 
k j: z*u ^ mustatar, concealed, hidden. Mustatir, 

one who hides himself. 
A c-->\ jc u. m .-< mustajdh, answered, accepted. 

i(y:^l i__>VsXu.c^ mustajdbu 'd daacat, whose 

prayer is accepted, or heard in heaven. 

A *Ls^*w^ mustahkam, firm, established, con- 

A f^l sc u*.^ muslaMlas, taken clean away ; ap- 
propriated, made special, secured. 
A ^jLuuX*,*^ mustaski, dropsical. 

Aj\)Cujj^ tnusta(.dr, borrowed. 

A j^U:lwa/* mustacdn, whose aid is implored ; 

(hence) God. 
A l-JjXZmj^ mustazvih (p pl.^^lj jcl«*-^ musta^rih- 

un), one who becomes as an Arab. 
A Jjs*-~'**^ mustacjil, quick, hasty, speedy. 

A AxajuC-^ mustat,idd, arranged ; prompt ; able,fit. 

A jjjtuu.^ musta ghrah plunged, immersed. 

A S^Jcmj^ mustafid benefited, profited, deriving 
advantage; profitable, advantageous. 

A ^scmj^ mustalchih, hateful, odious, disgusting. 

A aJtmo/^ nmstahlm, right, true, correct, accu- 
rate ; straight ; resolute ; faithful. 

p i^ijM^ mastam, (I) am intoxicated. 

A «_^«cuw« mustamii,, hearer, auditor, listener. 

p Jo^^Joju.^ mustmand, afflicted, wretched. 

A i_-^ »:i*u.^ mustaujih, deserving, meriting ; 

proper, fit, proper, worthy, becoming. 
kjyM*^ mastur{s pl.j^^j^::^*^* »ja«^itmw), veiled, 

concealed ; good, honest, chaste. 
A Jjiu*^ mustmdi, overcoming, predominant, 


p ^tf^i*"^ mastl, intoxication, drunkenness. 

A Jls***^ masjid, place of worship, mosque. 

Ajila^u.^ mastur, written, described, delineated. 

A iLux« mtish'r, inebriating, intoxicating. 

A iUW^ maskanat, poverty. 

A ij-ilufc^ miskln (ppl. ^jL-X***.^ miskmdn), poor. 

A Amj^ muslim, true believer, Moslem. 

A Jl***-* musallam, committed, consigned, en- 
trusted ; preserved, safe, secured ; sole, ex- 

A j^ULuuL^ miislimdn (p pi. of a *Luw« muslim), 
true believers, Moslems. 

p jmUIa**^ musulmdn (pi. j^li t*l*M-« musulmun- 
dn), Musalman, believer (a corrupted word). 

p iJUi**^ musulmdnl, the Muhammadan re- 
ligion ; orthodoxy, Islam. 

\ ^^^;X\Mj^muslimlna{oh\.oi ^yiixu*y*muslimuna, 
pi. of *Lu.^ muslim), true believers, faithful. 

A f-4uM^ misma^ , organ of hearing, ear . e^^wu*^ 
misma~l, mine ear. 

A t\Xm^ viasnad, large cushion for reclining on; 
throne, bench. 


( 104 ) 


<!j\jlA^ tmishdr 

A ^}yu.y* wj«ss««^,asked, questioned, interrogated 

. A isJXju^ mas^alat, question, query, problem 
proposition, point of law. 

A i^Kuj.^ mushdlahat, resemblance. 
Kj\mj^ mushdr, indicated 

ilaihi, the pointed at ; the aforesaid 
A iJsLlu* mashshdtatf tire-woman. 
A ^LlL^ mashdmm, smell, olfactory sense. 

A ^jLiu* mushdwarat, application for advice, 

A 'ijJb\Ai^ musJidhadat, contemplation, vision, 
view, sight. 

A iJb\A^ mushdharat, monthly wages or allow- 
ance, pay, salary. 

A «^l*L^ mashuiihh (pi. of i^-i. shaiW), elders, 
revered, venerable, holy men. 

p»j:^ju^ muslit, fist; blow with the fist; handful. 

p <^\zJL^ ma shiiub, haste not, be not in a 
hurry (rt. ^jii\::Jii shitdftan). 

A r^'cJLrt musJddk, desirous, longing, anxious. 

■A ^l::uiL^ musJddhl, desirousness. A p ^jIil.^ 

^Jy-^ ^ ^i mushtdkl bih ki malull, longing 

is better than loathing. 
A ,^j:,jij^ mushtarl, purchaser, buyer, 
p ^j c^-^A.^ musM-zan, boxer, pugilist, bruiser. 
p ijj (j:^*u..« musht-zanl, fisticuffs, bruising, 

boxing. Musht-zane, a boxer. 

A JjbA^ mushta,ghal, employed, busy, engaged, 
busied, occupied. 

A^A-iiu^ mushtahar or mushtaJiir, proclaimed, 
made public ; called, named ; famous. 

p i^^^^ mushtl, handful ; blow with the fist. 
•J is^«^ 'tnuslitl du, a couple of handsful. 

A (J/i^ mashrik, the point or quarter in which 
the sun rises, the East, a p jJIxmajIj' ^^i^ 
mashriki tdhistdnl, the summer solstice, the 
longest day, when the sun enters Cancer. 

ij,\:.jM^\ AJ^ mashriki zamistdm, the win- 
ter solstice, the shortest day, when the sun 
enters Capricorn. 

A i^j^jJiiy» mashrikaini (oblique of ^iJL^ mash- 
rikdni), both Easts. ^^JLaW Sxj bii^u 7 
mashrikain, the distance of the tropics. 

A Jjcuk.^ mashcal, torch, flambeau. 

A Vj\i^ AxAi^ masht.ala-dur, torch-bearer. 

A d^lxJL^ mashghalat, business, employment, oc- 
cupation; pastime; place of business; tumult, 

A J^iA^ mashglml, employed, occupied, en- 
gaged, busy. 

A \ytJL^ mashghuk, employment, business. 
A ^jJiAi.^ mushjik, kind, gracious, tender, affec- 
tionate, benevolent, compassionate. 

A <UA.^ mashakkat, trouble, hardship, misery, 
difficulty, pain, toil, moil, drudgery. 

r CS-Ai^ mishk or miishk, musk. (J_CtL« lX^J 
bedi mushk, musk-willow. 

A JiLi.^ mushkil, difficult, arduous, puzzling, 
perplexing, embarrassing. 

A ^^SJi^ mushkill, difficulty. 

p ^JjL^ mushkl or mishkl, art (thou) musk ? 

PjUwiu* ma shumdr, count not, reckon not. 
A *y^jij^ mashmum, perfumed, fragrant. 
A ij^^t mashwarat, consultation, counsel. 
A i^y!i^ mrishauwash, disturbed, uneasy, vexed, 

perplexed, distressed ; stormy, boisterous. 
A (*.\,A^ »msAAur,public,notorious, well-known ; 

celebrated, noted, famed. 
A V Jijy^^JL^ mashhurtar, better known, more 

public, notorious or celebrated. 

A iJL^ mashlyat, will, pleasure. 
A -wlu* mushlr, counsellor, adviser. 
A iUs^La^ musdhahat, companionship, society, 
familiarity, intimacy. 

A i-_a»- \^=^ masdhif (pi. of*'^^ mushaf), 
volumes, books; Kur'ans. 

A Sj^\.^z^7nusddarat,&amg, mulcting, amercing. 
A ilciUa.^ musdrauit, wrestling, contest. 

A ( JLo^ masdff{^\. of u- a >a / « masaff), ranks; 

rows (of soldiers) ; a field of battle. 
AP it^y*\\ ( fLi^ masdff-dzmuda, inured to war. 

A J\<a^ masdlih (pi. oi i^sr'^^ maslahat), affairs, 
concerns, interests. 

A 'i^Va^ musdlahat, reconciliation, peace, pa- 

A k_^l«i:^ masdiib (pi. of *^»«^« muslbaf), ca- 
lamities, misfortunes. 

( lOo ) 



A L-c<r — '" mtishaf, book, volume, c-c.s*'^^^^ al 
mushaf, the volume (alsojj '-=■ ^^is.'^^'^mushafi 
j^rtzTs, precious (or) glorious volume),theKur'aii 
(so called by Muhammadans). 

A -a^ inisr, Egj-pt. 

A f U^'* misrui., hemistich, first half-line. 

p (_fr^^ misrl (a lSj-^^ misriy), Egyptian. 

A ^ii2.u:^ mustafa' , chosen, elected, elect ; a 
"man's name, and a titlegiven to lluhammad. 
A rf^^^^ nmslih, rectifier, censor, reformer ; pa- 
cific, conciliatory. 

A <Ls'**^^^ maslahat, affair, business ; object, 
subject, purpose ; prudent course, wise step, 
proper measure, becoming thing ; fit occa- 
sion, expediency ; welfare, best interest ; be- 
nevolence, kindness, peace, good-will. 

A Pj-^l ci-^^^'^^ maslahat -dtnez, imbued with 
kindness, conciliatory, pacific. 

AV^jj- <.L~^^'^"^^^ maslahat-ju, seeking to cor- 
rect or reform. 

A r j_t^=f- Lii-i.s^'*^^^ maslahat-jus-e, a seeker, or 
promoter of the interest, or of the good-will. 

■A JLs^"^* maslahate, any particular occasion, 
"crisis or emergency. 

A iJ«i2^ musalla\ place of prayer, oratory ; a 

large field, in which upon certain occasions 
thousands congregate to offer public prayer. 

j^j^ i_fL^:iyi Mtisalldyi Shirdz, the name 
of a place at Shiraz. 
A *"4«a^ musammam, fixed, determined. 
A u-fv^i^ miisannif, author, compiler, composer. 
A (o%«i3.^ masun, guarded, kept safe. 

A u-^--a^ musib, disastrous, calamitous, inju- 
rious, hurtful, pernicious. 

A <L.^>a-< musibaf, calamity, misfortune, adver- 
sity, disaster, affliction, a ju^.^.4J ha must- 
bate, by a misfortune, through a calamity. 

A JUd^ viuzddd, opponent, antagonist. 

A u-icLi* muzd^af, doubled. 

A ij^i^ mazarrat, detriment, injury, mischief, 
hurt; nuisance. 

A ^y*.,A^ mazmun, contents, purport, subject, 

tenour. <i-_;lk>- ^y\^^ mazmuni khitub, 
subject of discussion. 


A t5«^ maza\ he went; it passed (defect, verb). 

A ^lii^ mutdhik, conformable. 

A cUa^ mutd^, obeyed. 

A A-clii^ matd^im (pi. of (»Jtii/« mat^m), meats, 

viands, eatables. 
A iLlUa^ mw^a^aJa^, asking, requiring, exaction. 
nJlL-* mutdlabat hardan (or^iJlL^ 

^'^S muidlaha kardan), to require, demand, 
crave, sue, importune. 

A iUJlia,*, contemplation, considera- 
tion, attention, glance ; inspection, perusal. 

A p^Jy* J ij^\]2^inutdlaiM,farmudan,toview, 

regard, look upon ; to read, peruse, glance at. 

A altjlL^ mutdwa-^t, obedience, submission. 

A ^;ll2-* mutdyalat, joking together, jesting, 

A ^la^ matbaJch, kitchen. 

A ^ y^i-s^ matbuzj printed, impressed; agree- 
able, acceptable. 

A i--Jja,^ midrib, musician. 

A , ^Jpi,* mutribe, a musician; such a musician! 

p ci ila-^ ma talb, seek not (rt. ^S^^J^). 

A »JJa^ ?«M^fe?/c,ai)prized,informed,acquainted. 

A p j^iXi j-iiL* muttali^ shudan, to perceive. 

j^iXjlji'j-U:^ mvttali-^garddnidan, to ac- 
quaint, to inform, to apprize. 
A <__? Jds^ matlub, required, sought, demanded ; 
thing desired, object required. 

A j*-^'^ mutmah, upraised (eye), upturned (sight); 
spectacle, show, theatre, iij ^'^^^'^ miitmahi 
nazar, object of constant and favorite gaze. 

A t_^J2.^ mutaiyab, aromatized, scented, per- 

A ^,.^/« mtiti-^, obedient, submissive. 

A J^a^tmuzaffar, rendered triumphant,made vic- 
torious. t«~ai.^ . jsia^ mnzaffar u mansur, 
made victorious, and assisted (by God). 

A (♦ J'-ii^ mazlum (ppl. j^t<»Ua.^ mazlumdn), op- 
pressed, injured, tyrannized over. 

A «_^ ma^ with ; notwithstanding. [C*^ ma^, 

with me. 
A iLj'ljt^ mu-.dtabat, chiding, expostulation, re- 

proach, repi'ehension. 



( IOC ) 


A (>iU^« ma-Jish, living, livelihood, subsistence. 

A ^^U,-« muuisharat, familiarity, society, in- 
timacy, intercourse. 

A i^-tfU^ m(r^asz(pl. of tU«3^» ?wac.5?yfl^) crimes, 

A (liU^ muuifa\ well, healthy, free from pain. 

a<Lj\x^ mUiukabat, pursuing; punishment. 

A <i>srU^ w?<ca?ff;a^, medical treatment, physick- 
ing, doctoring; remedy, cure. 

^ |ji^ U^ mufjihjate, a cure. 

A il^\x^ mu^dmalat, business, affair, dealing, 

trade; practice; treatment,behaviour,conduct. 

A Jjlx^ muUinid (p pi. j^IjJU^ miuuniddn), 

obstinate, stubborn, refractory, perverse, con- 
tumacious, disobedient, opiniative. 

A iiijU^ mu^ayanat, seeing clearly, beholding. 
A -ot^ w«^5ar, pass, ferry, ford. 3Ii,^bar, ferry- 
boat, pontoon, bridge. 
A jli;jt^ mu-^dd, accustomed, wont, used to. 

i^yf,jL^ tnu^aiar, revered, respected, venerated, 
esteemed; respectable. 

A u-iji'X^ muUarif, one who acknowledges or 

A >Sscx^ ■tmiUalcid, firmly persuaded ; staunch 
believer ; faithful friend, support. 

A ^__£xi!t^ mu<^tahif, continually at prayer (in 
the temple), assiduous and unremitting in 
religious exercises ; devotional, devout. 

A A/*:ix.^ muUamad, confidential, trusty, trust- 
worthy ; confidant. A-ii >^AZ.xy^ mu--famad 
^laihi, the relied upon. 

inu-,jih, admirer of himself, vain, con- 


ceited; fop, beau. 


mui,ji%, miracle. 

A icX*^ miidat, stomach. 

A lo*^**^ ma^an, mine, source of minerals. 

A AjJut^ ma^dum, extinct, non-existent, wished 

for but not found, lost ; future. 
A p (Xi-j i^Jkjt^ miida-sanffi, dyspepsy. 
A ijSx^ ma:.zarat, excuse. 

A j^vXx^ maizur, excusable, pardonable ; ex- 
cused, exculpated. 

A i^jX^ ma^raz, place of meeting or exposure ; 
position; occurrence. 

A aJjX^ ina^ifat, acquaintance, knowledge ; 

means, a ^^^j:j^x^ <!^\^ sdlikaiema^ifate,an 
old acquaintanceship. 
A dSjX^ ma^aliat, battle-field ; amphitheatre. 
A ( — t^jX^ ma-.ruf, known, noted, notorious ; 

A JjJ*^ ma^zul, dismissed, discarded, cashiered, 

turned out of office, degraded. 
A ijjjx^ mai^uli, dismissal, degradation. 
KjJLx^ ma^har, company, society. 
A ^yLx^ ma^shuk, loved, beloved ; mistress. 
A (L:tjl.x^ maishukaf, mistress. 


,^x^ mazshuld, relation of beloved. 

A *,.^2*^ vitcsmn, wrist. 

A /*^^^x-^ w««oSMff», innocent, immaculate, chaste, 
uncorrupt, unspotted. 

A ^^^y^zx^ ma^uml, chastity, innocency. 

A tU«2^^ ma^sixjat, rebellion, sin. a 
ha ma^iyate, for a crime. 

A iJlJi^it^ mUizildt (pi. of dJuaJt^ tmi^ilat, 

fem. of J.«3*.^ mu^il), difficulties, knotty 
questions, intricacies, arduous affairs. 

A jjk*.^ nm^ittal, neglected, abandoned, un- 
cared for, slighted ; vacant ; unoccupied. 

A *lLc^ mu^azzam, mngnified, revered, honored ; 
great, respectable. 

A c:j\y*!^ix^ mut,zamdt, great, grave matters, 
weighty and important affairs. 

A *J.*.^ mudam, distinguished by a particular 
mark, pinked; notable. 

A Ax^ mu^Ilam marked, striped, spotted. Ifu- 
^lUiDi, preceptor, teacher, instructor, master. 

A (♦jijt^ ma-^um, known, understood, ascer- 
tained, discovered ; settled, fixed ; expe- 
rienced; notorious; stamped, impressed (coin), 

money. ap^^J^ r*^*^ ma^um kardan, to 
make known, to know, discover, experience. 
A^^Jjt^ madume, a single coin, any money. 

A jjU.r^ ma^a\ sense, meaning, reality ; reli- 
gious sentiment, spii'itual 8ubject,spirituality; 
the spiritual world, ic^-*^ ^* ?»«&««*, in 
spirit, in substance, in reality. aPj^j s^^^'*^ 
^.s-* macHdyi In snkhan, the meaning of 
these words (or of this speech). 


( 107 ) 


A ^J^x^ muiauwal, relied upon for help; place 

of confidence. 
A iU »x^ ma^mat, aid, help, assistance. 

A ^^■'^A'^ mn-Jmd, established, fixed, accustomed; 
usual, customary. 

A 't^ ma-J., with me, along with me. 

A ijli-jt^ mai.lshat, food, necessaries of life, 
means, means of living. 

A (M^^Jt-^ imuaiyan, fixed, settled, determined, 

appointed, assigned. 
A t_j4-jt.« maz.yuh, stigmatized, blemished, 

vicious, faulty ; tainted or suspected. 
A i iU,« maghurat, den, cave, cavern. 

A U,ipU,« mughdziha7i, in a rage (ace). 

A <--'/«'* maghrih, quarter of sunset, "West ; 

Western Africa, Morocco. \-^j^ ^j-^ w»* 
maghrihihd, from its setting-place. 

' je-« 

ma gh rihly. Western ; African. 

\j»yK,t maghrur, self-deceived, deluded; proud, 

self-sufficient, conceited. 
pJjL* ma gh is brain ; marrow, kernel, 
p c_>/^ magh%e, a kernel. 
A i JJL,% maghfirat, pardon, absolution, forgive- 


A k— ;»Lt.< ma gh lu,h. overcome, defeated, con- 
quered, vanquished, subdued. 

A i^i.* mu gh annin (with tanicln, and without 

tanwin ^^jf^ mughanni), musician, singer. 

A ^^^•» mu gJn Jun, Egyptian or Arabian thorn, 
a species of mimosa yielding gum-arabic. 

A ,«iulL* mafutlh (pi. of _.1:;a^ miftuh), keys. 

A ^ lU,^ mufdrakat, separation ; departure ; 
loss, death. 

A tUJ.U.^ mufdwazaty commerce, familiar in- 

A (^j^iii.^ muftatin, bewitched, infatuated. 

A .i^lL* mufiakhir, boasting, boastful, proud. 

A s:Ji^ muftalcir, reduced to poverty; in straits; 
humble suitor. 

A ^^'^■s^ muftan, seduced to evil, bewitched, 

infatuated, insane. 
A ..s*^ majyhar, object of glory ; glory, boast. 
KjS^'* mufal-hkhar, glorious, exalted. 

A J- r*^ mufarrih, exhilarating ; exhilarator. 
p l^-ft.^ ma far ma, command not (rt. \^'^y*j^^- 
p jjj. Sy% ma farosh, sell not (root ^J^^jy)- 

A j^^^ miifsid (ppl. i^^JwuaA.^ mufsidan), mis- 
chievous,seditious, corrupter, mischief-maker. 

A ^lJlL* muflis (p pi. i^l-wii^ mujlisdn) in- 
solvent, bankrupt, poor, penniless. 
A ^*«ii.* muflki, insolvency, penury, poverty. 

A ^y~^ mafhum, understood, apprehended, 

A (LLlJU «i2<Z:aJ«/«^, opposition, resistance, con- 
tention, competition ; contrast ; collation. 

A JliU malcdl, speech, discourse, word. 

A ZJliU makdlat, word, discourse, speech. 

A /fcUt* mahdm, standing-place, position spot, 
seat, station, staying, session ; place of resi- 
dence, dwelling, abode. 

A c:_?L«liL* makumut (pi. of iL*\L^ makdmat), 
discourses or lectures, as being read or de- 
livered during a iUla,« makdmat or sitting. 

A _^U^ mukdmir, dicer, gambler, gamester. 

A ^IL* makdme, a place, a site. 

A iUiliL* mukdwamat, opposition, resistance. 

A J-JL* ?«MX-J?7,advancing; prosperous,fortunate. 

A Jv»^ makbul, received; accepted; agreeable, 

approved ; welcomed. 
APjJ»-Kit* makhuUar, more acceptable, more 

agreeable, more welcome. 

A g-^iisut muktaza' (in p lci"iiL« muktaza), re- 

quired, demanded ; exigency, requirement. 
A j^jJL* mikddr, quantitj", amount. 

AjjJU mukaddar, decreed, predestinated. 

A ^JJU miikaddam, put before, placed before, 
p reposed ; preferred ; antecedent, prior. 

A ti^JJl^ mukaddamat, preface, preamble, pro- 

logue, premiss. ^f-i*.s-^J »r<^ ^jJi.« mu- 

kaddamate nahvi zamakhshan, " Introduction 
to Syntax," by ZamakhsharT, who was a cele- 
brated doctor of Islam, born ah. 467, at 
Zamakhshar, a town in Khwarazm ; whence 
his name. 

A iij^it* makdur, predestined, decreed, fated. 

A i-^jSi'-* mukarrab (p pi. ^,jSi^ mukarrahdn), 
brought near, allowed to approach, admitted 


( 108 ) 


to the immediate presence ; approximated ; 
intimate or immediate attendant. 

A jyL* mukarrar, fixed, settled, established, con- 
firmed ; agreed upon ; certain. 
A ujyi-^ maJcrun, connected, conjoined, yoked, 
A j*fcwJL» malcsum, distributed, divided, appor- 
tioned, allotted. 

A XjiL-i mahad, place of destination, goal ; in- 
tention, end, aim, object, design, pui'pose. 

A Jfc..aiL* maTcsud, aimed at, intended ; intention, 
aim, design, scope, drift. 

A iiyu* mikwad, reins, bridle ; rope, hawser. 

A *-Jt« muhim, fixed, constant, abiding. 

A Ai^« malcurim{-^\. of i!-«^^ malcramat), vir- 
tues, excellences, laudable actions; favours, 
benefits, bounties. 

A ^IC« makurih, disagreeables, inconveniences ; 
odious, detestable, or abominable things. 

A tCfi-ilC* mmliasliafat, displaying, disclosure, 
revelation, apocalypse. 

A iU5lC« mukulamat, conversation, talk. 

A JolC* makui^id[^\. od^ kaid), deceits, tricks, 
frauds, devices, stratagems, plots. 

A t_-X^ mukihl, whatever causes (one) to hang 
the head ; depressing, humiliating. 

A ilC* Makkat, Mecca, a town in the province 

of Hijaz, and the birthplace of Muhammad. 
A l::-'::^^^ maktab, school, writing-school. 
A (— ."jsiL^ maktuh, written ; letter. 
A X^ makr, deceit, fraud, imposture. 
A^.C* mukarrar, repeated, reiterated. 
A I'vX^ mukarram, honoured, respected, revered. 

A i»S^ makruk, odious, offensive, disagreeable, 

A jJ^j X^ makruhi, unpleasantness. 

A (^_^AuC< maksab, gain, acquisition ; means of 
getting a livelihood. 

p i^C* ma hun (or mu ^Mw),make not {yi.^^<^^). 
A <uX«w«i<^wfl^, power, strength; virtue, ability. 

V y^ magar, besides, save, excepting, all but, 
but, unless ; perhaps, may be, perchance, by 
chance, haply; unfortunately. 

Pj^l J^C* ma gardun, cause not (suffer not, allow 

not) to become (rt. ^^iXJ\i^ gardunidan). 

p ^JJS^ tnagas, fly, small winged insect. 

P ^y^ magu (or mugu), don't tell, tell not. 

A \r» mala^, assembly, crowd of people. pa^L* J 

har mala! (or }Uj la mala') ^'^^\ xiftddan, 
to become public, to get abroad. 

A _jL-# ««aZ^aA(ppl.^WL« malluhun), ho^tman, 

mariner, sailor. 
A i Jks^L* muluhidat, hei'etics, unbelievers. 

A SL* maldz, asylum, place of refuge ; strong- 
hold, fastness, 

A |*j^« muldzim, assiduous, inseparable; dili- 
gent; servant, close attendant. 

A <i^jL« mrddzamat, close attendance, assiduity, 
closeness ; diligence, service. 

A\t« mulufcifat, soothing, coaxing, caressing; 
gentleness, kindness, courtesy. 

A ^wi;^ Maldtiya, name of a town on the Eu- 
phrates, capital of Armenia Minor. 

A <UcL« mulduilat, playing, joking, toying. 

A iXiL^ muldkdt, meeting,interview, encounter. 

aJL* maldl {or aSL^ maldlat), sadness, displea- 
sure, disgust ;ennui, weariness, fatigue,languor. 

A ^ty* maldll, displeasure. 

A /•L* malum, reproach, reprehension. 

A d^L« maldmat, reproach, blame, censure, dis- 

A ^Ji>^ maldhl (pi. of ,^\X^ milha'), instru- 
ments of music ; implements of play. 

A Cjsiiy* malds-ik (pi. of cLxL* malak or (jJL* 
mahak), angels. 

A KjL* mald^ikat (pi. of t^XL* malak) angels. 

^:XjL« mald^ikati, my angels. 

A p tj i»-tf tLxjL* maldt-ik-surate, angel-faced, 
of angelic form. 

A <lL* millat, religion, faith, creed. 
A \jsr'^ maljat, asylum, place of refuge, shelter. 
A Ssr^ mulhid, heretic, infidel. 
k^ys^ malhuz, observed, beheld, viewed, 
glanced at. 

p -J^ malakh, locust. 

A ^y^* mal<Jin, cursed, execrated, damned. 

A tlXL* milk, property,estate, possession. Mulk, 
kingdom, sovereignty, dominion, territory. 


( 109 ) 

country ; power, possession. ^ 

mulk u dm, church and state. Malah, angel. 

Mali1c,'kmg. ^^^ \ CJ^ malihu ' I Mawuss, 

chief of the nobles, jij^i^ Ll>i.^ mahlci 
ntmroz, king of Nimroz, a territory including 
the provinces of Sistan and Makran, of which 
Sam Werlraan was governor for Minuchihr, 
seventh king of the first or Peshdadyan dy- 
nasty of Persia. 

A p i jlj <^L# malik-zuda, king's son, prince. 

A CljylL* malakut, empire ; the invisible and 
heavenly world, empyrean heaven. 

A v^S^ malaki, angelic. 

ACJ'y.^ ff?M7«««t'fl^A, contaminated, defiled, soiled. 

A ij_5^ muluh (pi. of (Jil^ malik), kings. 

A Jy^ maliil, dejected, vexed, tired, weary, 

sick; fastidious. 
A p |jji-* maluli, (thou) art weary ; loathing. 

A uJ^lt*.^ mamdlik (pi. of <X>.L*».-« mamlikat), re- 
gions, kingdoms, realms. 

A <UjU^, prohibition, resistance, 
refusal; repugnance. 

A jli.*.^ mumtdz, picked out, chosen ; eminent, 

mwntanh, prohibited ; impossible. 


A Sa^ mutnidd, prolonger, extender ; aider, 

A ^tSA^ mamduh, praised, lauded. 

A ^L.C*uA^ mumsik, holdfast, close-fisted, par- 
simonious, stingy. 

A cuyU^ mamkut, hated, detested ; odious. 

A foJ-*.^ mavilikat, dominion, realm, kingdom. 

AuLiyv4>^ mmnluk, possessed, owned; purchased 
slave, property. 

A ^Xa^ mamluki, relation of servant, servile 
condition, servitude. 

p |W* man, I, and in the oblique case, me. A 
weight of 2 lbs,, but in Hindustan of 80 lbs. 

A -.^ man, who,he who, she who.him who ; whoso, 
whosoever; who? \j|^?/ia«za, who (is) this? 

A ^.^ min, from; of; from amongst, by; be- 
sides; for; on account of; than. \^ ^^ 
^^\ min sd 'llatl, from this who. ^^ t* 
Jj!^ md min mauludin, there is none born. 

A ^ mann, reproaching with favours bestowed, 

twitting with benefits conferred ; imposing 
a sense of obligation. 

A jL^ mandlir (pi. of -^i** mimhar), pulpits. 

A (.::_; l:>-lx^ munujdt, prayers, silent devotions. 

A ^jli.^ munddamat, society, familiarity, 

A i iL^ mandrat, lighthouse ; minaret, tower 
from whence people are summoned to prayer. 

A cUjl:^, altercation, contest, fierce 
dispute, hot contention. 

A {.^^^[x^ mundsih, fit, suitable, suited, con- 
sonant, accordant, apposite. 

A ^UmjIx.^ mimdsabat, relation, resemblance ; 
analogy, proportion, comparison. 

A d^s.'^Xu^ miindsahat, advice, admonition, ex- 
hortation, counselling. 

A ijO^^ mundzarat, disputation. 
A «_iL^ mandji^ (pi. of <uii^, or 
manfi^at), gains, profits, benefits, advantages. 
A (^^U^ mundkiz, contrary, repugnant. 

A <lsrb^ mundkahat, marriage. 

A *L«-w*!i ^^ mini 's samds-, from heaven. 

A i«Jt^^l <»— J^JkxSl 1^ mini 7 ^zd.biUadna\ of 

the lighter punishment, i.e. of this world. 

A ^J^u^ mandhl (pi. of j^^A.^ manlviy or 'U^.i-^ 

manhiyat,) forbidden practices, prohibited 
things; crimes. 

A i3\i_\ 1^ min dydtihi, of or from its (the 
Kur'an's) verses. 

^ j^ mimhar, pulpit. 

A Sxj ^j^ mim ba^a, afterwards. J^xj ^^ 
uliJJ mim ha^da zdlika, after that. 

A (L^ minnat, praise; thanks; obligation, fa- 
vour; reproaching, twitting or casting in the 
teeth of benefits conferred, a p i^'-V ''^^^^-^ 
minnat lurdan, to bear, or lie under obliga- 
tions. (^t^^/J \^:^Uy* fninnat nihddan, to lay 
obligations, to confer a favour. 

p u:^:^ manat, I thee. 

AP^^L-l l::-^^^ m«w«flt^-sAzwa5, one who appre- 
ciates favours, recognizesobligatioiis, grateful. 

A e^~2xu^ muntasib, erect ; set up, placed, 
erected, set on (as a caldron or pot) ; marked 

( ]10 ) 

with nmha or fatha, nasbated (as when l;idr 
has been changed to kadr). 

A iiii^ immtazir, one who expects with im- 
patience, waiting, expecting, expectant. 

A Ji:^^ vmntazim, arranged ; placed in rows ; 

threaded (as pearls). 
A (A:^ mimtaha', finished, terminated, com- 

"pleted, accomplished, ended, consummated. 

p <__>^Ls^^ manjaluh, polluted water, in which 

something impure, as a dog or carrion, has 
been thrown. 

A j*^'^ mtmajjim, astronomer, astrologer. 

^ j^ jM-^ min Mair, of good, of what is good 
and desirable. 

A Jj-'* manzil, dwelling-house, mansion; lodg- 
ing ; halting-place, stage, station-house ; dig- 
nity, rank. 

A ^ji^ manzilan, as to rank (accus.). 

A U\u^ manzilat, rank, station ; dignity ; cha- 
racter, esteem. 

A L^yMi^ mansul, attributed, ascribed, imputed, 
charged ; impeached, accused ; chargeable. 

p ^iu^ manash, I him. (^ili.^ ^^Ji^stXxx^ j\ JL^ 

(XJ^iJ^^f-iii^ yahe az mutauillikdni manash 
muttali^ garddnid, one of my friends made 
him acquainted. 

A luXJL:.^ manshdt, literary compositions, 

p^^^u^ ma nisMn, sitnot(rt.,^^:iA^3 nishaslan). 
A i_^A.2;^ mansah, ofiice, post, dignity. i._.-.~2-,« 

iji mansahi kazu, office of a judge. 


mansahe, a post of dignity. 

A( i .,>ax^ wwwsan/, receding, retiring, departed. 

A i»j:.^x^ munsif, just, true, honest, candid. 

Li^a:^ munsifan (ace). 
kjy^z:^^ mansur, aided, defended, protected (by 

A fj!i2.u^ mantik, speech, discourse ; logic, rea- 

A^lau^ manzar, face, countenance, aspect, looks. 

A i»li:»^ manzur, seen, viewed, beheld; beloved 

object, favourite. 
A /♦^ii^^ manzum (fem. ^^^ix^'* manzumat), 

composed in verse, metrical. 


A «_i./« man-^ (or as used mana-, ), forbidding ; 

A ci^V^ (J"* ''"^ ^bdl, from my servant. 

A /•A*:-^ mun^adim, lost, vanished, disappeared, 
destroyed, annulled, ruined. 

A i^xu^, benefited, blest with abundance. 
A mjc^ viunacuim, blest with the good things 
of this world, rich, affluent. 

A <Uil kXix ^^ min unda 'lldh, from God, with 
the favour of God. 

A f^<'^ mima ghgh as, disturbed, embittered, 
made wretched, rendered miserable. 

A '^k.^ manfaz, that through which anything 
passes ; pass, passage, defile. 

A "ixi:*./* jHrtw/ffifl^jemolumentjadvantagejbenefit. 

A ^JL^ munkazi, finished, ended, completed. 

A jjajix^ munkati^, cut off", exterminated. 

A ili-^ /«MwZ;ar, denied ; ignored; atrocious, bad, 
wicked, in iquitous. Miinkir, ignorer ; averse, 
disapproving, evil-aff'ected. 

x:^ munkarl, atrocity, iniquity. Munkare, 
an atrocious oftence, an enormity. 

vy-:.^ ma nigar, look not (root ^^i^^/j). 

p j*^^ manam, I am. 

A ^Jjit^ ^j^ min ma gh rihihdf from its setting 
place, from the West. 

p ^:^ ma nth, lay not, place not, set not. 

A ^:^ mimyat, wish, desire. |<rr-'* miinyatl, 
my desire. 

A h^ manlyat, death, decease, is^.r^* mani- 
yatl, my death. 

A «_-^« manl^, inaccessible, impregnable. 

p jp»-.-^ ma niyush (or niyosh), listen not. 

r »-* mil, hair. iS^j \^y* muyi %angi, hair of 

a negro, {^^.y* muyash, his (or her) hair. 

A {,^^>-\yt mawujih, causes, reasons, motives. 

A 'ijs>-\y muwdjahat, presence ; face to face. 

A Ss>^y» muidMaz, taken to task, rebuked, re- 
proved, chastised. 

A aj^^y* mu-dkliazat, remonstrance, reprchen- 

sion. AP^Jp c:JiX>-\^ mus-dkhazat kardan, 

to call to an account. 



aivdshi (pi. of tU.i)L« milshiyat), 

quadrupeds, cattle. 


( 111 ) 


A iJ^\y muwdzahit, perseverance, assiduity. 
A (J^^y* miiwufik, conformable, suitable, agree- 
able, consonant, apt, fit. 
A i^\y muwufahat, agreement, concurrence, 

acquiescence; assent, consent; concert; apt- 
ness, suitability. 

A iUJi*^ mutdnasat, intimacy, familiarity. 

A LUyt maut, death. 

A Jiy* muiathtkar, impressed. Muiatldhir, pe- 
netrating, making an impression; impressive, 
effectual, effective, efficient. 

A ^yt maiij, wave. 

A k '-^y* mujib, cause, means, motive, reason, 

account, pav -s^M^ iatfjiyVi, in conformity 

with, according to. 
A ^>-y* muj'a^, pained, afflicted with pain (the 

metre requires it tobewrittenj^xj^^OTiyac.!). 

A Jj^j-^««rt<{/u(/,found,existing,existent; ready, 

present, forthcoming. 
A vJ:->1 J^^* maujudut (pi. of '^Jy>-y* mauju- 

dat), things found ; existences. 
A ^^y muwajjah, approved, agreeable. 
A S=-^y muwahhid, one who confesses the unity 

of God, unitarian, antitrinitarian ; orthodox. 
A iJy mawaddat, friendship, love. 

A ^^y muiazzi'n, the crier who summons Mu- 

hammadans to prayer from the turret (slender 
tower or minaret) of a mosque. 

A t^^y mu^%l, noxious, injurious, hurtful, per- 
Vjy tnur (or mor), ant, emmet, pismire ; reptile. 
p ijXss'jy murchuna, rust of iron. 

p '^jy inurcha (pi. ^^^^-^^jy* murchagun), 
little ant, pismire, emmet ; (figuratively) 
hairs about the face, whiskers. 

p ^jy muram, (I) am an ant. 

A <^»jy mauruth, inherited ; hereditary. 

p ^^jy mure, an ant. 

p d^\ijy muriydna, rust. 

k ^t\y viauzun, weighed, measured. 

A (*^y mamim, time, season ; monsoon. 

A (*yy mmisum, marked, signed, impressed, 
branded ; noted, characterized ; named. 

A i^^y Musa', Moses, the Jewish lawgiver. 

p i^y mush, mouse. 

p 1^ CS^J^y mushaki kur, blind little mouse, 

i.e. the mole. 
A {^yy tnausuf, furnished with qualifications, 

qualified ; characterized, distinguished ; de- 
scribed; praised; before-mentioned. 

A %-^y maiiza^, place ; village, hamlet, town. 

A Jt^y mauzaie, a place, a certain place. 

A dJicy* maw^zat (p pi. \ji^as-y mauazahd), 
advice, admonition, exhortation, homily. 

k^jiy muwaffak, assisted, favoured. Muwaffik, 
onewhoprospers,favours, seconds; sure guide. 

A i^y mtiwakkal, appointed guardian, charged 
with, entrusted ; superintendent ; keeper (of 
a prisoner). 

A jJ*.^ mauUd, native country, birth-place. 

A %^y mula^ excited; greatly addicted, pas- 
sionately fond, wishful, greedy. iXfej ^y 
mulaij zuhd, given to devotion. 

A ^J^ymuiamf, compiler, composer, author. 
A i^^y maulud, born. 

A iJj-« maula\ lord, master, ruler, i^y^ (f^ 

maulcC , God, the ruler, 
p Aty mum (by some mom), wax. 

kijy mas-unaf, provisions, daily food or rations. 

A ^JMjy ?»M»?«'s, intimate, familiar; companion, 

p i_$y mil, hair of the head. ^^^^Lj i^y 
muyi bundgosh, hair of the cavity behind the 
ears. \.::^iy muyat, thy hair. 

A tX» )^ mmaiyad, aided, assisted, strengthened, 
helped, rendered victorious. 

p ^^y mus-e, a single hair. 

p <L< mah, the moon. Mih, great, superior. 

A AjLx« mahdbat, fear, dread, alarm ; awe; ma- 

p il^ mihdr, reins, halter, bridle ; a camel's 
bridle, which is a peg put through the ani- 
mal's nose, with a string attached to each side. 

p Sj\j i^ mah-pdra, (piece of moon), mistress. 

p ::^'» mihtar (pi. ^^ z^^ mihtarun), greater, 

( 119 ) 


p i_5rV* ''^iihtar I,. gr eatness ; superiority. 

A \^-sA'^ mahjur, separated, cut off, excluded ; 
fled from,forsaken,deserted,rejected,sliunned. 

A iX^^ mahd, cradle. 

'SjY* fnihr, love, attachment; tenderness, kind- 
ness. iArV* ''"^'^^^^i love of him (her, it). 
Muhr, seal; virginity. 

p ^,jY* 'mihrldn, kind, affectionate, friendly ; 
friend, lover. 

v^ji,^ mah-ru, moon-faced, beautiful. ^ 
f^^j mah-ruil, (thou) art fair as the moon. 

p ijj^r^ mttkra, chessman ; bead of glass or coral. 


urgent, weighty (business). 
p j^l^^ mihmdn, guest. 

p t/U-J u;^'^ mihman-sarai, guest-chamber, 
house for strangers, hospitable roof. 

p tjl/*.^,^ mihndm, feast, entertainment; hos- 

A J^^ miihmal, neglected, disregarded. Muh- 
mil, negligent, careless. 

A U^ muJiaiycC , prepared, made ready. 

p ij-^^ mihln, greatest, noblest. 

p 1^^ mai, wine. 

p ^.^ ml, a redundant particle prefixed to Per- 
sian tenses, especially the present and im- 
perfect ; also to the continuative imperative, 
as ^L-^ ml hash, continue to be ; ^j^ ml 
rav, keep on going. 

p L-^ may a, come not (rt. j^J^^l dmadan). 

p i\jL^ maydzdr, distress not (rt. j^^.^;^;! ). 

p 1^1--^ miydn, waist, middle ; between, be- 
twixt, f^y^ (^W* »"2/"^ bastan, to gird the 
waist. (oV* ^1 J^ «2 dn miydn, from the 
midst thereof, from amongst them. j^U^ j^^ 
(_jJc^ 1 dar miydn dmadan, to come on the tapis. 

p ^-,p ijV* miydn-tihl, empty within, hollow. 

p ^L^ wjycZna, middle; middle-sized, middling, 
moderate; mediation. 

p Jo 1 1-^ ml dyadjis coming,cometh (rt.^^Ji^l ). 

A c:-^^ maiyit, dead. ^'•^^-'^rr^ ''J*-^ ^•^■'^ hdzd 

ma^ahu maiyitim, this (man) has with him a 
dead (thing). 

p ^.^ mekh, nail, peg or pin. Ja£»- 15^^^ 
mefcJn chand, some nails, a few pegs. 

A j^iJu.^ maiddn, plain, area, cii'cus, course, 
arena ; battle-field, battle. 

p -^ mlr, prince ; die thou (rt. ^^-V* murdan). 

A C-jL^ mirdtli, heritage, inheritance. 

p*ji -^OTi/'awrt/rt,makemeto die(rt.jyJk-JK-^)« 
p J. I ^j^ ml ravad, goeth, is going (rt. ^J^j)- 

A >w.wi» miiyassar, facilitated, made easy; prac- 
ticable, feasible, obtainable; obtained, gained. 
p ;J_»ji*::-^ ml slm^l, thou canst wash (rt. ^j:^jx>1>). 

A J>-jlL*^ Mll'd^ll, Michael, the aichangel, 

thought by the Muhammadans to be the 
especial protector of the Jews, as Gabriel is 
of the followers of Islam. 

p *u)jL^ ml Icardam, I was making. 

A jj-^ mail, inclination, leaning, bias ; fond- 
ness, partiality, a p ^i-\i J^ mail kardan, 
to bend, bias, a Mil, needle ; skewer or wire 
for anointing the eye with collyrium. 

A ^X^ maile, a leaning, a bias, an inclination. 

A ^y*.^ maimun, prospered with success, fa- 
voured by fortune ; fortunate, auspicious ; 
name of a man. 

p L-w/« mind, enamel ; blue heaven, azure sky. 

p ^_>ujJc-y* mayandesh, be not anxious (root 
^^Ju1jJu\ andeshldan; the ^ «/// having been 
changed iuto ^ ye after the * ma of pro- 
hibition by a rule of grammar). 

p i»-^ miva, fruit. 

p ^ na, not (a prefixed negative particle), 
p \j nd (prefix), not, non-, uu-, in-, dis-. 
A \j «a (affix, pron.), us, of us, our. 
p aiiytj I li nd dzmuda, untried, inexperienced, 
p <X^\ \j nd umed (or nd ummed), despairing, 

dcspairer, despondent, 
p L_fiV-«^ ^ nd umedl, despair, hopelessness, 
p A ^\ I) nd ahl, unworthy, worthless, base. 


( 113 ) 


p ^1^ Ij nd hahari, uselessness. 

V * Jy li nd luda, not been, not become. 

p U-J l) Md Jzwa (pi. jjIjU-j U ?ia hindydn), 
not seeing, blind, sightless. 

p (^li-J li «a hindil, want of sight, blindness. 

iV''a hlndte, a blind person. 
p cJb \j nd pdk, unclean, dirty, nasty, filthy. 

p j^Jkjl) \j nd pdi-dur, unstable, unsteady, in- 

p^lij-jjy l) Wf7j5ifl!rAe3;9'dr, inattentive, incautious, 
negligent; intemperate, incontinent, unchaste. 

p Jc»uyj l) nd pasand, disapproved, unapproved ; 

objectionable, unbecoming, distasteful, dis- 
pleasing, unpleasing, offensive. 

p f_$SUMjj \j nd pasandi, disapprobation ; any- 
thing deserving of disapprobation. 

p iJk-^XwuAj I) nd pasandida, disapproved; de- 
serving of censure and disapprobation; offen- 
sive, unpleasant. 

p ^JuJj^ J l) nd tardshlda, unhewn, untrimmed, 
unpolished, uncouth. 

PA*L«J' U Ma ^fl/rta/H, unfinished, crude, imper- 
fect, defective. 

p ^yi li nd tuwdn, impotent, weak, powerless. 

p cJ'y li wd tuwdni, inability, weakness, im- 
PA t^j**^-^ li ndjins, ignoble; ill-conditioned, 

p ^jAJ'\^ I) nd jawdn-mard {^\.^.ij^\^ \j 

nd jawun-marddn). not a gentleman, un- 
gentlemanly ; illiberal, ignoble. 

p ils"- li nd chdr, helpless, remediless. 

p J-^ I) nd chU; nothing- worth, vile, con- 

p ^jyuUwii ^J^ li nd hakk-shinds, ungrateful. 

p ,j^lj nukhun, nail, claw, talon. 

p L—Jy^ li nd khub, unseemly, uncomely. 

p ij-y^ li wd kJiubl, want of beauty, uncome- 


p ijk^'^ Ij nd khtcurdan, not eating ; not to eat. 

p i>^jy>- li nd khwurda, not eaten, untasted; 

not suffered, felt or experienced, unfelt. 
p i/ip- li nd khicmh, unpleasant, disagreeable, 

harsh, unharmonious. 

p j^^l ir-*^ li nd khwush-dwdz, possessed of 
a disagreeable voice, harsh-voiced. 

vj:J^»j>- li nd khwushtar, more unpleasant, 
more grating. 

p i^^jli ndddn, ignorant, inexperienced; fool. 

p ti^'^li ndddni, ignorance, folly; (thou) art 

A )jli nadir, rare, wonderful, wondrous, un- 
usual, uncommon. ^^.u^^c^'^jU nddiru 7 
husn, of rare beauty. 

p \j::,..^ji^ li nd dtirust, untrue, incorrect, in- 
accurate, wrong. 

p iJkj^ li nd dlda, unseen ; unkno7\'n. 

A ,li ndr (fem.), fire ; hell. \j\j ndran (ace). 

pjli Mds, blandishment, caress, caressing ; grace, 
coquetry, feigned disdain, delicacy, airs. 

A JjU nu%il, lowered, descending. 

p ^jr^j^ ndznln, lovely, amiable, agreeable, 

delicate, airy lady; belle, mistress. ^*^j^ 
ndznini, (thou) art a beauty. 

p L) i li »d zild, ill-favoured. 

p ^Si ;lj ndzidan, to coquet, to put on pre- 
tended haughtiness, to pride or plume one's 
self, to boast, to swell, look big, be elated. 

A^^li nds, men, mankind. /-.Ui an nds, man- 
kind, (^^fy^^ (^."^ l5^ (jwUl an ndsu uilu' 
d'mi niulukihim, men (follow or make a pro- 
fession) according to the religion of their 

p jL; li nd sdz, inharmonious, dissonant, dis- 

r il) ;L. li nd sazffdr, uncongenial. 

p ^/«L-j li nd sipds, ungrateful, unthankful. 

pILj li nd sazd,unworthy,improper, unbecoming. 

p i^.tj-j li nd sazdwdr, uncongenial, ungenial. 

p (_/^ l-J li nd sazdi, unworthy. 

p ,^U-j li nd sazds-e, an unworthy personage. 

A iJ^Aj ndshirat (pi. c:-5|-lli ndshirdt), brisk, 
fresh, blowing, blustering (wind). 

p ^.j:^s>~\:^ li nd shindhht, unknown, without 

A j^li ndsih, monitor, faithful adviser. 
kj^\j ndsir, defender, assistant, hilper. 


( 114 ) 


p A ^\ya U wd scncdb, not right, vain, false. 
A <i^\j nusiyat, forelocks, pendulous ringlets ; 

front, appearance, bearing. 
Aj^U nutur, gardener, watcher, keeper of a 

vineyard or palm-plantation. ^^ .^Ll^^ 

«Jt« wa 'n ndtur ghair mdni^, and the 
keeper not preventing. 

A iil) ndzi'r (p pi. i^^J^^ ndzirdn), looker, 
viewer, inspector, spectator, beholder. 

p L_ilj ndf, the navel. 

A iJlj M(I/?2, penetrating, piercing ; valid, ope- 
rative, effective, received, obeyed. 

p (*^ji ^ ndfarjdm, unpropitious, unhappy. 

p ^L^ \j nafarmdn, disobedient, uncomply- 
ing, stubborn, refractory. 

A j_il) ndfi^, profitable, advantageous, salutary, 
useful. ^liJ hi ndfi:^, of any use. 

A f^jai\j ndkis, deficient, defective; diminished, 

impaired. Jilt ^^J^ ndhisi ^alcl, deficient 
in understanding, unintellectual, dull. 

p^t^^li wa karda7i,noiiom?i\.Q; the non-making. 
p Si^J, \j nd karda, unfinished, undone. 

r 1^ \j nd leas, mean, base, vile, worthless ; 

a nobody, 
p ili^ U nd gdh, suddenly, unexpectedly, all at 

once, on a sudden. 

p i^yii^ U ndguftan, not to speak; not speaking, 

p i^\j nugah, suddenly, ^j^^^ ndgaJie, on a 

sudden, unexpectedly. 
p (jiJlj ndlish, complaint, lamentation. 

p tijl) ndla, complaint, moan, lamentation, 
p jo»^^ ndlldan, to complain, lament, bemoan, 

p /t\j nam, name ; fame, character, reputation. 

^jy ^\ 


»l) ndmat, thy name. 
nihudan, to name, to call, 
p A c_> v*.s"* U nd mahhuh, unloved, disliked. 

VA ^S\y* li nd murddi, unpleasantness, dis- 

agroeablcncss, disappointment. 
p /♦*><* li nd mardum (pi. ^^J>^dy \j nd mar- 

dumdn, not human, inhuman, barbarous; base, 

ignoble, vile. 

PA iXcw« U nd nmsd^id, unfavourable, unpro- 

p A (Sx:iMj^ u na miista^ tdd, unapt, inept, inca- 
pable, unready. 

PA (♦vJt^ w nd murium, unknown. 

p A J^^* U nd miuauwal, not to be trusted, 

not trustworthy, unsound. 
PAjJ^jJL* I) nd OTrtMu^, unaccepted, unwelcome. 

pal_->«jU-^ U nd />nmas/5, unfitting, improper, 

P jy*^ ndmvar, famous, celebrated, noted, re- 
nowned, notorious. 
PAj_j^ ]y» \j nd »««MZM»,discordant,inharmonious. 

p . w-^li ndmus, reputation, character, fame, 

honour, credit, esteem, 
p ^IjU j a\j ndm u nishdn, name and trace, 
p it*lj nama, writing, letter, record, book, 
p ,<^lj ndml, illustrious, renowned, famed, 
p jjl) nun (but by Persians usually pronounced 

nun), bread ; loaf. ^^ ^Ij ndni tihl, dry 

bread. Lbj ^Ij «am'r«5a^, bread given away 
at monasteries to travellers, pilgrims, and 

mendicants. u_2Jf^ jjU ndni wakf, bequest 
of bread in charity. 

p iCi\^ li nd nihdda, not put, not placed, not 

p ijlj ndne, a loaf, a single loaf. 

p Odl) ndvarl, wilt not bring (a contraction 

of (_5^jly naydvarl, from the root ^»-Vl 

dvardan, to bring), 
p jL^Ji I) wa hamrvdr, uneven, unsuitable, dis- 

proportioned, ungainly ; untidy, unruly. 

p i^\j ndi, neck, throat; flute, pipe. 

p (^jlj ^ '*" ydftan, not to find, procure, or 

p JjU ndyad (for J^,ly naydyad), comes not. 

A *jl3 wa»m, sleeping, asleep. *jlJJ /«;'« ndtimi, 

for one asleep, for the sleeping. 

p ^Ij nun, reed, cane ; the throat, neck. 

p ci^'Lj wflJa^, fine sugar, white and refined, 

p ti^-j nahard, war, battle, conflict. JS^a barad,he 

taketh not away, removeth not (root ^Jiji 
hurdaji). Na hurad, he cuts not off". 


( 115 ) 


p \^j^ na larl, thou shouldest not bear or sub- 
mit to (it. (j^ hurdan). 
V \^,J1^ nahisht, writing, inscription, 
p ^J^-iij-^ nabishtan, to write, 
p (C-JL-J nahishta, written, scribbled. 
A j^/aJ nah%, the pulse. 

A iy^ mihuwat, prophecy, prophetical gift or 
office, function or privilege of a prophet. 

p lJ^^ wa bude, would not be. 

A je-J nabiy, prophet. 

p Jki--J na b'lnad, seeth not (rt. ^A.^ti didan). 

p X^ipj na tarsad, he should not fear ; ought 
he not to fear ? (rt. ^^ Ju«y tarsidan). 

p ^y^ na tuwdn, (one) cannot. l:^-j^ ^^J'-' 

na tuwdn rast, one cannot escape, 
p Jkj'4i3 na tuwdnad, cannot. 
p ^j:mJ)\j:^ na tuwdnistan, not to be able. 

Ajlij 7iithur, money, or anything thrown by 
way of largess among the populace on fes- 
tive occasions ; a scattering, showering down. 

A *rsr najm, star. 
p (^^=sr naj'uti, thou seekest not. 
A 1^/=^ naknu, we. 

A. js^nakw, way, path, track. ,^\ an nahw, 

A uJyssT nahiviy, grammatical ; teacher of syn- 
tax,grammarian. U^U^ J*"^,' ^^^^ c:.->.»l.' 
-^ bulltu bi nahwlyin yasulu mu gh dziban 
zalaiya', I am plagued by a grammarian (who) 

worries me in a rage. 

p (»; 

nukJiust, first ; first of all. 

p |^-i*usr miMustln, first ; original, former. 
p Lii^-ww-iiir na Muftast, is not asleep. 

A J«=c^ naMl, palm-tree ; and often, any young 
tree in general. 

A p JkiJ J'^a^ naUd-batid, maker of artificial 

A iiyA.^^ (U-ir^ nakhla^i mahmud, the name of 
a pleasant halting-place on the road to Mrcca, 
three days' journey from the city of Kufah, 
where the pilgrims are wont to rest under 
the palm-trees : whence its name. 

]-:S^ nalyjnli banl hildl, {lit. the 

A J^- ^<-. 

palm groves of the Banl hilal, a tiibe so 
called), a place in Arabia. 

p Jj^ and, are. 

A *1jJ niddi^, voice, call from heaven. 

A <L^\jk"' «fl(?oMa^, repentance, contrition, regret. 

p iJIju na ddni, thou kno west not; knowest not 

thou ? (rt. (^:x«jlt> ddnistan). 

p JjJu ««^flr«i,rendethnot(rt.^J>jjJ(?rtn<7ff«). 

A 'U»Jk3 nxidamd'- (pi. of ^;Ju nadlm), intimate 
friends, boon companions, courtiers. 

V S&Si na dihad, giveth not (rt. ,^^\'^ dddan). 

p iJ*JJJ «« dida>e, hast thou not seen? 

A A-i Ju nadlm (p pi. j^Uj Ju nadimdn), courtier, 
confidant, boon-companion. 

A . JJ nazr, vow, ofiering; gift to a superior. 

A^jJ nazlr, admonisher, monitor; prophet or 
teacher sent to terrify the wicked. Uj J^ na- 
zlran (ace.) Lj JJ ^L«j!l -*jcj 'J>^ kafa' bi 
taghaiyuri '2 zamdni naziran, change of time 
is a sufficient admonisher (similar to the 
phrase b jljfe i^\ ^ii kafa^ alldh hddiyan, 
God is guide enough). 

p L«— y na rasi, thou wilt not arrive. 

p /»y wasr/w, soft, mild, gentle; downy. 

P ic^y narmi, softness, mildness, gentleness. 

A c\y nizd^, quarrel, strife, dispute. 

p Lijj nazd, near, towards, with. 

p CX) JJj nazdlk, near, with. (pi. ,^il^;«.iJJ naz- 

dlkdn), near, adjoining, present. 
vj^yjJJJ nazdiktar, nearer. 

A c jj nazac^, the agonies of death. 

A Jj5p MMsuZ, descending, alighting ; descent. 

A tJJip nuzhat, delight, pleasure. 

A <U*J nisbat, relation, reference, relationship. 

A Ju*J nasuddu, we close up (aor. of Jk«j sadda). 

p ^^j*t*-> nisrln, wild rose. 

A fj.^ nasak, usage, fashion, style, mode, way, 

order, method. 
A ^i.«J nasi, offspring, progeny, race, breed. 
A '^juJ naslj, woven ; garments of fine texture. 


( 116 ) 


A CUliJ nasha-ta, thou hast grown up, 

A. rULJ nashdt, cheerfulness, joyousness, glee, 

p (^lAJ nishdn, sign, mark, trace, characteristic ; 

scar; flag, standard. ^^\'^ ^lAJ nishdn 

dddan, to point out. 
p ^JJl-tL.3 nishdndan, to mark; to cause to sit, 

to seat, to place ; to quench, extinguish, allaj'. 
p <SjLi»J nishdna, mark, aim, butt, target. 
p iX>LiJ na shdijad, is not suited, is improper, 

unfit, unbecoming, suits not, befits not. 
p Lii^A-AJ nishad, he sat ; sitting. 
p ^^:mjmjj nishastan, to sit, squat ; to settle, to 

be fixed ; to be extinguished. 
p ic^jJUJ nishasta, seated; sitting; settled. 

(k^M^jJ nishasta^e, art thou sitting ? 
p ax^uJLj na shanidaie, hast thou not heard ? 
p i_$JijJnashavi, thou wiltnotbecome(rt jj_v.i). 
p c_.wlj nisMb, descent, declivity, slope. 

nishlman, seat, mansion. 
p i^j*JmJ nishin, sit, sit down (imp. of ^^mL)). 
p |»i-»AJ nisMnam, I sit. 
p ^Aj nishlni, thou shouldest sit. 

AP^J^ I -.*aJ nasi kardan, to fix, appoint. 

Aj-^ nasr, victory. JVasara, he succoured, he 

helped, (used optatively) may He render vic- 
torious ! (In the text, this word has been, 
by mistake, printed nassara.) 

A ^j\j^ IJasrdniy, Nazarene, Christian. 

A <isa>.2J naslliat, advice, counsel, admonition, 

A V f^:L~^:^^'i nasihatgar, counsellor, adviser. 

A Aikj nutfat, seed, sperma hominis. 

A ^_^ nutlc, speech, articulation. 

A c-.-'-iaJ nutibu, we find sweet (aor. of k-_.'\l?l 
atdba, 4th form of the rt. tuba, concave 
^ ye). ^--»kj nutlbuha, we find them sweet. 

A Ja3 nazar, sight, look, glance, regard, view, 
attention. AP^iJp iaJ na%ar kardan, toYodk. 

A ^j^ nazare, a look, a glance. 

A iJaJ nazm, verse, poetry. 

A ^ S..^ 

w«zj/(fem. &sJaJ nazifat), pure, clean. 

A l::^x.'> na-.t, description, epithet ; praise. 

A iju na-.rat, shout, crj-, scream. 

A iJujCi na-,sh, bier with a dead body laid upon 

it (when empty it is called J -«j sarlr). 
A (_l*j nad, horse-shoe. 
AP xJxxj na^l-band, smith, farrier. 
AP^^ j^xAaj na^lband-pisar,h\acksmith.'sson. 

A j_^-l^ na^lain (oblique dual), pair of shoes 

with wooden soles ; clogs. 
A **J na^tn, yes, very well. Ni^m (pi. of 

iUjt3 nicmat), good things. 

A iUjtJ ni-.mat, blessing, favour, grace, bounty; 
prosperity, riches, wealth, opulence, good 

things; tendernes?,delicacy; liberality, pa .S 

^ii^xj jSi\ gar andar nionati, if (thou) art 

in affluence. 

A ^c"'*^^ niitnate, a single favour. 

A AuU J^xj na^zu bi Hldh, let us fly to God ! 

God help lis ! heaven forefend ! (a depreca- 
tory formula). 

A u— v*it) na<^b, croaking, croak. 

A ^_»-jeJ nauk, croaking, croak. 

A *-jeJ na<jj.m, affluence, anything good which 

we enjoy; pleasure, delights, 
p jA3 na gh z, beautiful, good, 
p JjAj na gJi ztar. more agreeable. 

p iUjii naghma, soft, sweet musical sound, me- 

A jjlij nifak, hypocrisy, dissimulation. 

A 'ijii nafrat, abomination, aversion, disgust ; 
fright, alarm, terror. 

A ^juM nafs, soul, spirit ; self, person ; carnal 
desire, carnality. iJC»\ ^jjJii nafsi amnidra, 
imperious lust, concupiscence. Nafas, breath, 
breathings; talk; moment. aPj^J.^I J ^/*»AJ 
nafas bar dvardan, to give utterance. 

A PjtJ ij*>.sj »«/s-^«rM;fl!r,self-indulgent,8elfish; 

eftbminate, luxurious. 
A CS-mJu nafsiika, thyself, thy soul. 
A awouij nafsihi, (from) himself. 
A ^jmJu nafase, a single breath, one breath, a 



ir' L^' 

ij nafase sard, a cold sigh. 


(117 ) 


A kij naft or nift, naphtha, bitumen, liquid 

AFj^jJ^ kij naft-andd%, maker of fireworks. 
A p ^IwVJI ki) naft-andazi, the art of making 

or exhibiting fireworks. 
A «_a3 wa/j., gain, profit, advantage, benefit. 

A isJi) nafakat, the necessary expenses for living. 

A p (. i"^ <S^ nafaka kardan, to disburse. 
A 1^ nafur, abhorring, hating; averse, alien. 
A ^Ju nafi, banishment, exile, transportation ; 

"prohibition, negation. 
A^_^-u-iJ nafls, precious; a precious object which 

is received with such eagerness as to stop the 

breath (^^/^' nafas). 
A ipUj nakkdsh, embroiderer ; painter, limner. 
A fc_-JiJ nakb (p pi. l^^ nakhhd), subterraneous 

excavation, digging through a wall, breach. 
A jJiJ nalcd, ready money, coin, small change. 
A ^_^jJij nakde, the money. 
p ijSJ nukra, silver. /t\s- syu nukrat-i Mum, 

virgin silver. 
A ijHsJ naksh, picture, drawing, design ; spot, 

A p jlx) . ^JjjSJ naksh u nigdr, spots and hues, 

paintings and ornaments. 
A fjosi) ndks, defect, deficiency, injury. 
A ^o^"^ nuksdn, loss, injury, defect, deficiency, 

imperfection, diminution, failure. 
A ^JJu nakz, violation of contract, rupture. 
A Ah nakl, transportation, translation, removal, 

migration, ap ^^^S jJaJ nakl kardan, to re- 
move, migrate ; to copy. 
A _'ow' nikdh, marriage. 

a iSj nakhat, adversity, sad reverse. 

A icSj nitktat, subtle or quaint conceit or point ; 

p Ju^ na kunad, makes not (rt. ^i^ kardan). 
p Xj niku, good, beautiful ; well; safeandsounu. 
V jj Jj wjXu-ru, handsome-faced, 
p A Cl-'V— • ^ niku-slrat, virtuous, moral, 
p (♦^y«-' niku-ndm, respectable, respected, 
p ^Jl»>»$o nikuhldan, to despise, slight, blame. 

p ikXJ:>Xi nikuhlda, despised, blamed, scorned, 
spoken ill of; despicable. 

p (^^ nikuil, goodness, kindness, amiability ; 
beauty. ^j->S tij^ nikun kardan, to do good. 

p jUJ nigdr, picture; beloved object, sweet- 
heart; beauty. |^0p .1x3 nigdr kardan, to 
draw, paint, limn, pourtray. 

p Ajl£>-jUj nigdr-khdna, picture- gallery ; the 
house or studio of the celebrated impostor 
Manes, founder of the heretical sect of the 
Manichseans in the early ages of Christianity. 

p ^JiJ^ nigdrln, embellished ; beautiful, fair, 

p ilxJ nigdh, look. ^iJ^^J iuJ nigdh ddshtan, 
to keep, to observe, to watch ; to guard, save, 
preserve. ^•Jti ivvj nigdh kardan, to look, to 
view, to watch. 

p^|ij nigardn (pres.part.), looking, beholding. 

p (^i-jij nigaristan, to behold, look. 

p i^j^^Sj nigaristan, to look, peer, pry. 

p ^csxj na giifta, unsaid, not spoken ; not having 
spoken, as long as one has not spoken. 

p ^Sj nigun, upside down, turned, inverted. 

p c:.^.s^3 Jsi «?yM»-J«M<,unfortunate,ill-fated ; 

unlucky wight. 
p iSJ nigah, sight, j^y:-!^ J <iSJ nigah ddshtan, 

to guard, preserve, keep, save, reserve, hold ; 

to observe, watch. ^'^ ^ nigah kardan, 

to look, jl J &>j nigah ddr, preserve thou, 
p ^ nigln, a ring, especially the seal-ring of 

a prince ; a precious stone set in a ring, 
p *j nam, dew. 

p jtij namdz, prayer ; prayers, especially those 
prescribed by law to be repeated thrice a day. 

p Jjtij «a mdnad, remaineth not; is no more. 
aJJUJ Ma mdndam, I remained not. 

p ^ J Saj namad-zin, coarse woollen saddle- 
cloth ; a saddle stuffed on the upper part to 
prevent the rider being galled. 

A li4J namat, mode, manner, style, fashion, 

strain, way, custom, likeness. 
p lL>-^ namak, salt, 
p (j-.^-«j namakm, salted, salt; seasoned, sa- 


( 118 ) 

I— a^^ 

voury ; sprightly, arch, sparkling, witty ; 
handsome, beautiful. 

A J^ 7iaml, (fern.) ant ; (figur.) whiskers, 

p i^'^y*^ namudan, to show, point out, display, 
evince, manifest, discover; to appear. 

p i^'^y^ tiamude, he was in the habit of dis- 
playing, he was wont to shew. 

p ijy^ namuna, example, pattern, sample, spe- 
cimen; exemplar. 

p c^jCij na7ig, honour, character ; shame, dis- 
grace, dishonour. 

p jcv^ na nihi, thou puttest not (rt. ^^jl^). 

p y nau, new, fresh, recent. 

A ^ft-lJ nawdjd (pi. of <*>*»- 1) ndhiyat), en- 

"virons, parts adjacent. 
p ^^j:J>~\^ nawaMJtan, to soothe, to caress, to 

indulge, or treat with kindness. 

Ajjly nawddir (pi. of is. jU nddirat), rarities, 
rai'e things. 

A. ^y^y) nawdl, present, gift, donative. 

p >i'^j^\ y nau-dvarda, fresh-brought. 

A A.' y naubat, period, time, turn. 

p ^^^ nau-Jaivdn, one just come to adoles- 

A -y Nilh, the patriarch Noah, called by the 
Muhammadans ^^jJLi^\ ^.IShaiMiu'l mur- 
salin, elder of the prophets (those sent). 

p sJl^ J y nau-damida, newly-sprouted (inci- 
pient beard). 

A ly nur, light. 

p ij^Jj^ navardan (or j^Jj J^y navardldan), to 
omit, pass by or over, to neglect. 

p iXf^j y nau-raslda, newly arrived ; new, 
fresh, recent; gei'minating. 

p ',11 y nau-roz, New-year's-day, which, iu the 

Persian Calendar, is the day on which tlie 
sun enters Aries. 

p \^\*) y nau-rozi, suited to or becoming the 

festival of New-year's-day, New-year's. 

p /»i»j nosh, drink, honey, sweets. 

p ij^^J^^ navisht or nivisht, what is written, 

writing, scripture ; written. 
p LJ:.-^A«•J«.lJ3 navisht asf, is written or scribbled. 
p ^J^jJ navishtan, to write. 

r izJ^y navishta, written, inscribed ; writing. 

Pj)j^j>-wy nosh-ddru, treacle; any antidote to 
poison ; an electuary. 

p ^^S^y noshidan, to drink ; to take, swallow. 

p ^^^jJl^y noshlravdn, name of a king of Per- 
sia (Chosroes the first), in whose reign Mu- 
hammad was born; he is often designated by 

the Arabic epithet of J t^U!^ al ca<f<7,the Just, 
p ^jr^y noshln, sweet, pleasant. 
A Cy w«Mc., species, kind, mode, sort. 
A^-isnau-^, a species, a sort, a mode, a manner; 

a new, particular, peculiar, or original manner, 
p ^X^y naumedl or nauinldz, despair. 

A ^y nun, fish, i^y^^ j J zu 'w nun, (lord of 
the fish), a name given to the prophet Jonah ; 
also the name of a certain personage famed 
for piety, who died a.h. 245 (a.d. 860). 

p ij>x«*j »3 nawlsanda, writer. 

p 4} na, not, no, neither, nor. 

p (Sj na^-e, thou art not. 

p ij nih, put, place, lay, lay down (imperat. of 

rt. (^i^^J nihddan). Nuh, nine. 

A ^ly nuhaju, we are excited, we are roused up. 
(iSome copies, and those, perhaps, the best, 

read_l^<j yuhdju, one is agitated or stirred ; 

a rush is made ; both words are the pass. aor. 

of the vb. —\jts hdja, concave i^ ye). 

p iAj^ nihdd, nature, disposition, habit. 

p i^<^^J nihddan, to place, put, set, lay, lay by, 
lay up, layout; to leave, to fix; to wear; to 
set out. 

p iJ)\j^ nihdda, placed, laid, set, fixed ; having 
placed ; hath placed. 

p (^L(P nihdn, hid, hidden, concealed ; secret, 
occult, latent, clandestine. 

p j^yi.i^J i^ly nihdn ddshtan, to keep secret, 
p ci^J nihdnl, secret, hidden, concealed, pri- 
vate, privy, clandestine. 

p >^J}\^ nihdvand (or nuhdvand), name of a city 
in Persian Irak. 

A <i)^jj nihdyat, end, extremity, ne plus ultra. 

kj^ nahr, river, rivulet, rill. 

p <j:^SL,^J nihuft, he concealed ; secrecy, secret. 

p ^J'*\J nihuftan, to hide, conceal. 

( 119 ) 


F dzJi^^ nihufta, hidden, latent, concealed ; se- 

A ^J^j nahalca, he brayed (3 per. sing, pret.) 

p t^S^ nahang (by some nihang), crocodile, 

alligator; shark. 
A ^Y^ nahy, prohibition, a p ^^'^S ^^ nahy 

"kardan, to forbid, prohibit. 
p t-^^J nahlh, terror, fear, 
p iS nai, reed, cane ; flute, pipe. 
A tj n'l, me (affixed to verbs), 
p X.t\j\^ naydrdmad, (he) will not rest (root 

^S^\j\ drdmidan). 
p Jk-»,«^lj 7iaydru»nd,he rested not(rt. ^^>^^ 1 1 • 

Obs. the first of the two ] alifs has been changed 

to ^> ye, after ^^ was by a rule of grammar). 
pJjLj wayarflf?, will not bring(rt.j^J^l dvardan). 

JiLj J har naydrad, raiseth not. 
p ^^iLj naydzdrad, he torments not. 
p tj^ULj naydzdri, thou afflictestnot, torment- 

est not, grievest not (rt. ^j'^M\ dzdrdan). 
p /nijj^Ji naydzardam'^ 1 tormented not (here 

the first \ alif of the root i^<J)j \ dzardan has 

been changed to ,^ ye after ^ no). 
p Jw«;Lj niydzmand, indigent, 
p sJj^'iLj naydzrnuda, not experienced, 
p JoLiLj w<7?/asayflc?,isnotrefreRhed (rt. ij^^y^ \ ) ■ 
p ^iJj-;Lj naydsude, he would not rest. 
p c;:^lj naydft, he found not. 
A jjLj niydk (pi. of aLiU ndkat), she-camels. 

bLj niydkan (ace.) 
p /»IJ niydm, sheath, scabbard, case. 
p Jl.^Lj naydmad, came not(rt. ^X«l dmadan). 
p ij:,^s>-y\^' naydmoMt, hath not learned (rt. 

^^jXsi^y*] dmokhtan). 
p ^_f J;jLj naydvardl, thou hast not brought (rt. 

j^Jyl dvardan). 
p 4_f;j^ naydvarl, thou bringest not. 
p 00 Lj naydyad, comes not(rt. jjJ^^T dmadan). 
V ^JL) naydil, thou comest not (rt. ^X*T ). 

A <UJ w?yfl< (also <UJ niyat), design, purpose, in- 
tention ; will-worship. 

p <^ r^ nayarzad, is not worth (rt. j^^^Jj' <"''" 

zldan. Here the 1 a??/ has been changed to 

^_S ye after ^ wa). 
Pj^ nlru, strength. 

p j-j wi2, also, likewise, too ; even ; again, 
p iLo neza, spear, lance, javelin, 
p jb ^j-i neza-bdz, spearman, lancer, tUter. 
p ci^Au-J mst, is not, consists not. 
p jc^iAu^^ wzs^z, (thou) art not ; destitution. 
p (ji-J msh, sting. ^Jj (ji.-j «i«A zadan, to 

sting, to strike with the sting. 
pjju^ nai-shakar, sugar-cane, 
p ScJui nayuftdd, did not fall out, happen, or 

occur (rt. jj<^^^ uftddan). 
p ^ jJ \uJuJ nayafshdndl, thou scatteredst not. 
p (Jl*ui-J nayafshdni, thou scatterest not. 
p ^ixa-J nayafganl, thou castest not away, 
p (Jjv-j nek (pi. ^jl^ we^aw), good, beautiful ; 

well; very; very well. ^2-2j^J <— ^ w^^' 
ddsJitan, to treat kindly, to do good. 
p /»l^l '— ^r^ nek-anjdm, of happy end. 

PCi-<saCj nek-bakht {■p\.^^\::JsXLo nek-laldiidn) 
fortunate, happy. 

(J.XJ nek-lakhtl, good fortune. 

benevolent, well-wisher. 

p icSj tiXy nek-rafta (pi. (^^><2J^ '■^-^ ^^^■" 
raftagdn), well-departed; one who, in dying, 
has left a good name behind him. 

pjjj t^-^ nek-roz, happy. 

p ^\sr\ j^ ^^-^ nek-sar-anj'dtn, ending well; 

having a happy issue ; thoroughly provided, 

well furnished. 

p (♦^-Ji lilXJ nek-farjdm, of happy end. 
p -si.s'*LLCj«e^--»2aAzar,good-natured,amiable. 
P >^y* CS^ nek-mard, good man. 
P t^^V* "--^^ nek-mardi, kindness, goodness, 

p >lj t-^ry nek-ndm, of good report, fair-famed, 
p »Ly neku (pi. j^^J^^ nekuwdn) good ; well, 
p Jj ^ '-^-^ «^^ « ^"''^j good and bad. 
p i^}j Xjj neku-ravish, moral, well-behaved. 


( 120 ) 


p *lj Xj nehu-num, of good repute, having a 

good name. 
p ;_?}^ nehuvl., goodness. 
p j^y^-j neTciiii, goodness, kindness, 
p jJ>.^i nehi, goodness, virtue ; good. 

p J-J ml, indigo ; a blue stroke which they 
are accustomed to draw upon the house-door 
of anyone deceased ; hence, mourning ; the 
river Nile. 

p *-J nim, half. 

p ^1^^ *-J nim-khwurd,\\dli-ea.iexi ; half-drunk. 

p !i^jy>- *^ nim-Jchwurda, half -eaten; half- 
drunk ; leavings. 

p j • ( *-J nlm-roz, noon, mid-day; the province 
of Sistan. 

p -j-j *J nim-ser, half-full. 

p t_^^ >»-J ntm-shah, midnight. 

p ^r^\jc>-J nayanduJJite,h.e would not throw, 
he would not have thrown (rt. j^j:x^ljj'l ). 

p ^::-^ri-^Ja-J nayandolcht, (he) gained not, ac- 
quired not (rt. i^'ijs-^jjl andolihtan). 

V ^Ju-i»-j niyushidan, to listen. 

p (^-AJ nann, made of reeds ; reedy. 

Lv ^ wa (and sometimes in Persian m), and; 

still, yet ; for. 
v\^ wa, again, re (a prefix). 

A <u31 ^-^y ^ J w* atuhu ilaihi, and I turn by re- 
pentance unto Him. 

A fj}i\j wdthik, confiding, confident, assured, 

A (..-v?-^. wujih, necessary, due, obligatory, in- 
cumbent; expedient, proper. 

A (jf=f-^j wajill (or ^^^^\^_ hi wajihl), neces- 
sary, expedient, proper, deserved. 

A i^S\j tvddl, valley, vale, dell, dale ; river. 

A i>^J^} wdrith (p pi. ^J^J^^ wdrithdn), heir, 

p (j;^*\j wdzhun, inverted, topsy-turvy. 
V c^at^ \jij^i wdzhun-haMt, unfortunate. 

A k-j^j TFdsit, name of a city lying midway 
between Kufah and Basrah on the Tigris, 
built A.H. 83, by Hajjaj bin Yusuf. 

A i_jLtflj wdsif (p pi. ^[La\j wdsifdn), praisers ; 

A k ^\ ^ tea Hlub, and ask thou. 

A lii^j wd<^% (ppl. ^^\^ wdcizdn), preacher. 

A^ilj wdjlr, abundant, amj)le, exuberant, full, 

plentiful, plenteous. 
A (S.xi\j, accident, incident, occurrence, 

event; battle, encounter,conflict; catastrophe, 


A ^^\j wdliitjid (p pl.of ^Ij M'a^-j^fl^), eventu- 
alities, events. 
APiJuJ <)JtJf^j «;dKc.a-(?i(?a, (man) of experience, 
A L_flilj todkif, apprized, aware, informed, 
p i!|^ wdld, high, exalted. 

A ^1 J wa ilia, and if not, otherwise. 

p J^lj wdldtar, higher. 

k M\ t wa 'lluk, by heaven ! 

k ii\\ ^ tva dlihi, and (on) his oS'spring. 

p ^^j wdm, debt, loan, j^i"^^ J /♦^j warn dddan, 
to grant a loan, to lend. 

p j^Jw'L* '. wd mdjidan, to remain behind, to lag. 

p ,<^\j wdrne, a loan. 

k ^ ^ wa in, and if, although, albeit. 

A cuo^ J wa anta, and thou. 

A ci-^A^ ^^ J wa in ji^ta, and though thou 
earnest (or comest). 

p iuJlj w'' dngdh, and then ; and then ! 

A UJ' ^ J wd innamd, and surely, and indeed, and 

k &j\ J wa innahu, and certainly it (is). 

A *\5>-j wajd, rapture, ecstacy ; fervent love. 

A «->^^ wujud, existence ; body, person, indi- 
vidual. paJ^=;-j b bu tivy u(?,notwithstanding. 

A j_5w^^j ivujude, an existence. 

A ij>-j wajh, face ; mode, manner, cause, reason ; 

supply, means. i jUi &s>-^ wajhi kafdf, 

sufficiency of provisions. 

A i Jo-j wahdat, solitude, singleness, unity. 

A {^Jus-^^ toahsh, wild beast. 


( 121 ) 


A iLlws-j ivahshat, fear, dread, horror, sadness, 
gloom, dumps; dreariness, dismalness; fero- 
city, savageaess, fierceness; asperity, aversion. 

A jjis-j wahal, mire, black adhesive clay. 

A S^^% tcahidjSin^G, separated, detached, apart. 

A t>ij. ividud, love, affection. LsJ^J. ^flwi- 
dudihu, for (my) love to her. 

A clj^ widdi, farewell, adieu, good bye. 

p (^ war, if; and if; even if; although; since- 
A 'ijj wards-, beyond, without, besides, except. 
A J ,^ ward, rose ; leaf or petal of a flower. 
P^J>-;jjjt<;a?-zz<?a?j, to practice, cultivate, perform. 

p ^^jj warash (for ij^ y^ j '^O' c^gftf ash), and 
if it. 

A ^UTjij wartat, labyrinth, maze ; precipice, or 
any position which occasions embarrassment. 

A ^jt wurk (pi. of 'Ij !• ivarlcui), brown, dusky- 
coloured (pigeons). Warak, leaf (of a tree 
or paper). 

A ^jj warake, one leaf, a single It-af. 

V ijj% warna (for iJ ^\ ^ wa agar na), and if 

not, otherwise. 
A ojj ward! , men, mortals, 
p J^ waz (for ;\ J via a%), and from. 

A 'l^j^ wuzarat (pi. of J Jj wa%ir), viziers, mi- 
nisters of state. 

A ^Jj wazn, -weight. 

A jJjj wazlr, minister of state, vizier. 

■A u^rljj tvazlrl, rank of vizier, premiership. 

A <U-.^ icus^at, largeness, amplitude, space. 

p <U«-i^ uasma, leaves of woad, or the indigo 
plant used in dyeing. 

A <i-L~;. wasllat, means, medium, intervention; 
whatever wins or conciliates the favour of a 
prince or great man (as a gift or merit). 

A *-~jj n-aslm, marked between the shoulders by 
a hairy wen of the size of a pigeon's egg, as all 
the prophets had been, — Muhammad is be- 
lieved to have been the last so distinguished; 

A JU?^ wisal, meeting, conjunction, interview, 

enjoyment of any beloved object. 
A t_ii-sj wasf, description, praise. 

A J,«s. icasl, union ; enjoyment of the society 
of fi'iends. 

A <Urfj waslyat, will, testament, commandment, 

A 'UJi'^ wazifat, allowance of provisions, stipend. 

A Pj*^ <L8^1jt wazifa-lJuoiir, pensioner. 

A Jl2. wa-.ada, he promised. 

A ijk£. wa^dat, promise, agreement, engage- 
ment ; putting off with a promise, a p isz^ 
^Li\jtcazda dddan, to give a promise ; to put 
off with a promise. 

A lac. wa-.z, admonition, exhortation, sermon, 

A *li. e<;a/at, performance of promises, payment, 
fulfilment; fidelity, good faith, a p ^jJ li. 
tvdfu kardan, to pay, repay, fulfil. 

A ilij wafdt, decease, death, demise, a p c:,jIj^ 
fiJlj wafdt ydftan, to die. 

A p i^jlij icafd-ddr, keeper of good faith. 

AP c-f^^^lij wafd-ddri, keeping of good faith. 

A jjlij icafds-e, good faith. 

A ^j wafk, congruity, proportion. pa^^^.j 

har wafk, in accordance, in conformity, agree- 
ably to. 

A /jj wafa\ he paid. jJj JkXj I ji izd wa^ada 
wafa\ when he has promised, he fulfils. 

A iL>.lJI. wakdhat, impudence, shamelessness, 
effrontery, brazenness. 

A^iljjj wakdr, majesty, dignity, gravity, sedate- 

A e:-^j wakt, time, hour, season, occasion. 

A ^;ii^ waktha (p pi. of a e:^jj wakt), times, 
many times ; ever and anon. 

A ji«, tcakte, a certain time or occasion, ouce 
"upon a time ; some day or other ; at the 
time ; at one time, at another time. 

A JJ t wa kad, and verily. 

A t_iii tvakf, religious legacy, charitable be- 
quest. i-_£J!. ^Jt* mdli wakf, property so be- 

A <-Jyj wukuf, experience, knowledge, infor- 
mation, inkling, scent, a p (.t^^V. i i^* wu- 
kuf ydftan, to get knowledge, scent or wiud. 



( 122 ) 


A J-j^j wahll, set over ; holder of a charge ; pre- 
sident, commissioner, trustee; attorney. 
V ^^^ wagarna, and if not, otherwise. 
A.'i ^ wa Id, and not, neither. 

A 'ii^ wuldt (pi. of ^\^ wall), governors, pre- 
sidents, prefects. 
A I Si J wilddat, birth, procreation. 

A <Jj ^j wildyat, country, territory ; a foreign 

country ; Europe (so called in India). 
A iXl^ v)alad, son. if jJj waladahu, (ace.) his son. 

A ^j wahij eager desire. 

A i^^aj aJ ^ tpa la nuzlkannahum, and verily we 
will make them taste (emphatic aorist of 
jj'ji azdka, 4th form of the root jjl J %dka, 
concave J wdw, with the pron. ♦& 7«M/w,them). 

A Ji ^ wa lau, and if, and though. 

K ^\ ^ ^ wa lau inna, and if in truth. 

A ^^^ wuluj, ingress, entrance. 

p ^^ wale, but, however. 

A /Jj wally, holy man, saint. 

A jjug-J • wa laisa, and there is not ; and not. 

A S^ J^ wall iM,hd, heir-apparent. 

p uJ^Jj wa lek, but. 

p (^XJ^ wa lekin, but, however. 

A p L::,.^/»jt) |Jj wall ni^at, benefactor. 

a\^ ^ wa md, and whatever is. 

A iUA^r^ y^ iM\ (U_s (Ji^, (j.^ ^ «<?« maw ya^a- 

wakkal ^ala" Hluhi fahwa hasbuhu, and whoso 
trusteth in God, (He) ia sufficient for him. 
A ^sT J wa nahnu, and we. 

A (S^^\ j^ J wa nasara a^dmahu, and aid his 

banners ! 
A *j wuh, ah ! alas ! 

A t_-'uiij wahhub, great and bounteous giver. 

<__;ljb«l^ aZ wahhub, the Giver, i.e. God. 

A fjjb ^ vm hal, and how ? 

A jfibj wahm, surmise, suspicion, apprehension ; 
fear, anxiety ; mind, imagination. 

A yi) J wahuwa (to be pronounced wflAM'«),andhe. 

p o3 vai, he, him ; of him, his ; her. ^^ j\ 

a% vai, from him. 
p \j i_Sj i''(ii fd, to him ; him ; his. 
p (jI^Ij werdn, desolate, waste, depopulated, 
p (jJ^ win (for 1^1 J wa !w), and this. 

K a hu (and sometimes hi), him, it; of him; 
his ; its (an affixed pronoun). 

A ls> hd, her ; them, their (affixed pronoun). 

A ^Sjb Jiddi, guide, leader, director, u jIj5> 
hddiyan, (ace.) 

A •^fJ^J^ jj_M^ Hdrun arrashld, Harun the 
Guide (or Guided aright), the fifth Caliph of 
the house of Abbas ; he began his brilliant 
reign a.h. 170, and died at Tus, a.h. 193. 

A (o^^ Sdmdti, name of the favourite of 
Ahasuerus, and the enemy of the Jews ; he 
is represented in the Kur'an as vizier to 

A j^lfc hdn, have a care ! let it not be ! 

A ^la>, terrible, horrible, dreadful. 

A ^-'v«^ hubub, furious blowing of the wind, 
gale, fresh or smart breeze. 

A i r.s^ hijrat, the flight of Muhammad from 
Mecca to Madina which occurred on the 16th 
of July, A.D. 622, and in the reign of the 
caliph Omar was ordered to be considered as 
the Muharamadan aera. 

A t_iAi> hadaf, butt or mark for archers, target. 

A. ^_jS& hady, cattle carried to Mecca to be sa- 

Aijjjfe hadlyat, offering, gift, present (especially 
one offered to superiors). 

A ^jwji) Aasa, this. .IjJuJl \jji hd%d 'I mikddr, 
this quantity. 

T Jb har, every, all, each. 

p i^jj^jib hirds, terror, fear, dread. 

p j^Ju--i|ji hirdsldan, to fear, stand in awe, be 
in dread ; to terrify. 

p ^U& har dn, every. 

p <JioLa> har dn ki, every one who, whosoever. 

V icj\ ji> har dyina (or <U-j| JJ* har dnna), 


( 123 ) 


doubtless, undoubtedly, assuredly, positively; 

by all means, at all events. 
p j<>jlb har bar, every time, each time. 
p i^ ^->* har jd Tci, everyplace that, wherever, 
p Si^Jb harchand, although, 
p iks>-Jb harchi, all that, every thing that, what. 
p (*>^j^ har dam, each moment, every instant. 
Pjjyj) har da, both, tii^^^jj^j -^^ ha har du 

dast, with both the two hands, 
p Jjij jii har roz, every day, daily. 

¥ yi i\Jb harza-ffu, babbler, idle talker. 

p ^^ i \jSb har%a-guH, a prater, a chatterbox 

p y^j^ har su, on all sides, everywhere. 

p ^^^^.Sb har shab, every night. 

p ^ r* har kuju, everywhere; wheresoever, 

tS^ Jb har kird, whomsoever, to whomsoever. 

p i^iJi, har ki, whosoever. 

p i\^ji> har gdh, every time, whenever, i^ i^Jb 
har guh ki, every time that, whensoever. 

p jS^ hargiz, ever, at any time. 

p iCiJb har gah, every time, whenever. 

p i^ i^jb har gah ki, every time, that, when- 

vy»Jb Hurmuz, son of Noshlravan, surnamed 
Tajdar, the Cro^vn- wearer, from his habit of 
appearing at all times with the crown on his 
head, while his predecessors assumed that 
mark of royalty only when administering 
justice, or on special occasions. He was at 
first a mild prince, but before his fall became 
cruel and vindictive. 

A \ji,y^ hurairat (dim. of ijb hirrat), a little 

cat, a kitten. 
p ^^,j^ ^or yake, every single one, each one. 

p^Ua hazdr, thousand. 

p jlj iha> ha%dr bar, a thousand times. 

p \i j^yb hazdr-pd, millepede, scolopendra. 

p ij\j J\yb hazdr ddna, a thousand beads. 

p l::— -jjJjha hazdr-dost, having a thousand 

\jiyt> hizbar (p pi. ^\;:}'^ hizbardn), lion. 

A ^J\Sb hazl, jest. 

p c: -^*" ^ hast, is. 

F *:i**J!> hastain, I am; I was. 

p S u'MMi > hastand, they are. 

p |<2.**JS( hasti, existence, entity ; wealth, riches, 

" property, possessions. 
p ^Ji*^ hush, intelligence. |^:i-ilj fJltJb hush 

ddshtan, to have a care, to mind, take heed, 
p o^viJfe hasht, eight. 
p *i-iJi> hashtum, eighth, 
p ^^j:JiJb hishtan, to leave, quit. 

p j\ .V <*.,.& hush ddr, be careful ! have your wits 

about you ! 
p jUAa hush-gar, shrewd, sensible, intelligent, 

p l::-^ haft, seven, 
p jLia haftdd, seventy. 
p t^^ I ci^i> haft-rang, seven -coloured, 
p ajUsiiAib haftgdna, in sevens ; seven. 
p *X8Jb haftum, seventh, 
p icsJb hafta, week, seven days. 
A Jji hal, perhaps ? does there ? is there ? 
A cJli haldk, perishing, ruin ; destruction ; 

slaughter, death. 

A p 


Cji>: haldk 
-^^Lb haldkat, 

shidaii, to be lost, to perish. 

thy destruction. 
A f\hb Midi, name of a tribe. JiL:^ ^J banl 

hildl, sons of Hilal. 
A tliXa> halaka, (he) perished. 
A o-^^J-a halakta, thou hast perished, 
p (^JuIa hilidan, to neglect, abandon, let alone, 

dismiss, j^^i*^ •ri furo htllddn, to drive 

down, expel, 
p aJS> ham, also, too, even, likewise ; moreover ; 

A *A hum (or htm), they, them (masc). 

A jf& hamm, grief, care, solicitude. 

p l^ hujnd (or ^\^ humdi), phoenix, bird of 
happy omen, which never touches the ground; 
it is imagined that whoever is overshadowed 
by it becomes a king. 


( 124 ) 


A l^ humu (or hmd), both of them (masc). 

r ^^{^ hamun, always, all the same, thus, ex- 
actly so, same, self-same. 

p Ult* hamanu, certainly, assuredly; again, as 
before; alike; immediately. i^\j\^hamdnu 

ki, at the same time that, even supposing 
that; although. 

p ij jjl^ hamdn-lih, always better. 

p 1^^;^ A?<»id«/uw, august, royal, imperial; for- 
tunate, happy. 

A <Uoi> himmat, resolution, spirit, magnanimity, 
courage, largeness of soul ; mind, attention, 
endeavour, care, thought ; auspices, favour, 
grace, blessing, a p ^:.^\^s>- L::^'♦J^ himmat 
Jihwusfan, to ask a blessing. 

p (o^^ hamclmnun, all the while, still, yet, 
in that manner, thus, in like manner, in the 
same manner. 

p f^j^sy hamchunln, in this manner; likewise. 

p »js*^ hamchu, like, such as, even as, all the 
same as. 

r i^^ys^ ham-ldiwuha, bed-fellow, spouse, 
p i^^ Hamadan, name of a town of Persia, 

the province of Iraki Ajami. 
pJiJ *Jb 7iam-<?flr(?,fellow-suffcrer,sympathetic. 
p lJ^^"^ (»^ ham darde, a fellow-sufferer. 

p aJl^ ham-dam, (breathing together) intimate 
companion or friend. 

p i^\j>^ v^ ham-dawun, running together. 

V i\j^ ham-ruh, fellow-traveller; along with, 
in company with. 

p i-^ ham-rah, fellow-traveller. 

p <);jU**^ ham-suya, (same shade) neighbour. 

^J1jJ_^j^ tULu.^ ham-suyas-e daricesh, a poor 


V jjj^ ham-sar, (same head), equal, associate; 

PA j^jl^t^ ham-^ndn, (with equal reins), rider 

side by side ; companion, friend, 
p A Jiii^/<«jw-^*«<:?rtm (fellow-stepping), companion, 
p A ^JJJii jjb ham-kafas, cage-fellow. 

p ^^^^ ham-kun (pi. ^J^:-^ ham-kundn), fellow- 

labourei", fellow-worker, companion, 
p jo^-^*^ hamgindn, all ; a company ; equals. 

^. — ^ ham-nishln (or o^amAx^ ham-nishast) 
one who sits with another, companion. 
p &^ hama, all, every one, the whole, everything. 
v\s^ &^ hama jd, everywhere, all places. 6^ 

i^::—-^' \^ hama jd ast, is everywhere. 
p 1 1 4^ hama rd, to all. 

p ^^ haml, a redundant particle prefixed to 
Persian tenses, especially to the present and 
p *j\S^ haml duram, I have, 
p jjijj*-^ hami.dun,XiOVf; always; in this manner, 
p <U1l--^ hamesha, always, invariably. 

p ^j^ hamin, only; merely this (or these) ; the 
same, neither more nor less; in the same 

A p XJi) Hind, India. 

p »(\:jj> hindu, a Hindoo. 

p ^^c^tSuib Rindustdn, the country of the 

Hindu people, Hindostan. 
p (^.JO hinduie, a certain Hindoo. 

p i^X>Jb Hindi, Indian. 

p J.i) hunar, skill, science, ingenuity, art, tact, 
knack; virtue, mei it, excellence, accomplish- 

p Jl:.^-J^ hunarmand (or ...ijb hunarwar), skil- 
ful, scientific. 

p ^[^ji^Ib hunar-numdi, merit-displaying. 

p i^jtJ^ hunarwari, eminence in art, skill, or 

p Cjiy^ hunare, a single merit, a solitary virtue 
or excellence. 

p *lxiJfc hangdm, time, hour, season, moment. 

p L::_^ix:Ji hanguft, thick, dense, coarse, stout ; 

cloth of a firm texture. 
A Jyjs hunud (pi. of J^x* hind), Indians. 

p J):J^ hanoz, yet, still, hitherto. 

A ^yo^ hanii^, agreeable, wholesome, pleasant, 

light, easy of digestion. 
Ay^ huwa, he ; He is (a name of God). 

A*l«i> hatfdt, air, atmosphere, the space between 
heaven and earth ; anything empty, a p ^^ 
^ik-v hawd pukhfan, to concoct a vain fancy. 


( 125 ) 

fjM^ ^ lyS) hawa wa hawas, concupiscence, 
lust, sensuality, sensual indulgence. 
A p ii.::..wy \^ haicd-parast, sensualist. 

A p ^^ J ^ »A hatcd-paraste, a sensualist. 

A ^jlys hawudij (pi. of ^t^*^ haudaj), camel- 
litters. ^,:>-jL& ^ ft Tiawddijaha, in ih.eiv 

A p fjljj\^ hawdyash, the air of it, its climate. 

^^J\y& hawd^e, a new conceit, a fresh whim. 

Pj»Ji> hor, the sun. 

A {jM^ hawas, desire, lust, concupiscence. 

A P i^V u^y* hawas-hdze, a voluptuary. 

A jc-=yi> hawase, a whim, a desire, a lust, a sen- 
"sual scheme, some new caprice. 

p 1^''^ hosh, understanding, sense, judgment, 
prudence, intelligence; shrewdness. ^Vi> 
i^,:;-i>\j hosh ddshtan, to heed, mind, pay at- 
tention, be careful. 

p JJw+wlyi hoshmand, intelligent, sensible, sa- 
gacious; cautious, wary. 

p ^X-AJ^%i> hoshmandl, intelligence, sagacity. 

p .LJi»Ji) hosh-rjdr, sensible, endued with a 

sound understanding. 
A Jyi> haul, terror, di'cad; horrible. 

A p cJU!y& haulndh, terrible, dreadful ; dan- 
gerous, perilous. 
p ^ J»J jA huicaidd, clear, evident, conspicuous. 

A i Ljj> hais-at, face, aspect, appearance ; exte- 
rior form, guise. 

A <U-Jb haihat, fear ; respect, reverence, awe ; 
awfulness, gravity, niiijesty, dignity. 

p ,^^Jb hech, at all, anything, aught, some, any. 

p c:_-vsaj& hechat, any to thee. 

A l^Jb haikale, a figure ; such a form ! 

A ^^lyyii haiyuldniy, material. 

A luI^^ haihat, begone ! away ! beware ! 

r ^.*Jlsi:jb Jiech has, a person of nothing worth, 

nonentity of a person. 
p A ^<^j ^«^ hech wakte, at any time, ever, 
p J-^_, -iva> hech yak, anyone, 
p *J-Ji hetam, wood, timber, stick, firewood. 

p ^JL^ I* J-J^ hezam-kash, a carrier of faggots for 

fuel ; breedbate, mischief-maker. 
A J^Cj!) haikal, figure, image, stature, shape. 

A t_> !, me, my (aflSx. pron. added to nouns), 

p u yd, or, either. 

A L; yd, ! (governs the nom. or accus.) 

p ^-^V. V"'^' ^^^ (imperat. of j^^V. V^ftc^'i^) > 
(in comp.) finding, obtaining. 

A AiJ Ij yd hinaiya\ my darling boy ! 

p <Ju ydd, memory, remembrance, recollection. 
j^Jk-^1 j!\\yud dmadan, to come into memory, 
to recur to one's recollection. |^*^^T jli ydd 
dvardan, to call to remembrance. ^J:Ji^<^ jb 
ydd ddshtan, to remember, recollect. 

V j\i ydr (pi. ^ lb ydrd7i), helper, ally ; asso- 
ciate, companion, comrade ; lover (occurring 
in certain words such as jb -^^ shahr-ydr, 
jL-i)yi> hosh-ydr, and a few others). 

p \^b yard, power; boldness, courage. <J^J^. 
^b.ii ydrdyi-guftdr, boldness of speech, daring 
to talk. 

A < >j b yd rahh, Lord ! 

p ^ lb ydri, fi'iendship ; aid, help, assistance ; 
fellowship, companionship. Ydre, a friend; 
a lover ; a fresh lover, a new lover. 

I ^ U^ V. y^^^y despair. 

p (^-;b ydsmin, jasmine. 
' r »J ^.^'♦>— -b ydsmin-bu, sweet-scented as the 
jasmine, ^ty ,j^-*-:b ydsmin-hun, (thou) art 
j as sweet as the jasmine. 
' p (.t^iib ydftan, to find, obtain, gain, get, attain, 
i experience. 
I p ,c^b ydfte, he had found or obtained. 

' ^ ^/b"^ **^V. yfifa-dardi, idle talker. 

A ^.^.cs:*^ b yd li 'I ^ajal, wonderful! strange! 

A ci-'-j b yd laita, Oh I wish ! Oh would that ! 

I A ^^Ls^^ jjuot^ b yd matsharu 'I khulldn, as- 
sembly of friends! friendly circle! 


( 126 ) 


A 1^ \j yd man, thou who ! 
A «_)l» yani^, ripe, mature. «_3u -4^^ at tamr 
ydni^, the dates ripe. 

p t_jijV. y«*^'*^^> aid. (j;*^ t-^^V. y^^^^ ^■^^" 

rfffn, to befriend, help, aid, assist. 
A (jikla-j yahtiishu, he waxes strong, becomes 

violent (aor. of the rt. {J^_ ). j^^V lA'^t^! 
yahtushu hPlfirar, he will be valiant in flight. 
A ij-llsl) yataMxishami, he is rough (morally 
or physically), aor. of ^jJj,\sr takhdshana, 
6th form of the rt. 

. t'l-'iO J* - < 

A 'f^J^, yatarashshahu, exudes or exudates (aor. 

of ^Ji tarashshaha, 5th form of the rt. f^j)- 

A u_cl?i::j yatalutafu, he is smooth ; he becomes 
courteous, gentle, and gracious (aor. of i«_al?ib" 
talutafa, 6th form of the rt. e-iLJ ). 

A J^yiJ yatawakkalu,\xxxsi?,,Te\ies, confides (aor. 

of (Ji jJ tawahkala, 5th form of the rt. ij.>j). 

A *-:l) yatlm, orphan, pupil, ward ; unique, rare, 

incomparable. (>fH.j'^ durri yatlm, a rare 

k ^^■^_yajlu, he makes clear ; (it) becomes clear 

(aor. of the rt. \^ defective j iodic). 
A ^_^^aEC yiihibbu, he loves or befriends (aor. of 

c_-.%-w^ ahabba, 4th form of the rt. *«.-%»-). 
A c.l^A2sr yuhaddithu, converses, discourses (aor. 

of i-iJ Jo- ^rt(?(?fl^/j«, 2ud form of the rt. tl.; J*^>- ) . 

^ijAasT yuhaddithuni, he will converse with 
me, he discourses with me. 
A J-4^ yahmilu, bears, carries (aor. of the rt. 

,J,^«.«w). (Jj3.^^ yahmiluka, (it) will support 

A ^.>ar; Yahja\ John , St. John the Baptist, 

p J^ yakh, ice. 

p Ai**j ^yakh-basta, ice-bound, frozen. 

A Jo yad, the hand. iJ-s-j -V, yadi sufld , the 
lower or inferior hand, the hand that re- 
ceives. Lie Jkj yadi ^lya\ the upper or 
superior hand, the hand that gives. 

A ^jJ J^. yadaini (obi. of j_j^Jo yaddni, dual of 

Jkj ya</), both hands. <U Jo ^j-j Jrt<"«fl yadaihi, 
between his hands, meaning, in his presence 
or before his face. 
A J yara, he sees (gezmate of ^j yara\ aor. of 

the Ti.^_s\J ra^a'). u«4j Ijv J^ <^ lamyaraha 

yauman, ah ! he has not seen her any day. 
A tj-'i^j^, yurdfiku, he travels in company with, 

he accompanies ; he helps, he affords aid (aor. 

of fj.i\j rdfaka, 3rd form of the rt. fjij)- 
jJiijj yurdfikuni, accompanies me. 
A (^*xp-v yarja^na, they return or will return 

(aor. of the rt. «_:>-j). 
A j-V yarfa-ju, (he) raises (aor. of the rt. •j-i i). 

j-jj fj*tJi laisa yarfa-ju, he raises not. 
A ^iv y<ira\ (a contraction of t/V yarta\ aor. 

of the rt. ^\j ra^cC), he sees, he looks on. 
A J»L» yazulu, departs, declines, decays (aor. of 

the rt. ly^j zdla, concave j wdw). 
A ^Jir.*>..t yastakimu, is correct, right, proper, 

just, consistent, or equitable; stands, remains 

(aor. of /»lib-jl istakdma, 10th form of the rt. 

*li, concave J wdw). 

A I -wj yusran (ace. governed by the particle ^i 

inna), ease, facility. 
A j--w»J yasa-ju, is large, ample ; holds, contains ; 

is able or equal to (aor. of the root j—:^)- 
j»jt*AU yasa-jum, equals me; can hold me. 
A , tfi**^; yaski, he presents liquor (aor. of the 

verb (<ii«-5 saka" , a defective verb). 
A J-«*J yaslamu, he is safe, he escapes (aor. of 

the rt. («i~')- (^^. u**^ Idiso, yaslamu, he is 
not safe. 
A j-:^u*j yxisighu, allows to flow gently down the 

throat; hence, allays, quenches (aor. of vLjI 
asd gh a. 4th form of the verb iLs, concave j). 
JL'o.^M.t ynslghichu, quenches it. 
A J^~2;; yasulu, attacks, makes an assault (aor. 
of the verb JL? sdla, concave ^ icdtc). J^-^sJ 
LiisJ yasulu hatshan, will attack furiously. 


( 127 ) 


kw^JiU^ ^Is- ^}y^\ yasulu cala' I Icalhi, will 
rush upon the dog. 
A iaj yatir (gezmate of -iaj yattru, aor. of the 

verb jlL tar a, he fled, he flew, concave ^\ 
A (tfilaj yutfitu, he extinguishes or quenches 

(aor. of ULl fl^/ajfl!,4th form of the rt. y^). 
A *ixj yadamu, he knoweth or shall know (aor. 

of the verb Jlc ). 
A i<^, y^c^wf , he means ; it signifies (aor. of the 

rt.^ii ) ; hence, videlicet, that is to say, to wit. 

A ^*J yughlalcu, will be shut (aor. pass, of the 

rt. jU). 
V L*x) ya gh md, prey, booty, spoil, plunder j name 

of a city in Turkistan, celebrated for the 

beauty of its inhabitants. 

Pj^U^; yaghmun, native of the city of Yaghma. 

A ^_^^, yughnl, enables to do without and to 
dispense with ; renders independent or rich 
(aor. of i<^^ aghna\ 4th form of the rt. ^ii ). 

^JC■ C^J ^^. yughmhizdlika ^aw, that will 

enable him to dispense with. 
A tj^/^i ya/tari, he invents a lie, charges falsely 

(aor. of^5^! iffara', Sth form of the rt.^c^). 
A J lib yukalu, is said, will be said (aor. pass. 

of the rt. Jli, concave j wdw). 
A ^y-Jb yalcbilu, they accept (gezmate of ^^^, 

yakhiluna, aor. of the rt. J-J ). 
A (j-ij yakln, certain, sure, true. 

p lLX; yak, one ; an ace. uJo a;^ sih yak, 

three aces. 
A CXi ya^M (a contraction of ^^ yakun, gez- 

mated aorist of the rt. ^l^), as f»^-*ijo JjO J 

/flw yaXw yanfaiuhum, it availed them not. 
A jlC) yakudu, it wants but little ; sometimes it 

is pleonastic, as in the phrase <U-u«j jUj i! ta 

yakudu yusighuhu, (he) does not allay (or 
quench) it. 

p ^J^, iJ^. yO'kan yakun, one by one. 

P^V^. yak bar, one time, once, one day, some 

p i.b C-xj ya« iara, wholly, entirely, 
p (^l:X) yaktush, name of a celebrated athlete. 
p ^^i^ yak-dil, single-hearted, faithful, sincere, 
p (♦ J^. yak dam, one instant, one moment, 
p <ii (♦'^, y«^ dam ki, the moment that. 

p ijjk^ yak-digar {ox ^^^ yak-digar), one 

p i^Vj^. yak-zahun, of one tongue, speaking 

the same thing, univocal, unanimous, 
p ^l**»0 yak-sdn, same, ditto, alike, equal. 
A c_^*u^_ yaksihu, gains, acquires (aor. of the 

root ^^*u^ ). 
p M*X) yfl^ SM, one side, aside. u^^J y^, 

yak su nihddan, to lay aside. 
A (^^^. yakunu, becomes (aor. of the rt. jjO 

kuna, concave • wdw, governing the accus.). 
p jJo yaki, unity, oneness. Yake, one, a single 

one, any one, a certain one, an individual; 

the one. Jjj ^ij yake roz, one day, some 


p <Ul>j ya^awa (originally ^^ lL>^_ yak guna), 
one, sole, single; unrivalled, unequalled; 

A ^j^iA^. yaltajifna, they pay attention, they give 

heed (aor. fem. 8th form of the rt. c:^ ). 

A (Jsi.. yalhaku, adheres to, reaches, overtakes 

(aor. of the verb ^j^). ^jJi^-- yalhakunl, 
adheres to me. 

A uL yalmizu, defames, calumniates, accuses, 
reproaches (aor. of the rt. u] ). 

A <jUj yamani, produced in Yam an. 

A j.L^sT*:'. yumajjisdni, they make a Magian, 
they heathenize (aor. du. of ^^/-*s^ majjasa, 
a root coined from the word ij*>ys:^ majus, 
Magi, fire- worshipper).*:'. yumajji- 
sunihi, they (both) make him a heathen. 

A -«j yamurru, he passes by (aor. of the vb.^). 

A lUX^j yamliku, he possesses, he owns (aor. 
of the rt CXL«). Tumlaku, he is possessed 
or owned (aor. pass, of the same verb). 

( 128 ) 


A ^^^4J i/H)iin, felicity, prosperity, good luck, 
blessing, auspices. Yaman, right hand or 
side ; Yaman, Arabia Felix. 

A ^j^^ yamln, oath ; right hand or side, ^^j^, 

uLsi/*]! yaminu 'I mulk, right arm of the 
kingdom (a style, title, or proper name). 

A j^lyAUj yunassiruni, they make a Nazarene, 
they Christianize (aor. dual of -aj nassara, 
a root coined from the word ^JL^ nasrd- 
nly, Nazarene). ^\j.-^^ yunassirdnihi, they 
{i.e. both parents) make him a Christian. 

A %-scj^ yanfa^i, availeth, profiteth (aor. of the 

rt. ^_&J ). Ll-N«iiJ yanfaoiha, will profit 
thee, availeth thee. 

A ^f^^J y"*%/i/"> ^^ kindles (aor. of -^^^ <yj(y'(h 

2nd form of the rt. -.\ ). 

p Jy yu%, panther, pard, lynx, ounce (by the 
poets said to have a partiality for cheese). 

A ^__c..^4j Yusuf, the patriarch Joseph, son of 
Jacob, remarkable for his beauty. Mention 
is made of him in several passages of the 
Zur'an, but especially in the chapter which 
bears his name. 

p ic^V yusuf I, Joseph-like, comely as Joseph. 

A ^ V yuzahu, will be made evident, or is ren- 
dered clear (aor. pass, of ^^\ aw%aha, 4th 
form of the verb f^^)- 

A jJ^ yuladu, he is born (aor. pass, of the root 
jjj walada). 

A ^ 


^; yaum, day. <L«LaJ\ AyiycmmuHkiydnud, 

the day of resurrection. 
A U»^; yauman, (ace. oi *>^ yawn), one day, any 

day, some day ; (adverbially) once ; ever. 
A ^'■iyi^ Yundn, Ionia ; the ancient Greeks until 

subjugated by Rome ; after which the Greek 

nation is called by Oriental writers Rum!. 

A (j^^, Yunas, the Prophet Jonah, of whom 
repeated mention is made in the Kur'au. 
One of its chapters bears his name. 

A i^,x^^\ yahtadl, he is guided aright, he finds 
the right way (aor. of (_5^JsiJb^ ihtada', 8th 
form of the root i^JJ^ hada\ defective vb.). 

A A^^ yahuddu, he (or it) shakes to the ground, 
or demolishes (aor. of the verb JiJi hadda). 

A t-f^Xi^V. y^^^>'<^(^\ is directed (pass. aor. of the 
verb i_$Sib hada", he guided). 

A i^X^^^ }! »i» J <Jj t_> J^/^. yuhda^ bihi wahwa Id 

yahtadl, (mankind) is guided by him, but he 
does not find the right way himself. If it is 
read yahdl bihi, it will signify " he guides 
(others) by it;" that is, by the torch. 

A i^^<^y-\rJ^ yuhauwiddni, they make a Jew, they 

judaize (aor. du. of JyA hamvada, 2nd form of 

the verb jli hdda, concave j wdw). <io\j».^j 

yuhauwiddnihi, they make him a Jew. 

A LJ^y\^, yahudly, Jew, Jewish, Judaical. 

A ^/«JJ yas-isa, he despaired (when used in a 
general sense and without reference to any 
specific time, the preterite may frequently be 
translated by the present), he dcspaireth. 




[the classes here referred to are those mentioned at the end of the preface]. 

Page 2, line 6. — Class 1. — Kiir'an, Sura xxxir. verse 12, "Saba." 

Work, family of David ! with thanksgiving. But few of my servants are the thankful. 

Page 3, line 11. — Class 4. 

Intercessor obeyed, — generous prophet, — comely, — portly, — smiling, — marked with the 

prophetic seal. 

Page 3, line 16. — Class 4. 

He attained elevation by his perfection. He unveiled the darkness by his beauty. 

Fair are all his qualities — Invoke ye blessings on him and on his fumily. 

Page 3, line 20. — Class 2. 

My angels ! verily I am ashamed by reason of My servant, and he hath no Lord beside 

me. Therefore have I pardoned him. 

Page 4, line 3. — Class 3. 

"We have not worshipped Thee as Thou oughtest to be worshipped. 

Page 4, line 4. — Class 3. 

We have not known Thee as Thou deservest to be known. 

Page 4, line 21. — Class 4. 

The shadow of God on His earth ; the Lord of the earth be satisfied with him I 

Page 5, line 2. — Class 3. 

Men follow the religion of their kings. 

Page 5, line 10. — Class 3. 

God ! confer happiness on the Mussulmans by the length of his life, and double the 

reward of his goodness and actions fair, and exalt the rank of his friends and governors, and 

hurl destruction on his foes and haters, according to what is written in the verses of the 

Kur'an. God ! give security to his country and protect his son : 

The world is happy by him ; may his happiness endure ! And may the Lord strengthen 

him with the banners of victory. Thus may grow a stately palm-tree whereof he is the 

root ; for the excellence of a plant of the earth arises from the goodness of the seed. 



Page 8, line 20. — Class 4. 
A garden, the water of whose river was a limpid stream. A grove, the warbling of 
whoso birds was measured cadence. 

Page 9, line 10. — Class 4. 
The generous man when he has promised, pays. 

Page 9, line 15.^- Class 4. 
The aided from heaven, victorious over his enemies, arm of the conquering dynasty, 
lamp of the excellent religion, beauty of mankind, glory of Islam, Sa'd son of the greatest 
Atabek, the proudest king of kings, possessor of the necks of peoples, lord of the kings of 
Arabs and Persians, sovereign of land and sea, heir of the throne of Solomon, Muzaifuru 'd 
dunya wa 'd din, Abu bakr bin Sa'd bin Zang! ; may God Most High perpetuate the pros- 
perity of both, and make every good their final portion ! 

Puge 10, line 7. — Class 4. 
Shelter of the poor, refuge of strangers, patron of the learned, friend of the pious, 
succour of Islam and Mussulmans, pillar of kings and sultans, Abu bakr bin Abl nasr, may 
God lengthen his life, and make glorious his dignity, and expand his heart and double his 
reward ! 

Page 11, line 21. — Class 4. 

Make preparation for going out before entering. 

Page 13, line 8. — Class 4. 
When a man despairs, his tongue grows long : as a cat vanquished rushes at the dog. 

Page 13, line 12. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura iii. verse 128, "The Family of Irarau." 

And who master their anger, and forgive others. And God loveth the doers of good. 

Page 14, line 20. — Class 3. 
The sheep is clean, and the elephant carrion. 

Page 14, line 21. — Class 4. 

The least of the mountains of the earth is Sinai ; but with God it is truly the greatest 

iu dignity and rank. 

Page 18, line 2. — Class 2. 

None is born but what is born witli a disposition to Islam : afterwards his parents make 

him a Jew, or a Christian or a Magian. 

Page 18, line 15. — Class 4. 
Thou hast been fed with our milk, and hast grown up amongst us ; who then informed 
thee that thou art the son of a wolf? 

When the disposition is a disposition to evil, the instruction of the teacher is of no avail. 

Page 26, line 14. — Class 4. 
When the armed warrior is well fed he will attack with ardour ; whilst the empty-bellied 
will be ardent in flight. 

Page 29, line 22.— Class 4. 
Up ! be not grieved, bi'other of affliction ! 
For the Merciful One hath secret favours (in store). 


Page 38, line 2.— Class 1.— Kur'an, Sura ii. verso 202, "The Cow." 
The pride of sin scizeth him. 

Page 39, line 12. — Class 4. 
I taught him archery every day ; but when his arm waxed strong, he shot me. 

Page 43, line 14. — Class 1. — Kur'un, Sura xli. verse 46, "The Made Plain." 

He who doeth right, it is for himself j and he who doeth evil, it is against himself. 

Page 47, line 15. — Class 4. 
Do thou unto mc whatever is worthy of Thee ; but do not unto us what wo deserve. 

Page 49, line 3. — Class 4. 
If I may not be a rider of the beasts, I Avill work for you as a carrier of the saddle- 

Page 49, line 21. — Class 4. 
Safety (is) in solitude. 

Page 51, line 8. — Class 4. 
Thou hast done harm enough, who enumeratest my good qualities. 
This is my external appearance : but my inward part thou hast not known. 

Page 52, line 1. — Class 2. 

I have with God moments when neither angel near the throne, nor prophet sent, could 

contain me. 

Page 52, line 3. — Class 3. 

The visions of the just (alternate) between effulgence and withdrawraent. 

Page 52, line 6. — Class 4. 
I gaze on him whom I love without an intervening medium, — 
And there befals me a condition in which I lose my way. 
He kindles a fire, and afterwards extinguishes it by his sprinkling. 
For that reason thou seest mc consumed and drowned. 

Page 52, line 18. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura 1. verse 15, "Kaf." 
And we are closer to him than his neck-vein. 

Page 54, line 2. — Class 3. 
A religious bequest hath no owner. 

Page 56, line 22. — Class 4. 
"We are roused up at the sound of the songs through their sweetness : but thou art a 
singer, if thou kecpcst silence, we find them sweetest. (Some copies read latlhu, Thou art 
sweet. ) 

Page 59, line 10. — Class 4. 
Certainly I am concealed from the eye of my neighbours ; 
But God knoweth my secret and my outward conduct. 

Page 61, line 4. — Class 4. 
And at the blowing of the fresh breezes over the pasture, the branches of the tamarisk 
bend, but not the hard rock. 



Page 61, line 20.— Class 1.— Kur'un, Sura xciv. verse 6, "The Opening." 
Verily along with difficulty, ease. 

Page 63, line 6. — Class 2. 
Abu Huraira ! visit me seldoracr, and you will be liked the more. 

Page 64, line S. — Class 1.— Kur'an, Sura iii. verse 188, "The Family of Imran." 
And preserve us, our Lord ! from the torment of the fire. 

Pa(je 65, line 15. — Class 4. 
And branches on Avhich were pomegranate-flowers, as though fire had been hung on the 
green tree. 

Paffe 65, line 20. — Class 4. 

Men around him were perishing with thirst, 
And he, a cup-bearer sees, but gives not to drink. 

Paje 69, line 17. — Class 1.— Kur'an, Sura xxv. verse 72, "Al Furkan." 

"When they pass by frivolous sport, they pass by with dignity. 

Page 69, line 18. — Class 4. 
When thou seest a sinner, bo thou concealing and gentle. 
thou that reprobatest my fault, why dost thou not pass by generously ? 

Page 71, line 20. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura xxxi. verse 14, "Lokraan." 

But if they importune thee to associate with Me that of which thou hast no knowledge, 

then obey them not. 

Page 76, line 15. — Class 3. 

This quantity will support thee, and what exceeds that, thou must be the bearer thereof. 

Page 77, line 14. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura vii. verse 29, "Al Araf." 
Eat ye and drink, but commit not excess. 

Page 79, line 4. — Class 4. 
Out upon the viands when baseness acquires them ! The cauldron is set up, but the 
dignity is lowered. 

Page 81, line 8. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura xlii. verse 26, "Counsel." 
Should God bestow abundance upon His servants, they might act wantonly on the earth. 

Page 81, line 9. — Class 4. 
What then has plunged thee, deluded one, into danger that thou hast perished ? 
would that the ant had not assayed to fly ! 

Page 82, line 5. — Class 4. 
Avould that before my death One day I might obtain my wish ! 

A river dashing against my knee — Then would I not cease to fill my bottle. 

Page 83, line 10. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura xxiv. verse 26, "Light." 
Impure women for impure men. 

Page 83, line 17. — Class 4. 
They said. Mortar from lime is not clean. 
We replied. We close therewith the chinks of the privy. 


Page 85, line 3. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura x. verse 90, "Jonah." 
Until when the drowning overtook him. 

Page 85, line 6. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura xxix. verse 65, "The Spider." 

When they emhark on shipboard, they call upon God, vowing him sincere worship. 

Page 86, line 17. — Class 1.— Kur'an, Sura vii. verse 146, " Al Araf." 

Verily an ass amongst men resembles a calf ruddy like gold and lowing. 

Page 89, line 9.— Class 4. 
Mine ear (is attentive) to the excellence of the songs. Who is this that touches the lute- 
strings ? 

Page 93, line 16. — Class 4. 

"Who will converse with me now that the yellow camels are off? To the stranger none 

but the stranger is a companion. 

Page 96, line 19. — Class 4. 

And the brother of hatred passes not by a good man but what he vilifies (him) as the 

worst of liars. 

Page 99, line 20.— Class 3. 

Without thy gifts we are content with departure. 

Page 100, line 7. — Class 4. 
The croak of the crow of the desert. 

Page 100, litie 7. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura xxxi. verse 18, "Lokman." 
Surely the most displeasing of noises is the voice of asses. 

Page 100, line 8. — Class 4. 
When the preacher Abu Fawaris brays, he has a voice which shakes Istakhar of Persia. 

Page 102, line 14. — Class 4. 

An apparition of him who by his countenance dispels the gloom, came at night in a 

vision to accompany me as a guide through the night. 

He whom I love came to me in brightness. Then said I to him. Welcome ! and facility ! 

and room ! 

Page 103, line 22. — Class 4. 

When thou comcst unto me in society to visit me, though thou comest in peace, still thou 

bringest war. 

Page 106, line l\.— Class 3. 

crow of the desert ! would there were between me and thee the distance of the tropics. 

Page 109, line 7.— Cla^ss 3. 
The dates ripe, and the keeper not preventing. 

Page 109, line 10.— Class 4. 

And if a man escape from the evil of his own self, — from the evil of the suspicion of the 

accuser he will not escape. 

Page 110, line 10.— Class 4. 

A thirst (is) in ray heart (which) the sipping of pure water fails to slake, even though I 

drank oceans. 


Page 111, line 2. — Class 4. 
I missed the moment of union ; and man is ignorant of the value of the delights of life, 
before troubles (ovei'take him). 

Page 113, line 13. — Class 4. 
Zaid struck Amr; he is a transgressor (in a grammatical sense he is the agent). 

Page 113, line 17.— Class 4. 
I am ill-used by a grammarian rushing on me in a rage, like Zaid in a struggle with 
Amr. At the trailing of the skirt he raiseth not his head ; but from him that draggeth 
down is raising consistent ? (grammatically, can the nominative be expected from a power 
governing the oblique case ?) 

Page 113, line 20.— Class 2. 
Speak thou to men according to the measure of their understandings. 

Page 114, line 15. — Class i. 
If I die not of grief on the day of bidding adieu, esteem me not in friendship candid. 

Page 114, line 22. — Class 4. 
And many a sincere friend hath blamed me for (my) love for her. Oh ! he hath never 
seen her ; or else would my excuse be obvious. 

Page 115, line 3. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura xii. verse 32, Joseph." 
This is he for you, about whom ye blamed me. 

Page 115, line 15. — Class 4. 

What passed in mine ear of the story of the secluded spot, had the dusky-coloured doves 

overheard, they would have cried out with me. Oh assembly of friends! say ye to him that 

is free (from the pangs of love), Oh would that thou knewest what is in the heart of the 

afflicted ! 

Page 116, line 10. — Class 4. 

The blow of a friend is a raisin. 

Page 118, line 15. — Class 2. 

The door of repentance shall not be closed against the servants (of God) until the sun 

arise from its setting-point. I ask pardon of Thee, Ood ! and I return by repentance unto 


Page 118, line 20.* 

God Host High hath said, Their faith profited them not when they witnessed our severity. 

Page 122, line 8. — Class 4. 
When she saw before her husband a thing like the flabbiest lip of one keeping a fast, she 
says, He has with him a dead (thing). Now a charm is only for the sleeper. 

Page 124, line 3. — Class 4. 
Cliildhood has passed away and hoariness has wrought a change in me. Change of time 
is a sufficient monitor. 

* Although this passage reads like a quotation from the Kur'an, still I have not been able to discover it 
anywhere in that somewhat unconnected rhapsody. 


Page 127, line 15. — Class 3. 
God made them to grow a fair plant. 

Page 127, line 19. — Class 4. 
The tender branches indeed when thou hast straightened them remain straight; but it is 
of no use to thee to attempt to straighten dry wood. 

Page 129, line 18. — Class 3. 
Convey what thou art charged with : and if they accept not, there is nothing against thee. 

Page 131, line 2. — Class 3. 
Oh my dear boy; thou wilt be asked on the day of the resurrection. What hast thou 
gained ? It will not be said, To whom wert thou related ? 

Page 136, line 5.— Class 2. 
The death of the poor (is) a rest. 

Page 136, line 15. — Class 2. 
The most hostile foe of thine (is) thy soul which (is) between thy sides. 

Page 138, line 3. — Class 4. 

I flee unto God for refuge fiom depressing poverty and from the vicinity of him who 

loveth not. 

Page 138, line 3. — Class 2. 

Poverty is blackness of the face in both worlds. 

Page 138, line 5. — Class 2. 
Poverty (is) my glory. 

Page 138, line 10.— Class 4. 
Poverty wanteth but little of being a denial of God. 

Page 138, line 14. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura xxxvii. verse 40, "The Ranks." 
A stated banquet shall they have of fruits ; and honoured shall they be in the garden of 


Page 139, line \0.— Class 4. 

(There is) no monasticism in Islam. 

Page 139, line 20.— Class 4. 

"Whoever has before him what ripe dates he longs for : that enables him to do without 

pelting the clusters. 

Page 142, line 3. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura xix. verse 47, "Mary." 
Verily if thou desistcst not, I will assuredly stone thee. 

Page 142, line 21. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura Ixv. verse 3, "Divorce." 
And for him who putteth his trust in God, He will be all-sufficient. 

Page 143, line 7. — Class 4. 

And ladies riding on camels in their litters take no heed to him who is floundering among 

the sand-hillocks. 

Page 143, line \2.— Class 4. 

Aided from God, victorious and triumphant over his enemies, holder of the reins of the 


human race, defender of the passes of Islam, heir to the kingdom of Solomon, the most just 
of the raonarchs of the time, Muzaffaru 'd dunya wa 'd din, Abu Bakr bin Sa'd bin ZangT. 
Maj' God prolong his days, and give victory to his banners ! 

Page 144, line 14. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura xxviii. verse 77, "The Story." 
Do good as God hath done good unto thee. 

Page 144, line 18. — Class 3. 
Be bountiful and upbraid not ; for the benefit will revert unto thee. 

Page 145, line 14. — Class 4. 
Guidance (to others) is afforded by him, but he finds not the way himself. 

Page 148, line 2. — Class 4. 
The last of resources (is) the sword. 

Page 152, line 4, — Class 1. — Kur'an, Siira xxxvi. verse 60, ' Ta Sin." 
Did I not enjoin on you, sons of Adam ! Worship not Satan, for that he is your 
declared foe ? 

Page 158, line 16. — Class 4. 
And drop upon drop, when blended — a river : and river to river, when united — a sea. 

Page 164, line 11. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura xii. verses 18 and 83, 'Joseph." 
He said : Nay, but yourselves have suggested to you an affair. But patience is seemly. 

Page 166, line 1. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura xxxii. verse 21, Adoration." 
And we will surely cause them to taste a punishment yet nearer at hand, besides the 
greater punishment; that haply they may return. 

Page 166, line 19. — Class 4. 
Every vessel distils what it contains. 

Page 170, line 10. — Class 4. 
thou who lookest into it, ask of God mercy for the author and ask pardon for the owner 
of it : and seek for thy soul the good thou desirest for her. After that forgiveness for the 
owner of it. 

The book is concluded by the aid of the All-bounteous King. 



Late of the East India College, Herts. 

My Deae Friend, 

I here send you a brief sketch of the Persian Metres 
employed by Shaikh Sa'di in the First Book of his Gulistan. I feel much pleasure in 
so doing, as a small return for many acts of kindness I experienced from you "in days 
o' lang syne," when you used to send me (as our Haileybury friends would express it) 
"no end of pupils" during vacations; not to speak of much valuable aid received from 
you very recently, in the concocting of certain literary works we wot of. 

The Metres in the First Book are not so numerous as one would be apt to 
expect. Of the fourteen in general use among the Persians, I think there are not 
more than eight here to be met with ; but then each of these has several variations, 
aU of which are detailed in Section VII. of the last edition (18G1) of my Persian 
Grammar, which, of course, I recommend to the learner's cai'eful perusal. 

Wishing you all the compliments of the season, 

I remain, My dear Sir, 

Yours very truly, 

58, Burton Cresct.nt, 

7tu January, 1863. 


13 G 

„ 16 



^^ y=sr; baZ/ri sari, variation 1 . 

Muftadilun Muftadilim FadilHt. 
jj\h^t j=ir_ bahri mutakdrib, var. 2. 

Fadiilun Fadiiluu Faduliin Fadal. 




iAii kit'a, 


^ibj rubd'l, 


^ulai kit'a, 


Ai^^'i kit'a, 



13 17 t^:-^ bciit, t—a-iri-^^^ bakri likaflf, var. 4. 

radilatun Mafadilun Fadlun. 

14 • 3 lS^-^ mathnavi, c-^jliL^^ssr bahri mutakdrib, var. 2 and 1. 

Fadulun Fadulim Fadulun Fadal. 
or ,, ,, „ Fadul. 

„ 12 <uki kit'a, c jLi^y=sr bahrl muzdri', var. 4. 

Mafdulii Fadilatu Mafadllu Fadilat. 

15 2 ajtki ^2^'a, L_i-i>-ysr i^a/eri Jihafif, var. 4, same as p. 13, 1. 17. 

— L&^sT ia/in hazaj, var. 15. 
Mafdulu Mafadilun Fadulun. 
„ a.vy .v,.^-- ,i.-<. ^, J^j .sT bahri ramal, var. 4. 

Fadilatun Fadilatun Fadilatun Fadilat. 

i—jLiri- ^^ i<2/^n Txhajtf, var. 2 and 4. 

Fadilatun Mafadilun Fadilat.* 
or „ „ Fadlun. 

16 4 l::^-j ^az7, t^-i^y^ i^'a/^n Miaflf, var. 2 and 4, same as last. 

„ 9 <ulajj y^i^'a, J.^ j=sr bahri ramal, var, 13 and 12. 

Fadilatun Fadilatun Fadilun. 
or ,, ,, Fadilat. 

„ 17 LJy^ mathnavi, (^Xsc^jssr bahri mutakdrib^ var. 1. 

Fadulun Fadiilun Fadiilun Fadul. 

17 4 ci.-'-J bait, uJiJis>~.:sr bahri Mciflf, var. 4, same as p. 13, 1. 17. 
„ 12 i-:i--J bait, ^y^jjsr bahri ramal, var. 8. 

Fadilatun Fadilatun Fadilatun Fadilat. 
„ 17 ij^ kit'a, i^jL:>-jsr bahri Miojif, var. 3 and 4. 

Fadilatun Mafadilun Fadilun. 
or ,, ,, Fadlun. 

* The reader will be pleased to remember that the vowels a, i, and u, when unmarked, are understood 
to be short, except when followed by a double consonant, or by a single consonant at the end of a hemistich ; 
hence it is, in general, superfluous to put the short mark " over them. When, however, a foot happens to have 
the same vowels, but with different quantities, such as fadilnt and fadilat, the short vowel is marked as well 
as the long, in order " to make assurance doubly sure." 

«. ^ 


u-jLi:>.^a< bahri khafif, var, 2 and 4, as p. 15, 1. 16. 
j^Uj^^ bahri rubai, Class II, No. 8. 

Mafdiilu Mafadilim Mafadilu Fadal. 
»__iLA:i. -^ bahri Tihafif, var. 3. 

Fadilatim Mafadilim Fadilioi. 
c JLjL% jssT, bahri muzdri', var. 4. 

Mafdiilu Fadilatii Mafadilu Fadilat. 
"^jjs^, bahri rajaz, var. 10. 

Mafadilim Mafadilun Mafadil. 
—yi>j=sr bahri hazaj, var. 15, same as p. 15, 1. 5. 

;_(Li^^^ bahri khafif, var. 3, same as p. 18, 1. 18. 
^\ijjsr, bahri rubai. Class II. No. 9. 

Mafdulu Mafadilim Mafadilim Fad. 
* jsT, bahri mvjtathth, var. 3. 
Mafadilun Fadilatun Mafiidilun Fadilat. 
ici-^isT bahri hhafif, var. 2. 

Fadilatun Mafadilun Fadilat. 
Ji,«^,^=sr bahri ramal, var. 8, 9, or 10. 

Fadilatun Fadilatim Fadilatun Fadliin. 
or ,, ,, „ Fadlan. 

or ,, ,, ,, Fadilim. 

,U-;^« .c^ bahri mutakdrib, var. 2, same as p. 13, 1. IC. 

izuma i^jis^jssr bahri Mcfif, var. 4 and 2, as p. 15, 1. 16. 

21 2 ajtLJj hit'a, ^\^jjsr bahti ramal, var. 3. 

Fadilatun Fadilatun Fadilatim Fadilat. 

^ybjSsT bahn hazaj, var. 7. 

Mafdulu Mafadilu Mafadilu Fadulim. 
-cl), ,2sr ^a^W rubai, Class II. No. 1. 

Mafdfilu Mafadilun Mafadilun Fad. 

22 4 tUlij ^iY'fl, t_-jjUi,« .atr; bahi'i mutahdnb, var. 1, as previously. 





a.*y hit'a, 



j^bj rubai, 



(.::-»-j ia2Vj 



(ULi /;«7'a, 



d«V!"'f /«i'a, 



l::.-,-j 5a«V, 



ci^*j ^ai^. 



-cb, rubai, 



t^xkj kit'a. 



<ulajj /«^'a, 



(UloJi /«^'«, 


ij:.^-j ^ai^ 



<ul;J! /('i^'tf. 


iULij /«7'a, 


c:^ ^a?^, 


tUliJ ^iY'fl, 

i^ ^ 








<uLjs kit'a, 

uU:;^*y=sr bakri mujtatktk, var. 3, same as p. 19, 1. 18. 
Mafadilun Fadilatiin Mafadilun Fadilat. 



ijthj kit'a, 

^.JuA^jSsr bakri khaftf, var. 3 and 4, as in p. 17, 1. 17. 



c'-^-J bait. 

^Kijjs^, bakri rubd'i, Class II. No. 6. 



Jsj nazm. 

(J-cjs-*^^ bakri mujtatktk, var. 3, same as p. 19, 1. 18. 



i^y^i^y* matknavi. 

L-jij\3:^^ ysr bakri mutakarib, v. 2, as before. 



^yt^ matknavi, 

<,.Juki- jsc bakri khafif, var. 4, as in p. 13, 1. 17. 



iA^i kit'a, 

J^^r>c^ bakri ramal, var. 12. 
Fadilatiin Tadilatun Fadilat. 



i.::^-j bait. 

^\ijj!2sr bakn rubal. Class II. No. 2. 
Mafdulu Mafadllu Mafadilun Fad. 



l::^-j ba:it, 

Same metre as the preceding. 



l::^^ bait. 

k-i-cx^r* .■'C bakri mujtatktk, var. 5. 

Mafadilun Fadilatun Mafadilun Fadlun. 



^y^y* matknavi. 

t^Jjc^jsr bakri mutakarib, var. 1 . 



l::.^ bait, 

J-^j^ac7 ^a^n ramal, var. 3, as in p. 21, 1. 2. 



(.::^-j bait. 

cL^js-^^asr. bakri, mujtatktk, irregular. 

Mafadilun Fadilatun Mafadilu Fadiilun. 



L1--J bait. 

i-J-iri- ^ptr babi Miaflf, var. 3. vide note under p. 00. 



<ukjj kit'a, 

^Jis>. jss^ bakri Jikaflf, var. 2 and 4, as in p. 15, 1. 16.* 



v.".-^-j bait, 

<-_>,lih^^jsr: bakri mutakarib, var. 1, as in p. 16, 1. 17. 



cu^-J bait. 

tS^jj''<^ bakri ramal, irregular. 
Fadilatun Fadilatun Mafdiilun Fadilun. 

or Fadilatun Fadilatun Fadilatun Fadlun. 



^bj rubal, 

^^ijjSsT, bakri rubal, Class II. No. 9, as p. 19, 1. 14. 
Mafdulu Mafadilun Mafadilun Fad. 



i.::-»-j bait. 

<l..c^ jsr^ bakri mujtatktk, var. 5, as p. 24, 1. 20. 

* In the first bait of this A:t<'a my best MSS. read <---J^ which the metre requires. The same ex- 
pression occurs in the same foot further on, page 35, line 4, where^,;^ is used, as, ut^ S^^O*^ '"^ J^ 
which I have no doubt is the correct reading in both passages. 

^ <• 






c:^-j iaeV, 

—Jjb^^ ia^ri /lazaj, var. 10. 
MafadTlun Mafadiliin Fadulun. 



t::^-j ^azV, 

^\jjjxr^ bahri ntbai, No. 6, as in p. 23, 1. 3. 



t.::^-j ^a«7, 

^^\:jj!=^, bahn rubal, Class II. No. 7. 

Mafdulu Mafadilun Mafadilii Fadul. 



«ukjj /^27'a, 

—jjsysr; 5a^n hazaj, var. 10, as in last page. 



<uLji kit'a. 

iSJisi- jCsT bahn Jchaflf, var. 4 and 3, as formerly. 



aula's ^iY'a, 

^J-c.^s^^'^r ^a/^r? mujtathth, var. 5, as in last page. 



i."--J ^aeV, 

-.ybJsT bahri hazaj, var. 9. 
Mafadiliin Mafadilun Mafadil. 



<uk« /«'^'a, 

Jy*jj'^ bahri ramal, var. 12 and 13, as in p. ]6, 1. 9. 



ij:---j ^azY, 

ci-^xs^ .-v^ bahri mujtathth, var. 3, as in p. 19, 1. 18. 



L.::— -J bait. 

^}^JJ=sr^ bahri ramal, var. 2, irregular. 

Fadilatun Fadilatuii Fadilatim Fadilat. 
orFadilatun ,, „ Fadlun. 



<ulas Av'i'a, 

c-^lc^^^ bahri mutakdnb, as heretofore. 



l::^-j ^aeV, 

cjLUysr bahri muzdri\ var. 4, same as p. 19, 1. 1. 



c:-^ Z»a«V, 

—ybjSsT^ bahri hazaj, var. 10, as in p. 27, 1. 1. 
Mafadilun Mafadilun Fadulun. 



AxJaJs ^z7'a, 

1^0. c-:. -c^ hnhri phnfif f^a liPVptnfnvA 



i.::.-wj bait, 

^jibjsr bahri hazaj, var. 15, as before. 



c:^-j ^027, 

_.ji)ysr bahri hazaj, same as last. 



ii^xL'j ^2^'a, 

t^ilcjg^^^asr. ^a^n mujtathth, var. 5, as formerly. 



iUiaJJ /^?Z'a, 

(J-cs^ysT ^a/<n mvjtathth, var. 3, as formerly. 



«uy /(-i^'a, 

_.JJS)^^ oa/in /^a^a;, var. 10, as in p. 27, 1. 1. 



<uLj> kit'a, 

-.jA^asr bahri hazaj, same as last. 



w::^-j iaeV, 

c jLs^^sT ia^n muzdri, var. 4, as in p. 19, 1. I. 



iulajj ^2^'a, 

LLcjs-^ysr ^a^r? mujtathth, var. 5, as formerly. 







l::--j J«2V, 

c.jjtfi-.^ysr ^«/<n mutakdrib, as heretofore. 



Lii-N-j bait, 

J^jysT Z>rt/in ramal, var. 14. 
Fadilatun Fadilatun Fadilat. 



^^il^ mat/mam, 

-.ybj'<^ bahri hazaj, same as p. 15, 1. 5. 



^kjj /^7'^'a, 

-.y^ y^ bakri hazaj, same as last. 



AxlaJJ y^2^'(2, 

^•^s^ j!sr bahri mujtathth, var. 6 and 3, as formerly. 
Mafadilnn Fadilatun Mafadilun Fadlan. 



i_5y.l^ mathnam, 

^jjssr bahri ramal, var. 12, as in p. 24, 1. 8. 



(.::-N-j ^azV, 

j^lij^.'>r bahri rubai, Class II. No. 9, as p. 19, 1. 14. 



<uLJ! /«"^'a, 

^j j=^_ bahri ramal, var. 12, as above. 



c:-^-j ^a^Y, 

j^jjsT bahri rajaz, irregiJar. 
Mastafdilim Fadilun Mustafdilun Fadilat. 



^Ulajj /^?V'«, 

_ Jsysr. bahri hazaj, var. 9, as heretofore. 


<ukji /'E^'fl, 

,y^jj=sr^ bahri ramal, var. 10 or 11. 

Fadilatun Fadilatun Fadilatun Fadlun. 
or Fadilatun ,, „ Fadlan. 



l::^-j bait. 

^bj^^ bahri rubal. Class II. No. 7, as p. 27, 1. 19. 



^yt^ mailman, 

^.Jukd^jsr bahri hhaflf, var. 2, as in p. 19, 1. 20. 



^ nazm, 

(J-^ii^^ j-^" bahri mujtathth, var. 3 as formerly. 



^^''t^ mathnam, 

t_jLAr^^^ bahri khajlf, var. 4, as heretofore. 



l::,-,-j bait. 

^\)jj=sr, bahri rubai, Class II. irregular. 


ij^ni kifa. 

u_i-i^ .ssT bahri Jihaflf, var. 4 and 3, as formerly. 



iAis kit' a, 

i^j^::^jssr, bahri mutakdrib, as heretofore. 



t^xlaJj kit' a, 

uL^:iJS'* .a£7 bahri mujtathth, var. 3, as heretofore. 



^ulajj kiia, 

L_i-i.>- .SET' bahri khaflf, var. 4 and 3, as formerly. 



ij^^ kit' a, 

i_J-i.=^^=sr' bahri khaflf, same as last. 



<uLj kit'a. 

i-_c^>-^^ ^a/^ri khaflf, v- 4, 3, and 2, as before. 



„ 12 c:,^ bait, ^\jjjsr, bakri rubal, Class II. irregular. 

Mafdillu Mafadilun Mafadllu Fadul. 

,, 19 (ukjj kWa, L^usisi-. jcsr, bahri yhaflf, var. 2 and 4, as before. 

41 3 i^^Vj 'fubalf ^\ij y^^ bahri rubal, Class II. No. 9, as formerly. 
„ 14 ciy-l^ mathnavi, ^y^ j=sr^ bahri hazaj, var. 10, as heretofore. 

42 3 ij^ kifa, L^j\ji::^jssr bahri mutakdrib, aa fovmerlj. 

„ 13 «ulai hit'a, i^Juss^jsT bahri Tihafif, var. 4, as formerly. 

43 1 <uLjj kiia, -.jajsT bahri hazaj, var. 12, as formerly. 
,, 4 LJy^ mathnavi, —'j:>jsr^ bahri hazaj, same as last. 

,, 15 ^tki kiia, i^i.JL<.jssr bahri yhaflf, var. 2, as formerly. 

44 1 e:-^ bait, i^j\^:i^jsr bahri mutakdrib, as formerly. 
„ 3 cuLJi kit'a, ^j^jxr bahri sari, var. 2, 

Muftadilun Mujftadilim Fadilun. 
„ 8 c:-^ bait, >J:,,c^ j:sr. bahri mujtathth, var. 3, as formerly. 

,, 14 aj«\aj) ki€a, —yi,j:^^ bahri hazaj, var. 10, as heretofore. 

45 2 i^y-^ mathnavi, —ybjssr bahri hazaj, same as last. 
» 5 kjy-i^ mathnavi, i,jLi~L. j^sr bahri khaflf, as heretofore. 

,, 14 ij:^-j ^a27, —ytijsr bahri hazaj, var. 10, as before. 

„ 16 A»V t'< kit' a, _ i6> JX7 ^a/^ri hazaj, var. 15, as heretofore. 

46 4 <ulaj» /^i^'a, J.^^=s7 ia^n ramal, var. 8 and 9, as formerly. 
„ 9 &Al3 kit' a, (..Juss^jcsr bahri Mci/if, var. 2 and 4, as before. 

,, ]2 tuiaj z^i^'a, >^g^fcS- jagr ia/^ri kha/lf, same as last. 

„ 19 l::^-j iaeY, <_j>jUb^« ^pc: ^aAW mutakdrib, as formerly. 

,, 21 <ijtbj kit'a, J^j .:<' ^a/iri ratnal, var. 14 and 15, as before. 



Page PT line 8, for J^ read ics^ 
^t^ „ 3, „ «Lsaj „ i^lrsaj 
„ ]rr „ 15, „ j^ „ joj 

Page 72, line 21, /or form of conjug. read form or conjug. 










V Z 507